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Sint Eustatius 
 
[National flag of
                            the Netherlands]
1636 - 1810, From 1 Feb 1816
 
[Netherlands
                            Antilles flag 1959-1986]
15 Dec 1959 - 16 Nov 2004
[Sint Eustatius flag
                          (Netherlands)]
Adopted 16 Nov 2004
 
Map of Sint Eustatius
Hear National Anthem
"Wilhelmous van Nassouwe"
(William of Nassau)
Local Anthem
"Gouden Rots"
(The Golden Rock)
Adopted 2004
Constitution
(1815, 17 Feb 1983)
Capital: Oranjestad
(Fort Oranje 1636-....)
CurrencyUS Dollar (USD); Netherlands Antillean
Guilder (ANG)(1952-1 Jan 2011)
National Holiday: 27 Apr (1967)
Koningsdag (King's Day)
------------------------------
Local Holiday: 16 Nov (1776)
Sint Eustatius ("Statia") Day
Population: 3,348 (2018)
GDP: $100 million (2016)
Exports: $2.46 million (2017)
Imports: $54.7 million (2017)
Ethnic groups: Dutch 78%, Latin American 14%,
American/Canadian 3%, others 5% (2017)
Total Police Force: N/A
Defense is the Responsibility of The Netherlands
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Methodist 28.6%, Roman Catholic 23.7%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 17.8%,
Pentecostal 7.2%, Anglican 2.6%,
other 5.2%, no religion 14.9% (2018)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (associate), DLU, UPU
Sint Eustatius
Chronology

13 Nov 1493                Discovered and claimed for Spain by Columbus,
                             later named Isla de Santa Anastasia.
Aug 1629                   French claim brief occupation.
24 Apr 1636                Dutch colony (first named Nieuw Zeeland, the later
                             Sint Eustatius).
23 Jul 1665 - 17 Nov 1666  English occupation.
17 Nov 1666 - mid 1668     French occupation.
Jun 1672 - end 1679        English occupation.

1682 - 16 Mar 1792         Dutch West India Company administration (with
                             interruptions).

 
6 Apr 1689 - 28 Jul 1690  French occupation (Saint-Eustache).
28 Jul 1690 - Apr 1696     English occupation (Saint Eustace).
Jul 1703                   Failed French privateer invasion.
25 Nov 1709 -  1 Dec 1709  French
privateers occupation.
24 Jan 1713 - 27 Jan 1713  French privateer occupation.
 3 Feb 1781 - 25 Nov 1781  British occupation.

25 Nov 1781 -  7 Feb 1784  French occupation.
14 Apr 1795 - 21 Apr 1801  French occupation.
21 Apr 1801 - 21 Nov 1802  British occupation.
 9 Jul 1810                Annexed along with Holland by France (not effected).
21 Feb 1810 -  1 Feb 1816  British occupation.
 
1 Feb 1816                Dutch colony (restored).
1821                       Sint Eustatius a dependency of Sint Maarten.
1828                       Sint Eustatius, Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, 

                             Sint Maarten and Dutch Guiana united as 
                             the Dutch West Indies; with the governor
                             of Dutch Guiana as the governor-general
                             (see Suriname).
27 Jan 1848                Islands united under the name of Curaçao and
                             Dependencies (from 20 Sep 1948, renamed
                             Netherlands Antilles, see under Curaçao).
29 Dec 1954                Netherlands Antilles an autonomous part of 
                             the Netherlands.
1919 -  1 Apr 1983         Sint Eustatius subordinated to Sint Maarten, as part
                             of Netherlands Windward Islands Territory
                             (Eilandgebied de Bovenwindse Eilanden).

 
8 Apr 2005                Referendum supports remaining part the
                             Netherlands Antilles by 76.6%.
12 Oct 2006                Agreement with The Netherlands on becoming a 
                             municipality of The Netherlands.
10 Oct 2010                Sint Eustatius a public body (openbaar lichaam) of
                             The Netherlands.
17 Dec 2014                Referendum
supports a "status aparte" as a separate
                             entity within The Netherlands over remaining as
                             as a
special municipality 65.5% to 32.8% (but
                             low turnout invalidates the result).

