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Azerbaijan
 
[Russian flag]  
6 Oct 1806 - 22 Apr 1918
[Azerbaijan
                            flag of 1918]
21 Jun 1918 - 22 Nov 1918
[Flag of
                            Azerbaijan 1918-1920]
22 Nov 1918 - 28 Apr 1920
[Flag of USSR
                            1923-1991]
12 Nov 1923 - 25 Dec 1991
[Flag of
                            Azerbaijan]
Adopted 5 Feb 1991


Map of Azerbaijan
Hear National Anthem
"Azərbaycan Marşı"
(March of Azerbaijan)
National Anthem Text
Adopted 27 May 1992
(and 1919-1920)
Constitution
(12 Nov 1995)
(1918-1920 none)
Capital: Baku (Bakı)
(Ganja 16 Jun 1918-17 Sep 1918,
 Shemakha 1846-1859
)
Currency: Azerbaijan Manat
(AZN); 1991-93 Russian Ruble (RUR); 1919-1923 Azerbaijani
 Ruble (AZR)
National Holiday:
28 May (1918)

Respublika Gn
(Republic Day)
Population: 10,046,516 (2018)
1,950,000 (1920)
GDP: $172.2 billion (2017)
Exports: $15.15 billion (2017)
Imports: $9.03 billion (2017)
Ethnic Groups: Azerbaijani 91.6%, Lezgian 2%, Russian 1.3%,
Armenian 1.3%, Talysh 1.3%, other 2.1% (2009)

note: almost all Armenians live in Nagorno-Karabakh
Total Active Armed Forces: 66,950 (2018)
Azerbaijani Red Army, 10,000 (1922), 25,000 (1920)

Merchant marine: 311 ships (2017)
Religions: Muslim 96.9% (predominantly Shia), Christian 3%,
 other 0.1, unaffiliated 0.1 (2010)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan;
percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AIIB, APA, BSEC, BTWC, CD, CE, CFE, CICA, CIS, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,  ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC (cooperation), OSCE, OST, OTS, PFP, SCO (dialogue partner), SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO,WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Azerbaijan
Index
Chronology

c.100 BC - 705 AD          Kingdom of Albania (also known by Persian name
                             Arran).
c.370 AD                   Christianity adopted.
705 AD                     Annexed to the Muslim Caliphate.
822 - 1014                 Kingdom of Albania (restored) at Sheki (in 1014
                             annexed to Kakheti [see under Georgia]).
861 - 1538                 Shirvan, ruled by Shah, with capital in Shamakha,
                             the most prominent state in modern-day Azerbaijan.
1538                       Shirvan annexed by Persia, the area divided by
                             Persia into Beylerbeyliks of Shirvan (capital
                             Shamakha) and Qarabagh (capital Ganja).
1588 - 1603                Shirvan annexed by the Ottoman Empire, the area
                             divided into Eyalets of Shirvan and Ganja.
1724 - 1735                Divided between Russia (area along Caspian Sea
                             coast, as well as Gilan, Derbent and Tarki) and
                             the Ottoman Empire (inland area) by the Treaty of
                             Constantinople.
1747                       Azeri khanates (see below), largely independent,
                             under mostly nominal Persian suzerainty.
1768 - 1789                Khan of Quba ruled over most of khanates and styled
                             himself Wali of all Shirvan.
14 May 1805                Qarabagh, Sheki (21 May 1805), and Shirvan
                             (Shamakha) (25 Dec 1805) annexed by Russia.
 6 Oct 1806                Baku annexed by Russia.
12 Oct 1813                Persia cedes sovereignty over Baku, Sheki (Shakki),
                             Quba, Shirvan (Shamakha), Talysh and Karabakh
                            (Qarabagh) to Russia by the Treaty of Gulistan.
1813 - 1917                Part of the Viceroyalty and other Russian regional
                             administrations of the Caucasus [see under
                             Georgia].
1815                       Military Administration of the Muslim District.
22 Feb 1828                Nakhichevan annexed by Russia by the Treaty of
                             Turkmanchai.
1841 - 1846                Caspian oblast (Kaspiyskaya oblast').
14 Dec 1846                Shemakha Governorate (Shemakhinskaya guberniya).
18 Dec 1859                Renamed Baku Governorate (Bakinskaya guberniya).
1867                       Yelizavetpol Governorate (Yelizavetpol'skaya
                             guberniya) established from parts of
Baku
                             and Tiflis Governorates.
Feb 1905 - 1907            Minor local rebellions as part of the Russian
                             Revolution of 1905.
13 Nov 1917 - 15 Sep 1918  Baku under local Soviet administration (see there),
                             in opposition to Transcaucasia (from May 1918,
                             Azerbaijan).
28 Nov 1917                Part of Transcaucasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and
                             Georgia).
22 Apr 1918 - 26 May 1918  Part (with Armenia and Georgia) of the Democratic

                             Federative Republic of Transcaucasia (see 
                             under Georgia).
28 May 1918 - 27 Apr 1920  Azerbaijani People's Republic (Azərbaycan Xalq
                             Cmhuriyyəti)(also in official
use Azerbaijani
                             Republic [Azərbaycan Cmhuriyyəti]; semi-official

                             Azerbaijani Democratic Republic [Azərbaycan
                             Demokratik Respublikası])(
the national
                             government arrives in Yelizavetpol [Ganja] on
                             16 Jun 1918).
 
4 Jun 1918 - Nov 1918     Ottoman protectorate by the Treaty of Batum (ceased
                             following the Armistice of Mudros of 30 Oct 1918).
 4 Aug 1918 - 15 Sep 1918  Baku garrisoned by Allied (U.K.) forces.

15 Sep 1918 - 14 Nov 1918  Baku garrisoned by the Ottoman Empire.
17 Nov 1918 - 23 Aug 1919  Baku garrisoned by Allied (U.K.) forces.
10 Jan 1920                Independence de facto recognized by the Allied
                             and Associated Powers.
27/28 Apr 1920             Soviet Russian forces occupy Baku.

28 Apr 1920                Azerbaijani Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic
                            
(Azərbaycan İctimai Şura Cmhuriyyəti).
25 May 1920 - 31 May 1920  Anti-Soviet rebellion in Ganja, organized by an
                             exile committee.
12 Mar 1922 - 13 Dec 1922  Part (with Armenia and Georgia) of the Federative

                             Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of 
                             Transcaucasia (see under Georgia).
13 Dec 1922                Part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative
                             Soviet Republic (T.S.F.S.R.)(see under Georgia).
30 Dec 1922                T.S.F.S.R. founding component of the Soviet Union
                             (see under Russia).
 5 Dec 1936                T.S.F.S.R. dissolved; Azerbaidzhan Soviet
                             Socialist Republic becomes full union republic.
21 Aug 1956                Azerbaijani is designated as the state language (in
                             accordance with an amendment to the constitution).
23 Sep 1989                State sovereignty declared (by law of 23 Sep 1989).
 5 Feb 1991                Azerbaijani Republic (Azәrbaycan Respublikası)
                             (style introduced by decree
29 Nov 1990 pending
                             endorsement by legislature).

30 Aug 1991                Declaration of restoration of state independence.
26 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of U.S.S.R.).
 6 Jan 1992                Nagorno-Karabakh declares independence from
                             Azerbaijan (not internationally recognized).
18 Jan 1990                Armenia occupies the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki
                             (Tigranashen), Barxudarlı (Barkhudarly) 27 Apr
                             1992, Sofulu 27 Apr 1992, and Ashagy Eskipara
                             (Nerkin Voskepar) 8 Jun 1992. Azerbaijan also
                             occupies Armenian exclave of Artsvashen (Başkend)
                             9 Aug 1992.

19 May 1992 -  1 Dec 2020  Occupation of Azeri regions adjacent to the region
                             of
Nagorno-Karabakh by Nagorno-Karabakh.

Azerbaidzhan
Soviet Socialist
Republic

(1920-1991)
Nagorno-Karabakh
Nakhichevan
Baku Governments
(1917-1918)
Talysh-Mughan
(1744-1919, 1993)
Khanates

  • Baku
  • Ganja
  • Jawad
  • Qarabagh
  • Quba (Kuba)
  • Salyan
  • Shakki (Sheki)
  • Shamakha
  • Jar-Balakan
  • Ilisu

  •  
     
     

    Russian Commanders-in-chief of the Caspian Provinces
    1723 - 1726                Mikhail Afanasyevich Matyushkin   (b. 1676 - d. 1737)
    1726 - 1728                Knyaz' Vasiliy Vladimirovich      (b. 1667 - d. 1746)
                                 Dolgorukiy
    1728 - 1730                Aleksandr Ivanovich Rumyantsev    (b. 1680 - d. 1749)
    1730 - 1732                Vasiliy Yakovlevich Levashov      (b. 1667 - d. 1751)
                                 (1st time)
    1732 - 1733                Ludwig Wilhelm von Hessen-Homburg (b. 1705 - d. 1745)
    1733 - 1735                Vasiliy Yakovlevich Levashov      (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    Russian Military Administrators of the Muslim District

    1815 - 1817                Fyodor Isayevich Akhverdov        (b. 1773 - d. 1820)
                                 (Tevdore Akhverdashvili)
    1817 - 1829                Valeryan Grigoryevich Madatov     (b. 1782 - d. 1829)
                                 (Rostom Madatyan)
    1829 - 1831                Knyaz' Ivan Nikolayevich Abkhazov (b. 1764 - d. 1831)
                                 (Ivane Apkhazi)
    1831 - 1838?               Stepan Stepanovich Zhukovskiy     (b. 1788 - d. 1864)
    Russian Administrators of Caspian (Kaspiyskaya) Oblast
    1841 - 1842                Baron Nikolay Fyodorovich fon     (b. 1789 - d. 1852)
                                 Asheberg
    1842 - 28 Sep 1844         Apollon Alekseyevich Ivanov       (b. 1798 - d. 1844)
    1844 - 1846                Baron Aleksandr Yevstafyevich fon (b. 1804 - d. 1881)
                                 Vrangel'
    Military Governors and Administrators of Civil Affairs of Shemakha
    (from 18 Dec 1858, Baku) Governorate

