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Sint Maarten
 
[National flag of
                            the Netherlands]
1634 - 15 Dec 1959
 
[Netherlands
                            Antilles flag, 1959-86]
15 Dec 1959 - 13 Jun 1985
[Sint Maarten flag]
Adopted 13 Jun 1985
 
Map of Sint Maarten Hear National Anthem
"Wilhelmous van Nassouwe"
(William of Nassau)
Hear Local Anthem
"Volkslied van Sint Maarten"
(St. Martin National Anthem)
(a.ka. O Lieve Land van Sint Maarten [O' Sweet Saint
Martin's Land]
) From c.1958
Constitution
(10 Oct 2010)
Capital: Philipsburg
(Fort Amsterdam 1631-1633,
1648-1763)
Currency: Netherlands
Antillean Guilder (ANG)
National Holiday: 27 Apr (1967)
King's Day (
Koningsdag)
------------------------------------
Local Holiday: 11 Nov (1493)
Saint Martin's Day
(
Sint-Maarten Dag)
Population: 40,552 (2018)
GDP: $1.04 billion (2017) Exports: $31.1 million (2017)
Imports: $388 million (2017)
Ethnic groups: mixed black/Creole, Dutch, 
Surinamese, East Asian, Dominican and other 
Total Police Force: 370 (2012)
Defense is the Responsibility of The Netherlands
Merchant marine: None (2017)
Religions: Protestant 41.9% (Pentecostal 14.7%, Methodist 10.0%,
 Seventh Day Adventist 6.6%, Baptist 4.7%, Anglican 3.1%,
other Protestant 2.8%), Roman Catholic 33.1%, Hindu 5.2%,
Christian 4.1%, Jehovah's Witness 1.7%, Evangelical 1.4%,
 Muslim/Jewish 1.1%, other 1.3% (includes Buddhist, Sikh,
Rastafarian), none 7.9%, no response 2.4% (2011)

International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (associate), Caricom (observer), DLU (cooperation), FATF, ILO, IMF, Interpol, LAP, UNESCO (associate), UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCO, WMO
Sint Maarten
Chronology

13 Nov 1493                Once past St. Kitts Spanish explorer Capt.
                             Cristóbal Colón may have sighed Saint Martin.
                             According to tradition he names it island

                             Isla San Mart
ín (a name in fact given to Nevis).
                             The Caribs called the island Soualiga.

1516                       First mentioned as "Sam Mtim" on the Reinel map.
 5 Oct 1624                First recorded European, Dutch sailor Pieter
                             Schouten (d. 1625), lands on Sint Maarten.

1631 -  2 Jul 1633         Dutch settlement
in southern end of the island.
 
2 Jul 1633 - 1648         Spanish occupation. 
23 Mar 1648                Divided into French Saint-Martin (north) and Dutch 
                             Sint Martin (Martijn)(south) parts by the Treaty
                             of Concordia
(Mont des Accords).
1648 - Apr 1672            Dutch Sint Martin a grantee-concession
                             (subordinate
d to St. Eustatius).
Apr 1672 - 15 Jun 1676    
French occupy entire island (see Saint-Martin).
15 Jun 1676 - 30 Jun 1676  Dutch
occupy entire island.
30 Jun 1676 - 1690         French occupy entire island (see Saint-Martin).
1690 - 10 Sep 1697        
No organized administration on the island.
20 Sep 1697                English agree to restore conquered territories
                             (incl. Saint Martin) to status quo ante by the
                             Treaty of Ryswick (Tractatus Pacis).
1699 - 1702                French control entire island
(see Saint-Martin).
1702 - 10 Apr 1703         Abandoned, both countries having evacuated. 
1703 - 16 Mar 1792         Dutch part under the Dutch West India Company 

                             administration.
10 Apr 1703 - Aug 1715     Dutch
in control of the entire island.
15 May 1733                Philipsburg founded.
24 Feb 1779 -  5 Feb 1781  French occupy Dutch part (
see Saint-Martin).  
 5 Feb 1781 - 27 Nov 1781  British occupy entire island. 

27 Nov 1781 - 11 Feb 1784  French occupy the Dutch part (the Dutch part civil
                             administration continues).