 7 Feb 2018 -              Direct rule by the Netherlands.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Commanders
1635                       Pieter van Ree
25 Apr 1636 - 1639         Pieter van Corselles (Courcelles)

Feb 1639 - 1641            Pieter Gardijn
Jun 1641 - Aug 1643        Abraham Adriaensen (1st time)
Aug 1643 - 1645/47?        Pieter van de Woestijne
c.1648                     Abraham Adriaensen (2nd time)
c.1665                     Pieter Adriaensen (1st time)
Governors
Jul 1665 - Nov 1666        Thomas Edward Morgan               (b. c.1610 - d. 1665)
1665 - 1666?               Theodore Cary                      (b. 1624 - d. 1683) 
1666?                      William Brewer
Commanders
17 Nov 1666 - 1668         Rose (French commandant)
1668 - 1671                Pieter Adriaensen (2nd time)
Aug 1671 - Jun 1672        Lucas Jacobsen                     (d. 1686)
Jun 1672 - 1673            John Pogson (Pognon)               (d. 1686)
                            
(English deputy governor)
1673                       Cornelis Evertsen, Jr.
1673                       Jacob Binckes                      (b. 1637 - d. 1677)
1674 - c.1680              Peter Batterie (Battery)
                             (English commander)

Apr 1682 -  6 Oct 1686     Louis Houtcooper (Houtkooper)      (d. 1686)
1686                       Johan Cuvilje (acting)
Dec 1686 -  6 Apr 1689     Lucas Schorer                      (d. 1705?)
 
6 Apr 1689 - 28 Jul 1690  Joseph d'Honon de Gallifet         (b. 16.. - d. 1706) 
                             (French commandant)
Governors
28 Jul 1690 - 1693         Sir Timothy Thornhill              (b. 1648? - d. 1693)

                             (English governor)
c.1693                     Jan Langmet

1693? - Apr? 1696          William Mussenden

Commanders
1693 - Aug 1700            Johannes Salomonsz.
(Salomonszoon)
                             (civil governor to 31 May 1696)
Aug 1700 - Jul 1701        Jan Simonsen Donker (1st time)     (b. 1654? - d. 1717)
                             (interim)
Jul 1701 - Jun 1704        Isaäc Lamont (1st time)
1704                       Johan Heyliger (1st time)(acting)
Nov 1704 - Jul 1709        Jan Simonsen Donker (2nd time)     (s.a.)
Jul 1709 - 25 Nov 1709     Isaäc Lamont (2nd time)
25 Nov 1709 -  1 Dec 1709  Philippe Plessis (French commander)
 
1 Dec 1709 - Dec 1709     Isaäc Lamont (3nd time)
Dec 1709 -
24 Jan 1713     Jan Simonsen Doncker (3rd time)    (s.a.)
24 Jan 1713 - 27 Jan 1713  Jean Jacques Cassard               (b. 1679 - d. 1740)
                             (French commander)
27 Jan 1713 - 21 Aug 1717  Jan Simonsen Doncker (4th time)    (s.a.)
May 1717 - Oct 1717        Gerard de Mepsche (acting)

Oct 1717 - Nov 1719        Johan Heyliger (2nd time)(interim)
Nov 1719 - Nov 1720        Jacob Stalpert (acting)            (d. 1720)
 3 Nov 1720 -  8 Nov 1721  Johan Heyliger (3rd time)(interim)
Nov 1721 - Dec 1722        Jan Stevensen
(Jacobus Steevens)   (d. 1722)
Dec 1722 - Jul 1728        Johan Lindesay (interim)
                             (Johannes Lindesaij)
Jul 1728 - Feb 1733        Everardt Raecx (Raedts)            (b. 1688 - d. 1733)
 9 Feb 1733 - Mar 1736     Johan Heyliger (4th time)
                             (interim to Feb 1734)
Mar 1736 - Jun 1737        Johan "Jan" Markoe, Jr. (interim)  (b. c.1687 - d. 1750)
Jun 1737 - Jul 1740        Isaäc Faesch                       (b. 1687 - d. 1758)
Jul 1740 - Aug 1741        Hendrik Coesvelt
Aug 1741 - Jun 1743        Jasper Ellis (interim)
Jun 1743 - Nov 1752        Johan Heyliger Pzn.                (b. 1710 - d. 1752)
Nov 1752 - Jan 1775        Jan de Windt, Jr.                  (b. 1717 - d. 1775)
                            
(interim to Sep 1753)
Jan 1775 - 1776            Abraham Heyliger (interim)         (b. 1711 - d. 1783)
Apr 1776 -  3 Feb 1781     Johannes de Graaff                 (b. 1729 - d. 1813)
1778 - 1780                Pieter Runnels
                             (acting for de Graaff)
Governors