    1846 - 1850                Baron Aleksandr Yevstafyevich fon (s.a.)
                                 Vrangel'
    18 Dec 1850 - 1857         Sergey Gavrilovich Chilyayev      (b. 1803 - d. 1864)
    29 Apr 1857 - 1863        
    Knyaz' Konstantin Davydovich      (b. 1811 - d. 1869)
                                 Tarkhan-Mouravov
    1863 - 1872                Mikhail Petrovich Kolyubakin      (b. 1806 - d. 1872)
    Governors of Baku Governorate
    10 Apr 1872 - 13 Jun 1876  Dmitriy Semenovich Starosel'skiy  (b. 1832 - d. 1884)
    1876 - 1881                Valeriy Mikhaylovich Pozen        (b. 1832 - d. af.1897)
     5 Apr 1882 - 20 Jan 1888  Baron Yustin Kazimirovich Gyubsh  (b. 1822 - d. 1898)
                                 fon Grostal'
     2 Feb 1888 - 13 Jun 1899  Vladimir Petrovich Rogge          (b. 1843 - d. 1907)
    30 Jun 1899 - 11 Mar 1904  Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Odintsov   (b. 1852 - d. af.1909)
    11 Mar 1904 - 14 May 1905  Knyaz' Mikhail
    Aleksandrovich     (b. 1873 - d. 1906)
                                 Nakashidze
    24 Nov 1905 - 1915         Vladimir Vladimirovich Alyshevskiy(b. 1869 - d. af.1921)
    1916 - Mar 1917            Lev Vladimirovich Potulov         (b. 1877 - d. af.1931)
    Commissar of Baku Governorate
    1917                       Pyotr Fyodorovich Ilyushkin
    Governors of Yelizavetpol Governorate

    1868 - 1876                Fokion Yevstafevich Bulatov       (b. 1823 - d. 1896)
    1877 - 1880?               Konstantin Khristoforovich        (b. 1824 - d. 1900)
                                 Mamatsev (= Konstantine Mamatsashvili)
                                (governor-general)
    28 Feb 1880 -  1 Jun 1897 
    Knyaz' Aleksandr Davydovich       (b. 1837 - d. 1905)
                                 Nakashidze
     3 Jun 1897 - 18 Jul 1900  Ivan Petrovich Kireyev            (b. 1838 - d. 19..)
    25 Jul 1900 -  2 Sep 1905  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Luttsau    (b. 1853 - d. 19..)
                                 (Lutzau
    )(acting to 19 Apr 1903)
     2 Sep 1905 - 1908         Aleksey Alekseyevich
    Kalachev
    1908 - 1916                Georgiy Samoilovich
    Kovalev
    1916 - Mar 1917            Mikhail Petrovich Poyarkov        (d. 1927)
    Commissar of Yelizavetpol Governorate
    c.Mar 1918                 Ismail Khan Ziyadkhanov           (b. 1867 d. 1920)  Non-party
    Chairman of the Transcaucasia Muslim National Council

    Oct 1917 - 28 May 1918     Alimardan bey Alakbar oglu        (b. 1863 - d. 1934)  TPM
                                 Topchubashov
                                (in Tifis, Georgia)
    Chairmen of the Azerbaijani National Council

    28 May 1918 - 17 Jun 1918  Memmed Emin Aga oglu Resulzade    (b. 1884 - d. 1955)  TPM
                                 (1st time)(in Tiflis, Georgia exile to 16 Nov 1918)
    17 Jun 1918 - 16 Nov 1918 
    authority of the Council transferred
                               to the Council of Ministers

    16 Nov 1918 -  7 Dec 1918  
    Memmed Emin Aga oglu Resulzade    (s.a.)               TPM
                                 (2nd time)
    Chairman of the Parliament of Azerbaijan
     7 Dec 1918 - 27 Apr 1920  Alimardan bey Alakbar oglu        (s.a.)               TPM
                                 Topchubashov
                               
    (exercised functions of diplomatic representation abroad)
    First Deputy Chairmen of the Parliament
    (acting for the absent chairman) 
     7 Dec 1918 - 22 Jan 1920  Hasan bey Mashadi Husseyn oglu    (b. 1875 - d. 1920)  TPM
                                 Agayev
    22 Jan 1920 -  2 Feb 1920  Vacant
     2 Feb 1920                Mammadrza Aga Mansur
    oglu Vakilov (b. 1864 - d. 1944) 
                                 (acting)
     2 Feb 1920 - 27 Apr 1920  Mammad Yusif Hajibaba oglu        (b. 1895 - d. 1938)  TPM
                                 Kafarov
    Chairman of Azerbaijan Salvation Committee

    May 1920 - 1920            Shafi Bey Rustambekov             (b. 1892 - d. 1960)  TPM
                                 (in exile in Tiflis, Georgia)

    Presidents
     
    5 Feb 1991 -  6 Mar 1992  Ayaz Niyazi oglu Mutalibov        (b. 1938)            AKP; 1991 
                                 (1st time)                                           Non-party
     6 Mar 1992 - 14 May 1992  Yagub Kavad oglu Mamedov (acting) (b. 1941)            Non-party
                                 (1st time)
    14 May 1992 - 16 May 1992  Ayaz Niyazi oglu Mutalibov        (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 (2nd time)
    16 May 1992 - 18 May 1992  Yagub Kavad oglu Mamedov (acting) (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 (2nd time)
    18 May 1992 - 16 Jun 1992  Isa Yunis oglu Gambarov (acting)  (b. 1957)            AKC
    16 Jun 1992 -  1 Sep 1993  Abulfez Kadyrgula oglu Elchibey   (b. 1938 - d. 2000)  AKC
    24 Jun 1993 - 31 Oct 2003  Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev         (b. 1923 - d. 2003)  YAP
                                 (acting to 10 Oct 1993 [for Elchibey to 1 Sep 1993])
    31 Oct 2003 -              Ilham Heydar oglu Aliyev          (b. 1961)            YAP

    Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)
    28 May 1918 - 14 Apr 1919  Fath Ali Khan Khoyski             (b. 1876 - d. 1920)  Non-party
                                 (in Tiflis, Georgia 28 May - 16 Jun 1918)
    14 Apr 1919 - 30 Mar 1920  Nasibbey Yusifbeyli               (b. 1881 - d. 1920)  TPM
     1 Apr 1920 - 28 Apr 1920  Mammad Hasan Hajinskiy            (b. 1875 - d. 1931)  TPM
    C
    hairman of the Council of Ministers
     5 Feb 1991 -  7 Feb 1991  Hasan Aziz oglu Hasanov           (b. 1940)            AKP
    Prime Ministers
     
    7 Feb 1991 -  4 Apr 1992  Hasan Aziz oglu Hasanov           (s.a.)        AKP;1991 Non-party
     4 Apr 1992 - 16 May 1992  Firuz Radzhab oglu Mustafayev     (b. 1933 - d. 2018)  Non-party
                                 (acting)
    16 May 1992 - 26 Jan 1993  Rahim Ali Husseyn oglu Huseynov   (b. 1936)            Non-party
    26 Jan 1993 - 28 Apr 1993  Ali Ahmed oglu Masimov (acting)   (b. 1952)            Non-party
    28 Apr 1993 - 30 Jun 1993  Panakh Chodar oglu Huseynov       (b. 1957)            AKC
    30 Jun 1993 -  7 Oct 1994  Surat Davud oglu Huseynov         (b. 1959)            Mil
     7 Oct 1994 - 20 Jul 1996  Fuad Khalil oglu Guliyev          (b. 1941)            YAP
                                 (acting to 2 May 1995)
    20 Jul 1996 -  4 Aug 2003  Artur Tair oglu Rasizade          (b. 1935)            YAP
                                 (1st time)(acting to 26 Nov 1996 and 18-24 Oct 1998)
     4 Aug 2003 - 31 Oct 2003  Ilham Heydar oglu Aliyev          (s.a.)               YAP
     6 Aug 2003 - 31 Oct 2003  Artur Tair oglu Rasizade          (s.a.)               YAP
                                 (acting for Aliyev)
    31 Oct 2003 - 21 Apr 2018  Artur Tair oglu Rasizade          (s.a.)               YAP
                                 (2nd time)(acting to 4 Nov 2003)
    21 Apr 2018 -  8 Oct 2019  Novruz Ismail oglu Mamedov        (b. 1947)            YAP
     8 Oct 2019 -              Ali Hidayat oglu Asadov           (b. 1956)            YAP


    Allied (British) Occupation 1918-1919

    Commanders of Allied (British) Occupation Forces in Baku
    (from 11 Mar 1919, in Azerbaijan, Petrovsk-Port and Krasnovodsk)
    (commanders of the 39th Infantry Brigade)
    17 Nov 1918 -  9 Mar 1919  William Montgomerie Thomson       (b. 1877 - d. 1963)

                                
    (by virtue of being a commander of
                                
    North Persia Force Sep 1918-May 1919)
    Jan 1919 -  9 Mar 1919     Richard Price Jordan              (b. 1869 - d. 1963)
                                 (acting for absent Thomson) 
     9 Mar 1919 - 23 Aug 1919 
    Digby Inglis Shuttleworth         (b. 1876 - d. 1948)

    Central Powers (Ottoman) Occupation

    Commander of Ottoman Occupation Forces ("Islamic Army of the Caucasus")
    (to Sep 1918 at Ganja, then at Baku)
    10 Jul 1918 - 18 Oct 1918  Mustafa Nuri Pasha                (b. 1889 - d. 1949)

    Territorial Disputes: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian

    Party abbreviations: AKC = Azerbaycan Xalq Cebhesi Partiyasi (Azerbaijani Popular Front Party, reformist, est.1989); AKP = Azerbaycan Kommunist Partiyasi (Azerbaijan Communist Party, to 1952 named Azerbaijan Communist [Bolshevik] Party, Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, 1920-16 Sep 1991, re-est.Dec 1993); YAP = Yeni Azerbaycan Partiyasi (New Azerbaijan Party, nationalist, center-right, est.18 Dec 1992); Mil = Military
    - Former parties: TPM = Turk Adam-i Markaziyyat-Musavat Firqasi (Turkic Party of Federalists - Equality Party, liberal, pan-Turkist, nationalist, in 1920 banned, 1917-1923)


    Baku
     
    [Baku Soviet
                          Commune flag 1918 (Azerbaijan)]
    25 Apr 1918 - 31 Jul 1918
    Baku Commune
    [Central Caspian
                          Provisional Dictatorship (Centro-Caspian
                          Directorate) possible flag 1918 (Azerbaijan)]
    14 Aug 1918 - 15 Sep 1918 Possible Flag
    Central Caspian Dictatorship

    13 Nov 1917                Baku Governorate Soviet of Deputies assumed "supreme authority"
                                 subject to the Russian Soviet republic, in opposition to
                                 Transcaucasia (from May 1918, Azerbaijan).
    25 Apr 1918 - 31 Jul 1918  Known as the Baku Soviet Commune.