18 May 1793 - 28 Apr 1795  Dutch control entire island. 

28 Apr 1795 - 24 Mar 1801  French occupy entire island (the Dutch part adi
                             administration continues wit
h French commissioners)
                            
(see Saint-Martin).
24 Mar 1801 -  1 Dec 1802  British occupy entire island.
 1 Dec 1802 - 15 Feb 1810  French and Dutch parts resumed.
15 Feb 1810 - 24 Jan 1815  British occupy entire island.
 9 Jul 1810                Annexed along with Holland by France (not effected).
24 Jan 1815 -  6 Jan 1816  British occupy the Dutch part (and the French part
                             again Jul 1815 - 22 Nov 1816).
 6 Jan 1816                Dutch Sint Martin part resumed.

1828                       Sint Martin, Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, 
                             Sint Eustatius, and Dutch Guiana united as the 
                             Dutch West Indies; with the governor of Dutch
                             Guiana as the governor-general (see Suriname).
28 Nov 1839                Franco-Dutch Convention confirms the 1648 accords.
27 Jan 1848                Dutch Islands united under the name of Curaçao and

                             Dependencies (from 20 Sep 1948, renamed the
                             Netherlands Antilles: see under Curaçao).
1919 -  1 Apr 1983         Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten united as

                             Netherlands Windward Islands Territory
                             (Eilandgebied de Bovenwindse Eilanden).

1936                       Dutch part officially adopts the Dutch spelling 

                             Sint Maarten.
29 Dec 1954                Netherlands Antilles an autonomous part of 
                             the Netherlands.
14 Oct 1994                Referendum supports remaining within Netherlands
                             Antilles over becoming autonomous country 59%-32%.
23 Jun 2000                Referendum supports a "status aparte" as a

                             separate entity within The Netherlands by 68.9%.
 2 Nov 2006                Sint Maarten and Curaçao sign an agreement with
                             The Netherlands on "status aparte"
10 Oct 2010                Sint Maarten an autonomous country of Netherlands.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Dutch Commander

1631 -  2 Jul 1633         Jan Claeszoon van Campen           (d. 1642)
Spanish Governors
 
2 Jul 1633 - 1635         Cebrián de Lizarazu
1635 - 1639                Luis de Valdes
1639 - 1648                Diego Guajardo Fajardo
Dutch Commanders
14 Feb 1648 - 1650         Martin (Marten) Thomas
1650 - 1655                Adriaan de Vos
1655 - 1660                Edmond de Fosse
1667?                      Jan Sympson
1672?                      Jan Simonsz. de Buck
Apr 1672 - 15 Jun 1676     French occupation
15 Jun 1676 - 30 Jun 1676 
Jacob Binckes                      (b. 1637 - d. 1677)
30 Jun 1676 - 27 Jan 1690  French occupation
1690 - 1699                Vacant
1699 - 1702                French administration
1702 - 10 Apr 1703         abandoned
Vice-commanders
(Vice Commandeurs Sint Martin [Nederlandsch gedeelte])
10 Apr 1703 - 170.         Lucas van Beverhoudt
1705?                      Olivier Graval
1708?- 1710                Charles Devezaen
1710 - 1712                François Lemaire
1712 - 1713                Jean Buretel
1713 - 1718                Mart Meyers
1718 - 1720                Louis Guillaume Durepaire
1720 - 1721                Jan de Windt, Sr.
1721 - 1733                Martinus Meyer (Meijer)
1733 - 1735                Jacobus Barry
1735 - 1736                John Philips (1st time)            (b. 1689? - d. 1746)
                             (commander)
1736 - 1737                Pieter Hassell (acting)

1737 - 16 Dec 1746         John Philips (2nd time)            (s.a.) 
                            
(commander)
1746 - 1748                Jan de Wever (acting)

1748 -  5 Feb 1781         Abraham Heyliger Pzn.              (b. 1717 - d. 1783)
 
5 Feb 1781 - 26 Nov 1781  Andrew Edhouse -British commander  (b. c.1723 - d. 1788)
Governors
26 Nov 1781 - 23 Jul 1783  Abraham Heyliger Pzn.              (s.a.)
1783 - 1784                Charles Chabert, Jr.               (b. 1761 - d. 1810)
1784 - 1785                Councillors (acting)
                           - Thomas Aertsen

                           - Jacob M. Gumbes
Commanders
1785 - Jan 1790            Salomon Gibbes
                             (
vice-commander to 1786)
10 Jun 1790 - 1800         Willem Hendrik Rink (1st time)     (b. 1756 - d. 1848)
28 Apr 1795 - 1801         with French commissioners (see St. Martin)
1800 - 1801                Remt Folkerus Muller
1801 - 24 Mar 1801         Willem Hendrik Rink (2nd time)     (s.a.)
24 Mar 1801 -  1 Dec 1802  Robert Nicholson                   (d. 1810)
Governors
 1 Dec 1802 - 1807         Willem Hendrik Rink (3rd time)     (s.a.)