 
3 Feb 1781 -  3 May 1781  George Bridges Rodney              (b. 1718 - d. 1792)
 
3 May 1781 - 31 May 1781  David Oglivy (Ogilvie)             (d. 1781)
31 May
1781 - 25 Nov 1781  Sir James Cockburn                 (b. 1729 - d. 1804)
                             (military governor to Jun 1781)
Jun 1781 - 25 Nov 1781     Stafford (U.K. military governor)
 6 Sep 1781 -  7 Feb 1784  Thomas de Fitz-Maurice             (b. 1725 - d. af.1789)
                             (French military commander)
25 Nov 1781 - 1784         Charles André Chabert              (b. c.1740 - d. 1797)
                            
(French civil governor)
1784 - Feb 1785            Olivier Oyen (Oijen)(acting)

Feb 1785 - 20 Nov 1785     Abraham Heyliger                   (b. 1711 - d. 1785)
1785 - 1789                Johannes Runnels (1st time)(acting)
29 Jun 1789 -  3 Jun 1792  Pieter Anthony Godin
1792 - 12 Jul 1795         Johannes Runnels (2nd time)(acting)
1795                       Cotten
                             (commissioner of the French Republic)

Captain-Commandant
12 Jul 1795 - 1801         Daniel Rhoda (Roda) 
Commandants
Apr 1801 - 1802            Richard Blunt                      (b. 1770 - d. 1859)
1802                       Daniel Roda (interim)
1802                       Sir John Wardlaw (Wardlow)         (b. 1775 - d. 1848)      

Governors
1802 - Aug 1809            Albert van Heyningen, Jr.          (d. 1809)
Aug 1809 - 1810            William Charles Mussenden (acting)
1810 - 1816                Thomas Barrow
                            
(commander to Nov 1812)
1810 - 1811                Scott (acting for Barrow)

1816 - 1817                Reinier 't Hoen (acting)
1817 - 1822                Abraham de Veer                    (b. 1767 - d. 1838)
1822 - 1823                Diederik Johannes van Romondt      (b. 1781 - d. 1849)
                             (acting)
1823 - 1828                Willem Albert van Spengler         (b. 1770 - d. 1831)
Aug 1828 - 1828            Thomas Pieter Richardson (interim)
Commander
1828 - 1833                Willem Johan Leendert van Raders   (b. 1792- d. 1836)
Lieutenant governors (gezaghebber)
1833 - 20 Jan 1836         Willem Johan Leendert van Raders   (s.a.)
25 Jan 1836 - 1837         Theophilus George Groebe (interim) (b. 178. - d. 18..)
1837 - 1854                Johannes de Veer                   (b. 1789 - d. 1872)
1854 - 1860                Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga   (b. 1822 - d. 1896)
1860 - 1870                Nicolaas Albertus Rost van         (b. 1819 - d. 1878)
                             Tonningen
1865 - 1866                Melville Wood Cruger               (b. 1803 - d. 18..)
                             (acting for van Tonningen)
1870 - 1877                Melville Wood Cruger               (s.a.)
1877 - 1885                Theophilus George Groebe (1st time)(b. 1838 - d. 1919)
1885 - 1888                Jacques Joseph Jonckheer           (b. 1851 - d. 1912)
1888 - 1894                Paul Faarup                        (b. 1853 - d. 1903)
1894                       Theophilus George Groebe (2nd time)(s.a.)
1894 - 1902                Abraham Jan Cornelis Brouwer       (b. 1858 - d. 1919)
                             (acting to ... 1894)
1902                       Theophilus George Groebe (3rd time)(s.a.)
1902 - 1919                Gerrit Johan van Grol              (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
1906 - 1907                Theophilus George Groebe           (s.a.)
                             (acting for van Grol)
1914                       Pieter Lourens Gorsira             (b. 1877 - d. 1949)
                             (acting for van Grol)
Representatives of the
Lieutenant governors (plaatsvervangend gezaghebber)
26 Jul 1919 - 11 Dec 1924  Benjamin Irving Mussenden          (b. 1893 - d. 1961)
                             (
ontvanger [treasurer] interim to 6 Jan 1920)
11 Dec 1924 -  1 Sep 1926  Rudolph Frederik Baaij (Baay)      (b. 1902 - d. 19..)
                             (ontvanger [treasurer])
22 Apr 1925
-  4 Jul 1927  Eduard Douwes van Exel             (b. 1893 - d. 1984)
 
4 Jul 1927 - 25 Jan 1930  Evert Stephanus Johannes Kruythoff (b. 1893 - d. 1967)
25 Jan 1930 - 22 Feb 1933  Xavier Henri Charles Marie Krugers (b. 1896 - d. 1986)
22 Feb 1933 - 23 Apr 1935  Arnoldus Marinus Schütte           (b. 1897 - d. 1960)
23 Apr 1935 -  5 Feb 1937  Antonie Jacobus van Werkhoven      (b. 1907 - d. 1989)
Vice Lieutenant governors (onder-gezaghebber)
 