     1 Aug 1918 - 15 Sep 1918  Central Caspian Provisional Dictatorship (also called Centro-
                                 Caspian Directorate [Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya/Sentrokaspi
                                 Diktaturası
    ]) in Baku replaces the Commune;
    supported by British
                                 troops and in opposition to Azeri
    national government at Ganja.
     
    4 Aug 1918 - 15 Sep 1918  Baku garrisoned by Allied (U.K.) forces.
    15 Sep 1918                Baku occupied by Ottoman-Azerbaijani forces, part of the Republic
                                 of Azerbaijan (Ottoman forces leave Baku 14 Nov 1918).
    17 Nov 1918 - 23 Aug 1919  Baku garrisoned by Allied (U.K.) forces (see under Azerbaijan).

    Chairman of Executive Committee of Baku Governorate Soviet of Deputies
    26 Oct 1917 - 25 Dec 1917  Stepan Georgiyevich Shaumyan      (b. 1878 - d. 1918)  RSDRP-B
    Chairman of Revolutionary Committee

    25 Dec 1917 - 13 Jan 1918  Ivan Alekseyevich Sukhartsev      (b. 1881 - d. 1931)  PLSR
    Chairman of Executive Committee of Baku Governorate Soviet of Deputies
    13 Jan 1918 - 31 Jul 1918  Prokopiy Aprasionovich Dzhaparidze(b. 1880 - d. 1918)  RSDRP-B
                                 (without executive role after 25 Apr 1918)
    Chairman of Council of People's Commissars

    25 Apr 1918 - 31 Jul 1918  Stepan Georgiyevich Shaumyan      (s.a.)               RSDRP-B
    Chairman of the
    Central Caspian Provisional Dictatorship of the Central Committee of the Caspian
    Flotilla and of the Provisional Executive Committee of Baku Governorate Soviet of Deputies

     1 Aug 1918 - Sep 1918     Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sadovskiy  (b. 1882 - d. 19..)  RSDRP-M
    c.19 Aug/2 Sep 1918        M. Tyushkov                                            Mil/PSR
                                 (acted for or replaced Sadovskiy)

    Commander of Allied (U.K.) Forces ("Dunsterforce")
     4 Aug 1918 - 15 Sep 1918  Lionel Charles Dunsterville       (b. 1865 - d. 1946)  Mil

    Party abbreviations: PLSR = Partiya Levykh Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, democratic socialist, Aug 19171923, split from PSR, allied with RSDRP-B/RKP); PSR = Partiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries, "SRs", democratic socialist, agrarian socialist, split Aug 1917 into Left [became PLSR] and Right wings, Jan 1902-1922); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Bolsheviks], Russian revolutionary socialist, Marxist communist, from 8 Nov 1917 state party, on 1 Jan 1912 split from RSDRP, on 8 Mar 1918, renamed Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks]); RSDRP-M = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Men'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Mensheviks], split from RSDRP, democratic socialist, Orthodox Marxist, 1 Jan 1912-1922)



    Azerbaidzhan Soviet Socialist Republic
     
    [Azerbaijan
                          SSR Unofficial Flag 1920-1921]
    28 Apr 1920 - 19 May 1921 Unofficial
     
    [Flag of
                          Azerbaidzhan SSR 1921-1922]
    19 May 1921 - 30 Dec 1922
     
    [Flag of
                          Azerbaidzhan SSR 1922-1925 (USSR)]
    30 Dec 1922 - 14 Mar 1925
     
    [Flag of
                          Azerbaidzhan SSR 1925-1927 (USSR)]
    14 Mar 1925 - 26 Mar 1927
     
    [Flag of
                          Azerbaidzhan SSR 1927-1931 (USSR)]
    26 Mar 1927 - 14 Feb 1931
     
    [Flag of
                          Azerbaidzhan SSR 1931-1937 (USSR)]
    14 Feb 1931 - 14 Mar 1937
     
    [Flag of
                          Azerbaidzhan SSR 1937-1940 (USSR]
    14 Mar 1937 - 20 Mar 1940
    [Flag of
                          Azerbaidzhan SSR 1940-1952 (USSR)]
    20 Mar 1940 - 7 Oct 1952
    [Flag of
                          Azerbaidzhan SSR 1952-1991 (USSR)]
    7 Oct 1952 - 5 Feb 1991
    Capital: Baku (Bakı) Hear SSR Anthem
    "Azərbaycan Sovet Sosialist
     Respublikasının Dvlət Himni"
     (State Anthem of the
     Azerbaijan SSR)
     
    (1944 - 27 May 1992)
    -------------------------------
    Former Anthem
    "Enternasyonal"
    (The Internationale)
    (1920-1922 de facto possibly)

    Constitutions
    (19 May 1921, 26 Mar 1927, 14 Mar 1937, 21 Apr 1978) 
    Population: 6,028,000 (1980)
    2,135,000 (1923)

    28 Apr 1920                Azerbaijani Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic (Azərbaycan
                                 İctimai Şura Cmhuriyyəti/Azərbaycan Sosialist Şura
                                 Cmhuriyyəti).

    30 Sep 1920                Union Treaty with the Russian S.F.S.R.
    12 Mar 1922 - 13 Dec 1922  Part of the Federative Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of
                                 Transcaucasia
    (
    see under Georgia).
    13 Dec 1922 -  5 Dec 1936  Part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic 
                                 (see under Georgia).
     5 Dec 1936                Accession individually to the Soviet Union (see under Russia).
     5 Dec 1936               
    Renamed Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (Azәrbaycan Sovet
                                 Sosialist Respublikası/Azerbaydzhanskaya Sovetskaya
                                 Socialisticheskaja Respublika).
    21 Aug 1956                Azerbaijani is designated as the state language in accordance
                                 with an amendment to the constitution.
    25 Sep 1989                State sovereignty declared (by law of 23 Sep 1989).
     5 Feb 1991                Azerbaijani Republic (Azәrbaycan Respublikası).

    Chairmen of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
    (Bolsheviks) of Azerbaijan

    28 Apr 1920 - 23 Jul 1920
      Mirza Davud Bagir oglu Guseynov   (b. 1894 - d. 1938)
    23 Jul 1920 -  9 Sep 1920  Viktor Ivanovich Naneyshvili      (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
     9 Sep 1920 - 15 Sep 1920  Yelena Dmitriyevna
    Stasova (f)    (b. 1873 - d. 1966)
    15 Sep 1920 - 24 Oct 1920  Vladimir Yelizbarovich Dumbadze   (b. 1879 - d. 1934)
    Executive Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
    (Bolsheviks) of Azerbaijan

    24 Oct 1920 - 24 Jul 1921  Grigoriy Naumovich Kaminskiy      (b. 1895 - d. 1938)
    First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
    of
    Azerbaijan (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Azerbaijan)
    24 Jul 1921 - 21 Jan 1926  Sergey Mironovich Kirov           (b. 1886 - d. 1934)
    21 Jan 1926 - 11 Jul 1929  Levon Isayevich Mirzoyan          (b. 1887 - d. 1939)
    11 Jul 1929 -  5 Aug 1930  Nikolay Fyodorovich Gikalo        (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
     5 Aug 1930 -  8 Feb 1933  Vladimir Ivanovich Polonskiy      (b. 1893 - d. 1939)
                                
    (= Reven Gershevich)
     8 Feb 1933 - 10 Dec 1933  Ruben Gukasovich Rubenov          (b. 1894 - d. 1937)

                                 (Mkrytyan)
    10 Dec 1933 - 18 Apr 1953  Mir Dzhafar Abas ogly Bagirov     (b. 1896 - d. 1956)
    18 Apr 1953 - 17 Feb 1954  Mir Teymur Mir Alekper ogly       (b. 1904 - d. 1970)
                                 Yakubov 
    17 Feb 1954 - 10 Jul 1959  Imam Dashdemir ogly Mustafayev    (b. 1910 - d. 1997)
    10 Jul 1959 - 14 Jul 1969  Veli Yusif ogly Akhundov          (b. 1916 - d. 1986)
    14 Jul 1969 -  3 Dec 1982  Heydar Ali Rza ogly Aliyev        (b. 1923 - d. 2003)
     3 Dec 1982 - 21 May 1988  Kyamran Mamed ogly Bagirov        (b. 1933 - d. 2000)
    21 May 1988 - 25 Jan 1990  Abdul Rahman Khalil ogly Vezirov  (b. 1930)
    25 Jan 1990 - 14 Sep 1991  Ayaz Niyazi ogly Mutalibov        (b. 1938)