1807 - 1810                Jan Verveer Jzn.                   (b. 1775 - d. 1838)
15 Feb 1810 - 1810         George William Richard Harcourt    (b. 1775 - d. 1812)
                             (British commander)
1810 - 1813                John Skinner                       (b. c.1750 - d. 1827)

1813 - 1814                James Alexander Farquharson        (b. 1775 - d. 1834)
                             (1st time)
1814 -  5 Apr 1815         William McCaskill                  (b. c.1750 - d. 1815)
1815                       Robert Ferry (acting)
1815                       James Alexander Farquharson        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1815                       Francis Edden (acting)
1815 -  6 Jan 1816         Robert Douglas                     (b. c.1745 - d. 1827)
Lieutenant governors (gezaghebber)
 
6 Jan 1816 - 1820         Paulus Roelof Cantz'laar           (b. 1771 - d. 1831)
1820 - 1840                Diederik Johannes van Romondt      (b. 1781 - d. 1849)
1822 - 1823                Abraham Heijlinger
                             (acting for van Romondt)
1840 - 1849                Johannes Willem van Romondt        (b. 1805 - d. 1849)
12 Jun 1849 - 1850         Pieter Petersen (acting)
1850 - 1859                Johannes Didericus Crol            (b. 1806 - d. 1870)
1859 - 1860                Lucas Percival (acting)
1860 - 1865                Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga   (b. 1822 - d. 1896)
1865                       Diederik Chr. van Romondt (acting) (b. 1807 - d. 1865)
1865 - 1866                Philogène Philippe Maillard        (b. 1806 - d. 1886)
                             (acting)
1866 - 1870                Herman François Gerardus Wagner    (b. 1822 - d. 1904)
1870 - 1871                Robert van Romondt (acting)
1871 - 1883                Edouard Dénis Ernest van den       (b. 1831 - d. 1908)
                             Bossche
1874 - 1877                Diederik Charles van Romondt       (b. 1835 - d. 1904) 
                             (acting for van den Bossche)
1883                       Diederik Charles van Romondt       (s.a.) 
                             (1st time) (acting)
1883 - 1885                Jan Hendrik Rudeloff Beaujon       (b. 1838 - d. 1930)
1885 - 1889                Theophilus George Groebe           (b. 1838 - d. 1919)
1889 - 1891                Jan Hero Adriaan van Daalen        (b. 1842 - d. 1899)
1891 - 1893                Frans Johannes Olivier             (b. 1850 - d. 1914)
1893 - 1894                Diederik Charles van Romondt       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
1894 - 1901                Jozef Möller                       (b. 1849 - d. 1909)
1898 - 1901                Diederik Charles van Romondt       (s.a.)
                             (acting for Möller)
1901 - 1918                Abraham Jan Cornelis Brouwer       (b. 1858 - d. 1919)
1918 - 1919                Frits Koenraad Thielen (acting) 
Lieutenant governors (gezaghebber) for the Windward Islands
(Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius)
10 May 1919 -  4 Sep 1920  G.J. Tymstra (interim)

 
4 Sep 1920 - 17 Dec 1920  A.W. de Haseth (interim)
17 Dec 1920 -  6 Sep 1923  J. Van der Zee Rz.
 
6 Sep 1923 - 23 Dec 1927  Richard Johannes "Hensi"           (b. 1883 - d. 1959)
                             Beaujon, Jr.
24 Jan 1927 -  4 Jul 1927  C.F. Boskaljon (acting)
 
4 Jul 1927 - 21 May 1930  Willem Frederik Meinhardt Lampe    (b. 1896 - d. 1973)
                             (interim)
21 May 1930 -  7 Oct 1943  Johan Diedrich Meiners             (b. 1889 - d. 19..)
1938 - 1939                Anthony Hendrik Marinus van Weel   (b. 1900 - d. 1987)
                             (acting for Meiners)
 