5 Feb 1937 - 11 May 1939  Antonie Jacobus van Werkhoven      (s.a.)
11 May 1939 - 11 Jun 1943  Maria Michel Bernard Joseph Erens  (b. 1897 - d. 1970)
11 Jun 1943 -  8 Jul 1949  Charles Ernest Wilfred Voges       (b. 1908 - d. 1973)
1946 - 1948                Walter Granville Buncamper         (b. 1908 - d. 1978)
                             (acting for Voges)
 
8 Jul 1949 - 13 Mar 1951  A.J.M. Poppe
Administrators (administrateur)
13 Mar 1951 - 18 Mar 1953  A.J.M. Poppe
18 Mar 1953 -  7 Aug 1956  C.M. Vlaun
 
9 Mar 1956 -  7 Aug 1956  P.A. van den Heuvel (1st time)
                             (acting for Vlaun)
 
7 Aug 1956 - 11 Aug 1957  Axel Herding (acting)
 
9 Mar 1957 - 16 Oct 1957  P.A. van den Heuvel (2nd time)
                             (acting)
16 Oct 1957 - 15 Apr 1958  Carl G. Buncamper (1st time)
15 Apr 1958 - 19 Apr 1961  Reinier Oswald van Delden          (b. 1928 - d. 2011)
                             (1st time)  
19 Apr 1961 - 1962         M.J. Boekhoudt
Jan 1962 - Sep 1962        Carl G. Buncamper (2nd time)
1962 - 1964                J. van Faassen
1964 - 1966                Laurens Rosema (1st time)
1966 - 1969                Jan Lens (1st time)
1969                       Gerardus van der Wal (acting)
1969 - 1971                Jan Lens (2nd time)
1971                       Laurens Rosema (2nd time) (acting)
1971                       Jan Lens (3rd time)
Aug 1971 - Dec 1971        Wilfred E. Fortin
1971 - 1973                Carl D.M.P. Hassell
1973                       Jan Lens (4th time) (acting)
1973 - 1974                Alberto A. Matthew
1974 - 1975                Jan Lens (5th time)
 
1 Oct 1975 - 26 Jan 1976  Charles A. Woodley (1st time)
                             (acting)

23 Jan 1976 - 23 Jul 1976  Reinier Oswald van Delden          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)  
23 Jul 1976 - 23 Aug 1976  Charles A. Woodley (2nd time)
                             (acting)
23 Aug 1976 - 1981         Oswald G. Bell

1981                       Cedrick C. Lijfrock (acting)
1981 - 1983                Vacquelin M.W. Connor
Lieutenant governors (gezaghebber)
 
1 Apr 1983 - Nov 1983     Jan Lens (acting)
Nov 1983 -  1 Nov 1989     George R. Sleeswijk

 
1 Nov 1989 -  1 Nov 1995  Irvin E. Temmer                    (b. 1948)
1996 -  1 Aug 1997         Etienne R. Locadia                 (b. 1950?)
 
1 Aug 1997 -  1 Oct 1997  .... (acting)
 1 Oct 1997 -  1 Oct 2003  Eugène Robert Abdul                (b. 1949)

 1 Jan 2004 -  1 Jan 2010  Hyden C.I. Gittens                 (b. 1961)
 1 Jan 2010 -  1 Apr 2016  Gerald Berkel                      (b. 1969)
                             (acting to 1 Apr 2010)
 1 Apr 2016 -  7 Feb 2018  Julian Carlyle Woodley (acting)    (b. 1952?)            DP-SE
 7 Feb 2018 -              Marcolino "Mike" Franco            (b. 1959)
                             (government commissioner)

Leaders of the government (unofficial post)
1954 - 1999                ....
1999 - 2003                Ingrid Whitfield-Houtman (f)                             SEA 
2007 - 2011                Julian Carlyle Woodley             (s.a.)                DP-SE
Vice Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee of the Island Council
2011 - 2013                Reginald C. Zaandam                                      UPC
2013 - 13 Feb 2018         Reuben E. Merkman                                     UPC;Aug 2016 Ind
13 Feb 2018 -              dissolved

Party abbreviations: DP-SE = Democratische Partij Sint Eustatius/Demokratiko Partido-St. Eustatius (Democratic Party of Saint Eustatius, est.1948); PLP = Progressive Labour Party/Vooruitstrevende Partij van de Arbeid; SEA = St. Eustatius Alliance/Verbond van Sint Eustatius; STEP = St. Eustatius Empowerment Party; UPC = United People's Coalition; Ind = Independent 







 © Ben Cahoon