    Chairmen of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee
    28 Apr 1920 - 16 May 1920  Mirza Davud Bagir ogly Guseynov   (s.a.)               AKP
                                 (acting)
    16 May 1920 - 21 May 1921  Nariman Kerbalay Nadzhaf ogly     (b. 1870 - d. 1925)  AKP
                                 Narimanov 
    Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
    21 May 1921 -  7 May 1922  Mukhtar Gadzhi ogly Gadzhiyev     (b. 1876 - d. 1938)  AKP
     
    7 May 1922 - 18 Sep 1929  Samed Aga Agamali ogly Aliyev     (b. 1867 - d. 1930)  AKP
    18 Sep 1929
    - 14 Mar 1930  Sultan Medzhid Medzhid ogly       (b. 1887 - d. 1938)  AKP
                                 Efendiyev (1st time)(acting)
    14 Mar 1930 - 13 Dec 1931  Gazanfar Makhmud ogly Musabekov   (b. 1888 - d. 1938)  AKP
    13 Dec 1931 - 10 Jun 1937  Sultan Medzhid Medzhid ogly       (s.a.)               AKP
                                 Efendiyev (2nd time)
    10 Jun 1937 - 18 Jul 1938  Mir Bashir Fattakh ogly Kasumov   (b. 1879 - d. 1949)  AKP
                                 (acting)
    Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
    21 Jul 1938 - 23 Apr 1949  Mir Bashir Fattakh ogly Kasumov   (s.a.)               AKP
    23 Apr 1949 - 18 May 1949  Dzhabrail Ibragim ogly Mamedov    (b. 1910 - d. 1976)  AKP
                               + Yegishe Semyonovich Akopov      (b. 1902 - d. ....)  AKP
                               (acting)
    18 May 1949 -  9 Mar 1954  Nazar Heydar ogly Heydarov        (b. 1896 - d. 1968)  AKP
     9 Mar 1954 - 23 Jan 1958  Mirza Azhdar ogly Ibragimov       (b. 1911 - d. 1993)  AKP
    23 Jan 1958 - 26 Nov 1959  Ilyas Kerim ogly Abdullayev       (b. 1913 - d. 1985)  AKP
    26 Nov 1959 - 16 Nov 1961  Saftar Mamed ogly Dzhafarov       (b. 1900 - d. 1961)  AKP
    16 Nov 1961 - 29 Dec 1961  Huseyn Kurban ogly Mamedov        (b. 1906 - d. 1970)  AKP
                               + Ruben Tevosovich Shakhramanyan  (b. 1914 - d. 19..)  AKP
                               (acting)
    29 Dec 1961 - 25 Dec 1969  Mamed Abdul ogly Iskenderov       (b. 1915 - d. 1985)  AKP
    25 Dec 1969 - 30 Dec 1985  Kurban Ali ogly Khalilov          (b. 1906 - d. 2000)  AKP
    30 Dec 1985 - 22 Jun 1989  Suleyman Bayram ogly Tatliyev     (b. 1925 - d. 2014)  AKP
    22 Jun 1989 - 18 May 1990  El'mira Mikail kyzy Kafarova (f)  (b. 1934 - d. 1993)  AKP
    President
    19 May 1990 -  5 Feb 1991  Ayaz Niyazi oglu Mutalibov        (b. 1938)            AKP

    Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
    21 May 1921 -  7 May 1922  Nariman Kerbalay Nadzhaf ogly     (s.a.)               AKP
                                 Narimanov 
     
    7 May 1922 - 14 Mar 1930  Gazanfar Makhmud ogly Musabekov   (s.a.)               AKP
    14 Mar 1930 - 20 Oct 1932  Dadash Khodzha ogly Buniyatzade   (b. 1888 - d. 1938)  AKP
    20 Oct 1932 - 12 Dec 1933  Mir Dzhafar Abbas ogly Bagirov    (s.a.)               AKP
    12 Dec 1933 - 1937         Huseyn Pasha ogly Rakhmanov       (b. 1902 - d. 1938)  AKP
    13 Nov 1937 - 28 Mar 1946  Teymur Imam Kuli ogly Kuliyev     (b. 1888 - d. 1965)  AKP
    Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
    29 Mar 1946 -  6 Apr 1953  Teymur Imam Kuli ogly Kuliyev     (s.a.)               AKP
                                 (1st time)
     
    6 Apr 1953 - 13 Jul 1953  Mir Dzhafar Abbas ogly Bagirov    (s.a.)               AKP
    13 Jul 1953 -  9 Mar 1954  Teymur Imam Kuli ogly Kuliyev     (s.a.)               AKP
                                 (2nd time) 
     
    9 Mar 1954 -  8 Jul 1958  Sadykh Gadzhiyar Ali ogly Ragimov (b. 1914 - d. 1975)  AKP
     8 Jul 1958 - 10 Jul 1959  Veli Yusif ogly Akhundov          (s.a.)               AKP
    10 Jul 1959 - 29 Dec 1961  Mamed Abdul ogly Iskenderov       (s.a.)               AKP
    29 Dec 1961 - 10 Apr 1970  Enver Nazar ogly Alikhanov        (b. 1917 - d. 1992)  AKP
    10 Apr 1970 - 22 Jan 1981  Ali Ismail ogly Ibraimov          (b. 1913 - d. 1990)  AKP
    22 Jan 1981 - 27 Jan 1989  Gasan Neimat ogly Seidov          (b. 1932 - d. 2004)  AKP
    27 Jan 1989 - 26 Jan 1990  Ayaz Niyazi ogly Mutalibov        (s.a.)               AKP
    26 Jan 1990 -  5 Feb 1991 
    Hasan Aziz ogly Hasanov           (b. 1940)            AKP

    Party abbreviation: AKP = Azerbaycan Kommunist Partiyasi (Azerbaijan Communist Party, to 1952 named Azerbaijan Communist [Bolshevik] Party, Marxist-Leninist communist, from 1920 state party, 1920-16 Sep 1991)


    Baku

     3 Apr 1952 - 23 Apr 1953  Baku oblast (within Azerbaijan S.S.R).

    First Secretary of the Baku Regional Committee of the Azerbaijani Communist Party
    Apr 1952 - Apr 1953        Mir Teymur Mir Alekper oglu       (b. 1904 - d. 1970)  AKP
                                 Yakubov

    Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Baku Regional Council
    Apr 1952 - Apr 1953        Hasan Ali oglu Seidov             (b. 1906 - d. 1999)  AKP


    Ganja

     3 Apr 1952 - 23 Apr 1953  Ganja oblast (within Azerbaijan S.S.R).

    First Secretary of the Ganja Regional Committee of the Azerbaijani Communist Party
    Apr 1952 - Apr 1953        Imam Dashdemir oglu Mustafayev    (b. 1910 - d. 1997)  AKP

    Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Ganja Regional Council
    Apr 1952 - Apr 1953        Sadykh Hadzhiyar Ali oglu Rahimov (b. 1914 - d. 1975)  AKP



    Nagorno-Karabakh (Artsakh)
     
    [Armenia]
    1918 - 1920;
    2 Sep 1991 - 2 Jun 1992
    [Flag of USSR
                          1923-1991]
    20 Jan 1989 - 2 Sep 1991
    [Flag of
                          Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) from 1992]
    Adopted 2 Jun 1992
    Map of Nagorno-Karabakh
    --------------------
    Historic Map 1994-2020
    Hear National Anthem
    "Azat u Ankakh Artsakh"
    (Free and Independent
    Artsakh)
    Text of National Anthem
    Adopted 17 Nov 1992
    Constitution
    (10 Mar 2017)
    -------------------------------
    Former Constitution
    (10 Dec 2006-10 Mar 2017)
    Capital: Stepanakert
    (Khankendi 1923-6 Oct 1923;

    Shusha 1751-1822, 1918-1920;
    Bayat 1747-1751)
    Currency: Armenian Dram
    (AMD)(from Nov 1993)
    and (from 2004)
     
    Artsakh Dram (DNKR)
    National Holiday: 2 Sep (1991)
    Arts'akhi Hanrapetut'yan or
    (Artsakh Republic Day)
    Population: 148,900 (2015)
    189,085 (1989)
    125,300 (1926)
    GDP: $716.8 million (2019)
    $59 million (1999)
    Exports: $202,050 (2018)
    Imports: $353,007 (2018)
    Ethnic groups: Armenian 99.7%, Russian 0.1%, Ukrainians, Georgians and others 0.2% (2015)
    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    NKAO: Armenian 76.9%, Azeri 21.5%, Russian 1%, Ukrainian
    0.2%, others 0.3% (1989)
    Total Armed Forces: 18,500-20,000 (2009)
    Russian Peacekeeping Forces: 2,000 (2020)
    Religions: Armenian Apostolic 98.03%, Evangelical 0.37%,  Jehovah's Witnesses 0.23%, Russian Orthodox 0.15%, Muslim
    0.43%, non-religious 0.41%, other/undecided 0.38% (2015)
    International Organizations/Treaties: CDRN (from 2007)

    1501                       Part of Persia.
    1588 - 1606                Part of the Ottoman Empire.
    c.1606                     Five Armenian sub-states (melikdoms) of Mountainos Karabakh
                                 ("Khamsa") established.
    1723 - 1735                Part of the Ottoman Empire (annexed in 1724).
    1747                       Khanate of Qarabagh (Karabakh) founded, the five melikdoms
                                 continued as its sub-states.

    14 May 1805                Annexed to
    Russia by Treaty of Kurekchay.
    Oct 1822                   Khanate, and melikdoms, abolished by Russia.