7 Oct 1943 - 23 Feb 1948  Pieter Hendrik van Leeuwen         (b. 1893 - d. ....)
22 Jan 1945 -  1 Mar 1946  Maximillian Joseph Huith           (b. 1909 - d. 1993)
                             (acting for Leeuwen)
 
5 Mar 1946 - 23 Feb 1948  Maximillian Joseph Huith           (s.a.)
                             (acting for Leeuwen)
23 Feb 1948 - 21 Jul 1958  Johannes Christiaan Paap

                             (interim to
10 Nov 1948)
1953                       Ir.K.A. van Rijswijk
                             (acting for Paap)
 
9 Mar 1956 - 16 Oct 1957  P.A. van den Heuvel
                             (acting for Paap)
16 Oct 1957 - 15 Apr 1958  Walter Granville Buncamper         (b. 1908 - d. 1978)

                             (acting for Paap)
1958                       Hendrikus "Henk" Anthonius Hessling(b. 1901 - d. 1966)
                             (acting)

10 Jul 1958 - 1968         Jan Jacob "Japa" Beaujon           (b. 1921 - d. 1999)
Aug 1968 -  1 Mar 1975     Reinier Oswald van Delden          (b. 1928 - d. 2011)  
                             (acting to 3 Mar 1969)
 1 Mar 1975 - 1981         Theodore Maxwell "Max" Pandt       (b. 1939 - d. 2017)
                             (acting to 1 Sep 1975)
1981 -  1 Apr 1983         Ralph R.H. Richardson              (b. 1937)

Lieutenant governors (gezaghebber)

 
1 Apr 1983 - 1992         Ralph R.H. Richardson              (s.a.)

1992 - 1994                Wilfred Russell Voges              (b. 1943)
 
1 Sep 1994 - 22 Sep 2000  Dennis Leory Richardson            (b. 1946)
22 Sep 2000 - 10 Aug 2010  Franklyn E. Richards               (b. 1950)
10 Aug 2010 - 10 Oct 2010  Reynold Amando Groeneveldt (acting)
Governor
10 Oct 2010 -              Eugene Holiday                     (b. 1962)
 

Leaders of the government (unofficial post until 1997)
1954 - 1991                Claude Wathey                      (b. 1926 - d. 1998)  DP
                            
(= Albert Claudius Wathey)
1991 - 1995                Edgar Hubert Lynch                 (b. 1952)            SPA

1995 -  1 Jul 1999         William Marlin (1st time)          (b. 1950)            SPA 
 1 Jul 1999 -  8 Jun 2009  Sarah A. Wescott-Williams (f)      (b. 1956)            DP
 8 Jun 2009 - 10 Oct 2010  William Marlin (2nd time)          (s.a.)               SPA + NA
Prime ministers
10 Oct 2010 - 19 Dec 2014  Sarah A. Wescott-Williams (f)      (s.a.)               DP
19 Dec 2014 - 19 Nov 2015  Marcel F. Gumbs                    (b. 1953)            UPP
19 Nov 2015 - 24 Nov 2017  William Marlin                     (s.a.)              
SPA + NA
24 Nov 2017 - 15 Jan 2018  Rafael Boasman (acting)            (b. 1953)            USP
15 Jan 2018 -              Leona Marlin-Romeo (f)             (b. 1973)            UDP

Party abbreviations: NA = National Alliance/Nationale Alliantie (electoral alliance of SPA and National Progressive Party/Nationale Progressieve Partij, est.18 Jan 2002); SPA = St. Maarten Patriotic Alliance/Sint Maarten Patriottische Alliantie (part of NA from 18 Jan 2002, named 1979-1990 as St. Maarten Patriotic Movement, est.1990); UDP = United Democratic Party/Verenigde Democratische Partij (merger of UPP and DP, est.Nov 2017); USP = United St. Maarten Party/ Verenigde Sint Maarten Partij (split from NA, est.22 Dec 2013);
- Former parties:
DP = Democratic Party St. Maarten/Democratische Partij Sint Maarten (1954-Nov 2017, merged into UDP); UPP = United People's Party/Verenigde Volkspartij (populist, 24 Jul 2010-Nov 2017, merged into UDP)






 © Ben Cahoon