    1826                       Briefly occupied by Persians, khanate restored.
    Nov 1917                   Under the Transcaucasian Commissariat.
     4 Jun 1918                Treaty of Batum recognizes Karabakh as part
    of Azerbaijan.
    24 Jul 1918                (Armenian) People's Government of Karabakh established (from Sep
                                 1918, renamed Karabakh Armenian National Council), in opposition
                                 to Ottoman-Azerbaijani troops, and declared Mountainous Karabakh
                                 an integral part of Armenia (not accepted by Armenia).

    16 Sep 1918 - Nov 1918     Armenian National Council of Karabakh recognizes 'temporarily' the
                                 government of Azerbaijan under Ottoman pressure.
    25 Sep 191
    8 - Nov 1918     Ottoman Empire occupation (ceased following the Armistice of
                                 Mudros of 30 Oct 1918).

    Nov 1918                   Armenian National Council of Karabakh declared that Mountainous
                                 Karabakh is an integral part of Armenia (not accepted by
                                 Armenia), on 23 Nov 1918 the Azerbaijani troops withdrew.
     
    5 Feb 1919 - 16 Aug 1919  Allied (British) troops garrison Shusha (Shushi).
     7 Jun 1919                Azerbaijani troops re-entered Shusha, but not the Mountainous
                                 Karabakh countryside.
    22 Aug 1919 - 22 Apr 1920  Mountainous Karabakh (Armenian populated uezds of Shushi, Jevanshir
                                 and Jebrail) agrees to consider itself to be "provisionally"
                                 within the
    borders of Republic of Azerbaijan with autonomy.
    23 Nov 1919                Treaty of Tiflis failed to establish boundary between Armenia and
                                 Azerbaijan, but sanctioned effective status quo control.
    22 Apr 1920               
    Mountainous Karabakh declared itself being incorporated into
                                 Armenia as its integral part. 

    12 May 1920                Soviet Russian troops reached Shusha (Shushi)(on 22 May 1920 the
                                 Karabakh Armenians recognized Soviet Azerbaijani rule).
    10 Aug 1920                Armenia and Soviet Russia agreement under which Soviet Russian
                                 troops
    to remain in Karabakh.
     2 Dec 1920                Azerbaijan S.S.R. recognizes Nagorno-Karabakh as part of Armenian
                                 S.S.R.
    (not effected).
     5 Jul 1921                Boundary between Azerbaijan S.S.R. and Armenian S.S.R. established,
                                 Mountainous (Nagorno-) Karabakh recognized as part of Azerbaijan
                                 with the provision of establishment of autonomy.

     7 Jul 1923                Autonomous Oblast of Nagorno Karabakh (Nagorno-Karabakhskaya
                                 Avtonomnaya Oblast'
    )(within Azerbaijan S.S.R.)
     5 Dec 1936                Renamed Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (Nagorno-Karabakhskaya
                                 Avtonomnaya Oblast'
    ).
    20 Feb 1988                Soviet of People's Deputies of Nagorno-Karabakh approves a
                                 resolution requesting the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union,
                                 Armenian S.S.R. and Azerbaijan S.S.R. to consider the transfer of
                                 N
    agorno-Karabakh under the jurisdiction of Armenian S.S.R.
                                 (rejected by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of
    Azerbaijan
                                
    S.S.R. 13 Jun 1988, rejected by the Supreme Soviet of
    Azerbaijan
                                 
    S.S.R. 17 Jun 1988, accepted by the Supreme Soviet of Armenian
                                 S.S.R.
    15 Jun 1988)
    .
    12 Jul 1988                Soviet of People's Deputies of Nagorno-Karabakh approves secession
                                 from Azerbaijan S.S.R.

    18 Jul 1988                Request of the Supreme Soviet of Armenian S.S.R. of 15 Jun 1988 on
                                 the transfer of
    Nagorno-Karabakh under jurisdiction of Armenian
                                 S.S.R.
    is rejected by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the
                                 Soviet Union.
    20 Jan 1989 - 28 Nov 1989  Special direct administration for Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous
                                 Oblast established by the Soviet Union.

    28 Nov 1989                Special direct administration abolished (effectively Jan 1990).
     1 Dec 1989                Unification of Armenian S.S.R. and Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous
                                 Oblast is proclaimed by a joint session of the Supreme Soviet
                                 of Armenian S.S.R. and the National Council of Nagorno-Karabakh
    .
                                 (not recognized by Azerbaijan S.S.R. or Soviet Union).
    15 Jan 1990                State of emergency is declared in Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous
                                 Oblast by the Soviet Union.

     
    2 Sep 1991                Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh (Lernayin Gharabaghi Hanrapetut'yun),
                                 a joint session of the Council (Soviet) of People's Deputies of
                                 the Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast and Shahumian Rayon
                                 Council (Soviet) declared the establishment of the Republic of
                                 Nagorno-Karabakh within the borders of the former Nagorno-
                                 Karabakh Autonomous Oblast and the Shahumian Rayon), as part of
                                 the Soviet Union.

    26 Nov 1991                Azerbaijan abolishes the Nagorno-Karabakh A.O and it is divided
                                 into five raions.
    Stepanakert is renamed Khankendi, Martakert
                                 as Agdara, and Martuni as Khojavend (not effected
    ).
    10 Dec 1991                Referendum votes for Nagorno-Karabakh independence by 99.98%
     6 Jan 1992                Independence declared (not internationally recognized).
    10 Apr 1992                Azerbaijan occupies Şıxarx (Maragha), and Aşaghı Aghcakend
                                 (Shahumyan) on 13 Jun 1992.
    19 May 1992 -  1 Dec 2020  Occupation by Nagorno-Karabakh of adjacent Azeri cities of Laın
                                 (Berdzor) 18 May 1992 - 1 Dec 2020; Khojavend (Martuni) 2 Oct
                                 1992 - 15 Nov 2020;
    Kalbajar (Karvachar) 2 Apr 1993 - 25 Nov
                                 2020; Aghdam (Akna) 23 Jul 1993 - 20 Nov 2020; Fzuli (Varanda)
                                 23 Aug 1993 - 19 Oct 2020;
    Jabrayil (Jrakan) 26 Aug 1993 - 9 Oct
                                 2020; Qubadlı (Kashunik) 31 Aug 1993 - 25 Oct 2020; Horadiz 24
                                 Oct 1993
    - 5 Jan 1994; Zangilan (Kovsakan) 29 Oct 1993 - 22 Oct
                                 2020
    ;
    Suqovuşan (Madaghis) 10 Apr 1994 - 3 Oct 2020; and Talış
                                 (Talish) 11 Apr 1994 - 3 Oct 2020.

    12 May 1994 - 27 Sep 2020  Cease-fire by Armenia, Azerbaijan and Nagorno-Karabakh (with
                                 frequent scattered interruptions).

    10 Dec 2006                Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh (Republic of Artsakh)    
                                 (Lernayin Gharabaghi Hanrapetut'yun [Artsakhi Hanrapetut'yun]).
    10 Mar 2017                Renamed Republic of Artsakh (Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh
    )
                                 (Artsakhi Hanrapetut'yun [Lernayin Gharabaghi Hanrapetut'yun]).
     3 Oct 2020                A
    zerbaijan occupies Talış and Suqovuşan on 3 Oct 2020, Hadrut
                                 9 Oct 2020,
    Şuşa (Shushi) 7 Nov 2020, and Khojavend (Martuni) on
                                
    15 Nov 2020.
    10 Nov 2020                By joint Armenia, Azerbaijan and Russia ceasefire agreement:
                                 Armenian forces (of Nagorno-Karabakh) to withdraw from Kalbajar
                                 region by 15 Nov 2020 (delayed to 25 Nov 2020), and from Lachin
                                 region by 1 Dec 2020, and from the Agdam region 20 Nov 2020. At
                                 Lachin a corridor (5 km wide) will be maintained to ensure the
                                 connection of Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia, and transportation
                                 links between the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic and Azerbaijan
                                 will be guaranteed. Russia will deploy regional peacekeeping
                                 forces for five years.

    Executive Secretaries of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast Committee
    of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Azerbaijan

    Jul 1923 - Dec 1923        Sero Barkhudarovich Manutsyan     (d. af.1932)
    17 Dec 1923 - Apr 1924     Akop Minayevich Kamari            (b. 1885 - d. 1930)
                                
    (Bedzhanyan)
    Apr 1924 - Aug 1924        Nikolay Abasovich Sarkisov

    Oct 1924 - 1925            Gayk Khachaturovich Silanyan      (b. 1898 - d. 1937)
    1925 - Aug 1929            Artavazd Aleksandrovich Saakyants (b. 1895 - d. 1939)
    Aug 1929 - May 1930        Ashot Abramovich Karamyan         (b. 1898 - d. 1938)

    May 1930 - Aug 1931        Khoren Varunts
    Sep 1931 - c.1932          Karo (Karapet) Shamirovich        (b. 1899 - d. 1938)
                                 Grigoryan
    First Secretaries of the Nagorno-Karabakh
    Autonomous Oblast Committee of the Communist
    Party (Bolsheviks) of Azerbaijan (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Azerbaijan)
    c.1932 - Aug 1933          Karo (Karapet) Shamirovich        (s.a.)
                                 Grigoryan
    Aug 1933 - Mar 1934        Bagrat SSarkisovich Batikyan      (b. 1899 - d. 1944)
    Apr 1934 - Sep 1937        Pyotr AAlbertovich Pogosov        (b. 1901 - d. 1938)
    Sep 1937 - Aug 1940        Mikhail Sergeyevich Manukyants    (b. 1909 - d. 1968)

                                 (1st time)
    1940 - Jan 1942            Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Avanesov   (b. 1901 - d. 1942)

    Jan 1942 - 13 Mar 1942     Stepan Aleksandrovich Zamarayev   (b. 1904 - d. 1960)
                                 (acting)
    13 Mar 1942 - 1946
             Yegishe Petrosovich Grigoryan     (b. 1902 - d. 19..)
                                 (1st time)
    1946 - 1948                Mikhail Sergeyevich Manukyants    (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    1948 - Jan 1949            Tigran Grigoryevich Grigoryan    
    (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
    Jan 1949 - 1952            Sedrak Karapetovich Abramov       (b. 1900 - d. 19..)
    1952 - Dec 1958            Yegishe Petrosovich Grigoryan     (s.a.)

                                 (2nd time)
    Dec 1958 - Oct 1962        Nikolay Samsonovich Shakhnazarov  (b. 1908 - d. 19..)
    Oct 1962 - Jun 1973        Gurgen Allakhverdovich Melkumyan  (b. 1915 - d. af.1985)
    Jun 1973 - 24 Feb 1988     Boris Sarkisovich Kevorkov        (b. 1932 - d. 1998)
    24 Feb 1988 - 20 Jan 1989  Genrikh Andreyevich Pogosyan      (b. 1931 - d. 2000)
    20 Jan 1989 - 27 Aug 1990  Vagan Askerovich Gabrielyan       (b. 1936)


    Khans
    of Qarabagh
    1747 - 1763                Panah `Ali Khan                   (b. 1693 - d. 1763)
    1759 - 1763                Mehr `Ali Beg -Regent             (b. 1735 - d. 1785)
    1763 - 14 Jun 1806         Ibrahim Khalil Khan               (b. 1732 - d. 1806)
                                 (also in Ganja)
    13 Sep 1806 - Oct 1822     Mahdi Quli Khan (1st time)        (b. 1763 - d. 1845)
    1826                       Mahdi Quli Khan (2nd time)        (s.a.)
    Commissioner of the People's Government of Karabakh (from Sep 1918,
    Chief minister of the Karabakh Armenian National Council)

    22 Jul 1918 - 20 Feb 1919  Yeghishe Ishkhanyan               (b. 1886 - d. 1975)  HHD
                                 (Ottoman prisoner 1-31 Oct 1918)
    Heads of the British Mission, Shushi

    (commanders of 84th Punjabi Regiment, Indian Army)
     
    5 Feb 1919 - Jun 1919     Godfrey Noel Grey Monck-Mason     (b. 1882 - d. 1956)  Mil
    Jun 1919 - 16 Aug 1919     Reginald Tyrer (acting)                                Mil
    Azerbaijan Governor-general of the Uyezds of Zangezur and Karabakh (Shushi,
    Jevanshir, and Jebrail
    )
    15 Jan 1919 - 16 May 1920  Khosrov Bey Sultanov              (b. 1879 - d. 1947)  TPM
                                
    (arrived to Shusha on 10 Feb 1919)
    Commissioner (sometimes titled Chairman) of the Karabakh Armenian National Council
    Feb 1919 - Apr? 1920       Aslan Melik-Shakhnazaryan                              Non-party?
                                 (
    at Shushakend Jun 1919 - Aug 1919)
    President of the Karabakh Armenian Provisional Authority (at Taghavard)
    25 Apr 1920 - 22 May 1920  Arsen Mikaelyan (Ter-Ogannesyan)? (d. af.1923)         Mil/HHD
    Chairman of the Karabakh Armenian Revolutionary Committee
    (at Taghavard)
    22 May 1920 - Jul 1920     Sarkis (Sako) Ambartsumyan        (b. 1870 - d. 1944)  AKP

    Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee
    of Nagorno Karabakh
    24 Jul 1923 -  6 Nov 1923  Armenak Mkrtychevich Karakozov    (b. 1890 - d. 1937)  AKP
    Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
     
    6 Nov 1923 - 1928         Armenak Mkrtychevich Karakozov    (s.a.)               AKP
    Chairmen of the Executive Committee
    1928 - Dec 1929            Armenak Mkrtychevich Karakozov    (s.a.)               AKP
    1930 - 1931                Islam Abdulla ogly Gadzhiyev      (b. 1889 - d. 1938)  AKP
    bf.1935 - Sep 1937         Suren Mirzoyevich Badamyan        (b. 1895 - d.af.1975)AKP
    1937 - 1939                Gayk Avetisovich Karkaryan        (b. 1904 - d. 1988)
      AKP
    Dec 1940 - Oct 1944        Grigoriy Sergeyevich Petrosyan                         AKP
    1944 - 1945                Musheg Avakovich Grigoryan        (b. 1907 - d. 1969)  AKP
    1945 - 1953                Yegishe Semyonovich Akopov        (b. 1902 - d. 19..)  AKP
    May 1953 - Mar 1954        Pasha Astsaturovich Arushanov     (b. 1916 - d. 2004)  AKP
    Mar 1954 - Mar 1963        Ruben Tevosovich Shakhramanyan    (b. 1914 - d. 19..)  AKP      
    Mar 1963 - Feb 1974        Musheg Grigoryevich Ogandzhanyan  (b. 1924 - d. 2017)  AKP
    Feb 1974 - Aug 1988        Armais Amirovich Aslanov          (b. 1923 - d. 1992)  AKP
    Aug 1988 - Jul 1991        Semyon Amayakovich Babayan        (b. 1932)            AKP
                                 (authority suspended from Jan 1989)
    Jul 1991 -  2 Sep 1991     Leonard Georgiyevich Petrosyan    (b. 1953 - d. 1999)  AKP
                                 (acting) (authority suspended)
    Chairman of the Special Administration Committee of
    Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast
    (appointed by the Soviet Union)
    20 Jan 1989 - 10 Jan 1990  Arkadiy Ivanovich Vol'skiy        (b. 1932 - d. 200
    6KPSS
    Chairmen of the Organizational Committee on Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast

    (appointed by Azerbaijan S.S.R. under the authority given by the Soviet Union)

    27 Jan 1990
    - Aug 1991     Viktor Petrovich Polyanichko      (b. 1937 - d. 1993)  AKP
                                
    (appointed 6 Dec 1989)
    Aug 1991 - 20 Nov 1991     Zul'fi Salekh ogly Gadzhiyev      (b. 1935 - d. 1991)  AKP
                                 (= Zlf
    Saleh oğlu Hacıyev)
    Chairman of the Presidium of the National Council of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast

    (representative body of Armenians during suspension of the Soviet of People's Deputies;
    dissolved by order of the Commandant of the Emergency Region on 18 Jan 1990)
    16 Aug 1989 - 18 Jan 1990  Vachagan Santurovich Grigoryan    (b. 1935 - d. 1991)
                                
    (in opposition)         
    Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Council of People's Deputies
     
    2 Sep 1991 -  6 Jan 1992  Leonard Georgi Petrosyan          (s.a.)               Non-party
                                
    (= Leonard Georgiyevich Petrosyan)
    Chairmen of the Supreme Council
     7 Jan 1992 - 14 Apr 1992  Artur Aslani Mkrtchyan            (b. 1959 - d. 1992)
      Non-party
    14 Apr 1992 - 14 Jun 1993  Georgi Mikayeli Petrosyan         (b. 1953)            Non-party
                                 (acting)
    14 Jun 1993 - 23 Dec 1994  Karen Zarmayri Baburyan           (b. 1954 - d. 2011)  Non-party
                                 (acting)
    Presidents
    23 Dec 1994 - 20 Mar 1997  Robert Sedraki Kocharyan          (b. 1954)            Non-party
    20 Mar 1997 -  8 Sep 1997  Leonard Georgi Petrosyan (acting) (s.a.)               Non-party
     8 Sep 1997 -  7 Sep 2007  Arkadiy Arshaviri Ghukasyan       (b. 1957)            Non-party
     
    7 Sep 2007 - 21 May 2020  Bako Sahaki Sahakyan              (b. 1960)            Non-party
    21 May 2020 -              Arayik
    Vladimiri Arutyunyan       (b. 1973)            AHK

    Prime Minister
     8 Jan 1992 - 14 Aug 1992  Oleg Yesayu Yesayan               (b. 1946)            Non-party
    Chairman of the State Committee of Defense
    15 Aug 1992 - 23 Dec 1994  Robert S
    edraki Kocharyan          (s.a.)               Non-party
    Prime Ministers
    27 Dec 1994 - 15 Jun 1998  Leonard G
    eorgi Petrosyan          (s.a.)               Non-party
    15 Jun 1998 - 30 Jun 1999  Zhirayr Tevani Poghosyan          (b. 1942)            Non-party
    30 Jun 1999 - 14 Sep 2007  Anushavan Sureni Danielyan        (b. 1956)            Non-party
    14 Sep 2007 - 25 Sep 2017  Arayik Vladimiri Harutyunyan      (s.a.)               AHK 
    Ministers of State
    25 Sep 2017 - 
    6 Jun 2018  Arayik Vladimiri Harutyunyan      (s.a.)               AHK
     6 Jun 2018 -              Grigori
    Igori Martirosyan         (b. 1978)            Non-party


    Commandants of the Emergency Region

    (subordinated to the
    government of the Soviet Union)
    28 Nov 1989 - Jan 1990     Vladislav Nikolayevich Safonov                         Mil
                                 (1st time)
    15 Jan 1990 - 23? Jan 1990 Yuriy Anatolyevich Kosolapov      (b. 1938 - d. 2019)  Mil

    23? Jan 1990 - Nov 1990    Vladislav Nikolayevich Safonov                         Mil
                                 (2nd time)
    1990 - Jul 1990            Genrikh Aleksandrovich Malyshkin                       Mil
                                 (acting for absent Safonov)
    Aug 1990 - 1990            Vyacheslav Viktorovich            (b. 1946)            Mil
                                 Ovchinnikov
                                 (acting for absent Safonov)
    Nov 1990 - Feb/Apr 1991    Vladimir Anatolyevich Shevelev                         Mil
    Feb/Apr 1991 - af.Aug 1991 Valentin M. Zhukov                                     Mil
    1991 - 20 Nov 1991         Nikolay Vladimirovich Zhinkin     (b. 1946 - d. 1991)  Mil

    Party abbreviations: AHK = Azat Hayrenik Kusaktsutyun (Free Motherland Party, Artsakh nationalist, center-right, est.29 Jan 2005); HHD = Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutyun (Armenian Revolutionary Federation, "Dashnak", democratic socialist, Armenian nationalist, anti-communist, 1920-90 and 1994-98 banned, 1890-1920, re-est.1991); HHK = Hayastani Hanrapetakan Kusaktsutyun (Republican Party of Armenia, center-right, nationalist, refounded 1998, est.1990); Mil = Military;
    - Former parties: AKP = Azerbaycan Kommunist Partiyasi (Azerbaijan Communist Party, Marxist-Leninist communist, from 1920 state party, 1918-16 Sep 1991); KPSS = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza (Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Marxist-Leninist communist, USSR state party to 13 Mar 1990, former All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks], 13 Oct 1952 - 29 Aug 1991); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks]); TPM = Turk Adam-i Markaziyyat-Musavat Firqasi (Turkic Party of Federalists - Equality Party, liberal, pan-Turkist, nationalist, 1917-1923)



    Nakhichevan (Naxıvan)
     
    [Khanate of
                          Nakhchivan (Nakhchevān) flag c.1827
                          (Azerbaijan)]
    Nakhchivan Khanate Flag c.1827
    [Flag of
                          Azerbaijan 1918-1920]
    25 Jul 1919- 28 Jul 1920
    [Nakhichevan
                          Flag of 1920-1921 (Azerbaijan)]
    28 Jul 1920 - 1921
    [Flag of
                          Nakhichevan ASSR 1921-1925 (Azerbaidzhan
                          SSR)]
    1921 - 14 Mar 1925
    [Flag of
                          Nakhichevan ASSR 1925-1926 (Azerbaidzhan
                          SSR)]
    14 Mar 1925 - 18 Apr 1926
    [Flag of
                          Azerbaidzhan SSR 1927-1931 (Nakhichevan no
                          individual flag 1926-1937)(USSR)]
    26 Mar 1927 - 14 Feb 1931
    [Flag of
                          Azerbaidzhan SSR 1931-1937 (Nakhichevan no
                          individual flag 1926-1937)(USSR)]
    14 Feb 1931 - 14 Mar 1937
    [Flag of
                          Nakhichevan ASSR 1937-1938 (Azerbaidzhan
                          SSR)]
    18 Sep 1937 - 25 Aug 1938
    [Flag of
                          Nakhichevan ASSR 1938-1940 (Azerbaidzhan
                          SSR)]
    25 Aug 1938 - 1 Jan 1940
    [Flag of
                          Nakhichevan ASSR 1940-1945 (Azerbaidzhan
                          SSR)]
    1 Jan 1940 - 1945
    [Flag of
                          Nakhichevan ASSR 1945-1953 (Azerbaidzhan
                          SSR)]
    1945 - 22 Aug 1953
    [Flag of
                          Azerbaidzhan SSR 1953-1956 (Azerbaidzhan
                          SSR)]
    22 Aug 1953 - 17 Jul 1956
    [Nakhichevan
                          ASSR flag of 1956-1978 (Azerbaidzhan SSR)]
    17 Jul 1956 - Apr 1978
    [Nakhichevan
                          ASSR flag of 1978-1990 (Azerbaidzhan SSR)]
    Apr 1978 - 17 Nov 1990
    [Nakhichevan adopted the 1918 Azerbaijan flag
                      in 1990 (Nakhichevan does not have a flag)]
    17 Nov 1990 - 5 Feb 1991
    [Nakhichevan officially use the Azerbaijan
                      flag (Nakhichevan does not have a flag)]
    Adopted 5 Feb 1991
    (confirmed 12 Nov 1995)
     


    Map of Nakhichevan Capital: Nakhichevan
    (Naxıvan)
    Local Anthem
    "Azərbaycan Marşı"
    (March of Azerbaijan)

    Constitution
    (29 Dec 1998)
    (18 Apr 1926, 18 Sep 1937,
    Apr 1978) 
    GDP: $2.9 billion (2013)
    Ethnic groups: Azerbaijani 99.1%, others 0.9% (2010)
    Religious groups: mostly
    Shi'a Muslim
    Population: 452,831 (2018)

    1501                       Part of Persia
    1588 - 1604                Part of the Ottoman Empire.
    1604                       Part of Persia.
    1635 - 1636                Ottoman occupation.
    1722 - 1736                Ottoman occupation (annexed in 1724).
    1747                       Khanate of Nakhchivan (Nakhchevān).

    1808                       Briefly occupied by Russians.
    26 Jun 1827                Surrendered to Russia.
    22 Feb 1828                Annexed to
    Russia by the Treaty of Turkmenchay.
    Apr 1828                   Khanate abolished by Russia.
    1828 - 10 Apr 1840         Part of Armenian oblast (see Armenia).
    10 Apr 1840 -  9 Jun 1849  Part of Georgia-Imeretia (from 14 Dec 1846, Tiflis) governorate
                                 (see under Georgia).   
     9 Jun 1849 - May 1918     Part of Yerevan governorate (see under Armenia).
     4 Jun 1918                Recognized as part of the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Batum,
                                 but remained under local Azerbaijani control.
    20 Jun 1918 - 20 Jul 1918  Irregular Armenian Special Striking Division under Andranik Ozanyan
                                 occupies Nakhichevan, who declares his command under the Russian
                                 S.F.S.R.
    20 Jul 1918                Ottoman Empire occupation and (from 15 Aug 1918) annexation (ceased
                                 following the Armistice of Mudros of 30 Oct 1918, the Ottoman
                                 troops left 4 Dec 1918).

     
    1 Nov 1918 - 25 Jan 1919  Nakhichevan District Government proclaimed by Azeris in
                                 Nakhichevan
    .
    18 Nov 1918 - Jan 1919     Aras Turkish Government (later sometimes referred to as 'Republic
                                 of Aras' [Araz]) proclaimed by Turkish and Azeris in areas
                                 along Araks river between Nakhichevan and Kars regions (in Dec
                                 1918 those areas are lost to Armenia).
    25 Jan 1919                Nakhichevan and Aras governments merged into Nakhichevan Turkish
                                 Government.
    26 Jan 1919 -  6 Jun 1919  Allied (British) occupation of Nakhichevan
    .
    28 Feb 1919                Nakhichevan Turkish Government dissolved, the Nakhichevan region
                                 declared a part of Azerbaijan (largely not effected until Aug
                                 1919), with the Muslim National Council of Nakhichevan acting as
                                 local authority.
    20 May 1919 - 25 Jul 1919  Occupied by Armenia (transfer of the Nakhichevan region to Armenia
                                 decided by the Allies on 16 May 1919), the Armenian troops left
                                 the region by 10 Aug 1919.
    23 Nov 1919                Treaty of Tiflis failed to establish a boundary between Armenia and
                                 Azerbaijan, but sanctioned the effective status quo control.
    Jun 1920                   Occupied by Turkey.
    20 Jul 1920                Muslim National Council of Nakhichevan (acting independently of
                                 Azerbaijan S.S.R. and with sanction of Turkey) recognized
                                 Nakhichevan as an integral part of the Republic of Armenia,
                                 provided it enjoys full autonomy (not effected).
    28 Jul 1920                Nakhichevan occupied by Soviet Russian forces (Turkish troops
                                 remained there). The Socialist Soviet Republic of Nakhichevan
                                 proclaimed, declared itself a part of the Azerbaijan S.S.R.

     
    2 Dec 1920                Azerbaijan S.S.R. recognizes Nakhichevan as part of Armenian S.S.R.
                                 (not effected).
    16 Mar 1921                Nakhichevan to remain "autonomous" under Azerbaijani "protection"
                                 by the Soviet-Turkish Treaty of Moscow (confirmed on 13 Oct 1921
                                 by the Treaty of Kars), the Turkish troops left Nakhichevan.
     5 Jul 1921                Boundary between Azerbaijan S.S.R. and Armenian S.S.R. established,
                                 Nakhchevan recognized as part of Azerbaijan.
    27 Feb 1923                Nakhichevan Autonomous Kray (Nakhichevanskiy Avtonomnyy Kray),
    part
                                 of Azerbaijan S.S.R. (confirmed on 19 Jun 1923).

     9 Feb 1924                Nakhichevan Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic (
    Naxıvan Muxtar
                                 Sosialist Sovet Respublikası
    /Nakhichevanskaya Avtonomnaya
                                 Sotsialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika
    ), within
    Azerbaijan
                                 S.S.R.

     
    5 Dec 1936                Renamed Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
                                
    (Naxıvan Muxtar Sovet Sosialist Respublikası/Nakhichevanskaya
                                
    Avtonomnaya Sovetskaya
    Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika).
    18 Jan 1990                Armenia occupies the Kerki/Karki exclave of the Nakhichevan.
    20 Jan 1990                Independence
    declared from Soviet Union, but not Azerbaijan
                                 (not effected).
    17 Nov 1990                Nakhchivan
    Autonomous Republic (Naxıvan Muxtar Respublikası),
                                 within Azerbaijan (confirmed by Azerbaijan 12 Nov 1995 in its
                                 constitution).

    Executive Secretaries of the Nakhichevan Regional Committee
    of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of A
    zerbaijan
    Apr 1921 - 1921            Bagatur Kasum ogly Velibekov     (b. 1894 - d. 1940)
                                 (1st time)
    c.1923                     Shamil Makhmudbekov              (b. 1898 - d. 1936)
    c.1924                     Yusif Pasha ogly Tairov          (b. 1893 - d. 1938)
    1925 - 192.                Alesker Abbas ogly Shakhbazov    (b. 1898 - d. 1973)

    192. - 1929                Ibragim Tagi ogly Tagiyev        (b. 1894 - d. 1937)
    1929 - 193.                Aga Verdi Gadzhi Yarali ogly     (b. 1895 - d. 1937)
                                 Ragimov

    First Secretaries of the Nakhichevan Regional Committee of the Communist
    Party (Bolsheviks) of Azerbaijan (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Azerbaijan)

    1931 - 1933                Bagatur Kasum ogly Velibekov
        (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    Feb 1933 - May 1934        Ali Kara Yakhya ogly Mamedov     (b. 1902 - d. 1937)
    Jun 1934 - Dec 1936        Mekhti Adi Gyozal ogly Mekhtiyev (b. 1895 - d. 1937)
    Dec 1936 - Oct 1937        Gasan Ali Pasha ogly Rakhmanov   (b. 1900 - d. 1938)
    Oct 1937 - Dec 1937        Sultan Teymur ogly Sultanov      (b. 1905 - d. 1938)
    Dec 1937 - Oct 1940        Kyazim Geydar ogly Ismailov
         (b. 1905 - d. 1981)
    Oct 1940 - Jan 1948        Guseyn Gumbat ogly Nadzhafov     (b. 1907 - d. 1967)
    Jan 1948 - May 1951        Yusif Niftali ogly Yusifov       (b. 1906 - d. 1995)
    1951 - 1952                Allakhverdi Mukhtar ogly Isayev  (b. 1908 - d. 1988)
    1952 - Dec 1955            Ismail Nasrulla ogly Askerov     (b. 1914 - d. 2014)

    Dec 1955 -  3 Oct 1961     Khurshud Bayram Kulu ogly        (b. 1906 - d. 19..)
                                 Mamedov                
     
    3 Oct 1961 - Mar 1970     Gadzhi Aga Khalil ogly           (b. 1923 - d. 1992)
                                 Ibragimov
    Mar 1970 - 28 Dec 1975     Aslan Aga Huseyn ogly Huseynov   (b. 1916 - d. 1991)

    28 Dec 1975 -  6 Dec 1983  Kamran Nabi ogly Rahimov         (b. 1928 - d. 2007)
     
    6 Dec 1983 - Nov 1988     Nuraddin Elyaz ogly Mustafayev   (b. 1942)
    Nov 1988 - Jan 1990        Geydar Isa ogly Isayev           (b. 1936 - d. 1999)
    Jan 1990 - 1990            Afetdin Dzhalil ogly Dzhalilov   (b. 1946 - d. 1994)
    First Secretaries of the Nakhichevan Republican Committee of the
    Communist Party of Azerbaijan
    1990 - Apr 1991            Afetdin Dzhalil ogly Dzhalilov   (s.a.)

    Apr 1991 - 14 Sep 1991     Akper Fattakh ogly Aliyev        (b. 1950)

    Khans of Nakhchivan (Nakhchevān)
    1747 - 1764                Haydar Quli Khan                 (d. 1764)
    1764 - 1765                Haji Khan
    1765 - 1770                Rahim Khan
    1770 - 1773                `Ali Quli Khan
    1773 - 1781                Veli Quli Khan                   (d. 1781)
    1781 - 1783                Abbas Quli Khan (1st time)       (d. 1812)
    1783 - 1785                Ja`far Quli Khan
    1785 - 1787                Shukur `Ali Khan                 (d. 1787)
    1787 - 1796                Kalb `Ali Khan (1st time)        (d. 1820)
    1797 - 1801                Abbas Quli Khan (2nd time)
    1801 - 1804                Kalb `Ali Khan (2nd  time)       (s.a.)
    1804                       Abbas Quli Khan (3rd time)
    1804 - 1807                Kalb `Ali Khan (3rd time)        (s.a.)
    1807 - 1808                Abbas Quli Khan (4th time)       (s.a.)
    1808                       Kalb `Ali Khan (4th time)        (s.a.)
    1808 - 1809                Karim Khan (1st time)            (d. af.1834)
    1809 - 1810                Kalb `Ali Khan (5th time)        (s.a.)
    1810 - 1812                Abbas Quli Khan (5th time)       (s.a.)
    1812 - 1813                Kalb `Ali Khan (6th time)        (s.a.)
    1813 - 1816
                    Karim Khan (2nd time)            (s.a.)
    1816 - 1820                Kalb `Ali Khan (7th time)        (s.a.)
    1820                       Nezereli `Ali Khan
    1820 - 1827                Karim Khan (3rd time)            (s.a.)
    1827 - Apr 1828            Ehsan Khan                       (b. 1789 - d. 1846)
    Commander of the Armenian Special Striking Division
    20 Jun 1918 - 20 Jul 1918  Andranik Ozanyan                 (b. 1865 - d. 1927)  Mil/HHD
    Chairman of the Nakhijevan Armenian National Council
    c.Jul 1918                 K. Aghayan
    Heads of the Nakhichevan District Government
     1 Nov 1918 - Dec 1918     Mirza Nasrulla Bey Amirov
    Dec 1918 - 25 Jan 1919     Haji Mekhti Bahirov
    Dictator of the Aras Turkish Government
    (at Ghamarlu [modern Artashat, in modern
    Armenia], in Dec 1918 at Igdir [in modern Turkey], in Jan 1919 at Nakhichevan)
    18 Nov 1918 - Jan 1919     Amir Bey Zamanbeyzade
    Head of the Nakhichevan Turkish Government
    25 Jan 1919 - 28 Feb 1919 
    Jafargulu Khan Nakhchivanski     (b. 1859 - d. 1929)  Non-party
                                (Cafar Qulu Xan Naxıvanski)  

                                (= Jafar-Quli Khan of Nakhichevan)
    Allied (British) Military Governors of Nakhichevan
    26 Jan 1919 -  2 Apr 1919  Francis Eugene Laughton          (b. 1887 - d. 1955)  Mil
     3 Apr 1919 -  1 Jun 1919  John Chalmers Simpson            (b. 1876 - d. 1957)  Mil
    British Military Representative, Nakhichevan

    15 May 1919 -  6 Jun 1919  F.L. Schwind                                          Mil
    Azerbaijani Governors-general of South-West Azerbaijan
    (largely nominal and not present)
    28 Feb 1919 - 16 Mar 1919  Bahram Khan Nakhichevanskiy      (b. 1872 - d. 1946)  Mil
    16 Mar 1919 - Aug 1919     Aliyar Bey Hashimbeyov           (b. 1856 - d. 1920)  Mil
    Armenian Governor of Nakhichevan District
    14 May 1919 -  5 Aug 1919  Gevorg Petros Varshamyan                              HHD
                                 (
    left Nakhichevan on 25 Jul 1919)
    Chairman of the Muslim National Council of Nakhichevan
    c.Aug 1919                 Heydar Gulu Bey Muradasilov
    Azerbaijani Governor-general of South-West Azerbaijan
    Aug 1919 - Mar 1920        Abdul Samed Bey Jamillinskiy     (b. 1892 - d. 1937)  Non-party
    Turkish commander
    (of the Nakhichevan Detachment)
    Jun 1920 - Mar 1921        Veysel Bey                       (b. 189. - d.af.1948 Mil
                                 (from Jul 1920, at Shahtaxti)
    Chairman of the Muslim National Council of Nakhichevan
    c.Jul 1920                 Haji Mekhti Bahirov ?
    Chairmen of the Nakhichevan Revolutionary Committee

    28 Jul 1920 - 1920         Mustafa (Mirzali Bek) Baktashev                       AKP
    1920 - Feb 1921            Garaf Askerov                    (d. 1921)            AKP
    1920 - 25 Jan 1922         Beybut Aga Shakhtakhtinskiy      (b. 1881 - d. 1924)
      AKP
    Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee (Feb 1923-Jan 1924 Executive Committee)
    Jan 1922 - 1923            Bagatur Kasum ogly Velibekov     (s.a.)               AKP
                                 (1st time)
    bf.1927 - af.1928          Baba Babayev                                          AKP
    1930 - 1931                Bagatur Kasum ogly Velibekov     (s.a.)               AKP
                                
    (2nd time)
    1931 - 1933                ....
    1933 - 1934                Khalil Agamir ogly Agamirov      (b. 1897 - d. 1940)  AKP
    1934 - 1936                Aga Verdi Gadzhi Yarali ogly
        (s.a.)               AKP
                                 Ragimov
    1936 - 1937                .... (acting)
    1937                       Saftar Mamed ogly Dzhafarov      (b. 1900 - d. 1961) 
    AKP
    1937 - 24 Jul 1938         Mamedali Ali ogly Ragimov                             AKP
    Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

    Jul 1938 - af.1940         Mamedali Ali ogly Ragimov
                                 AKP
    Oct 1943 - Apr 1952        Dzhabrail Ibragim ogly Mamedov   (b. 1910 - d. 1976)  AKP
    Apr 1952 - 1963            Guseyn Kurban ogly Mamedov       (b. 1900 - d. 1970)  AKP
    1963 - Apr 1990            Sakina Abbas kyzy Aliyeva (f)    (b. 1925 - d. 2010)  AKP
    Apr 1990 - 17 Nov 1990     Afetdin Dzhalil ogly Dzhalilov   (s.a.)               AKP
    Chairmen of the Supreme Council (Ali Majlis)
    17 Nov 1990 - Apr 1991     Afetdin Dzhalil oglu Dzhalilov   (s.a.)               AKP
    Apr 1991 - Sep 1991        Akper Fattakh oglu Aliyev        (b. 1950)            AKP
     
    5 Sep 1991 - 23 Jun 1993  Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev        (b. 1923 - d. 2003) 
    1992:YAP
     3 Jul 1993 -  4 Apr 1994  Vasif Yusuf oglu Talybov         (b. 1960)            YAP
                                 (1st time) (acting)
     4 Apr 1994 - 16 Dec 1995  Namiq Hasanov                    (b. 1944 - d. 2020)  YAP
    16 Dec 1995 -              Vasif Yusuf oglu Talybov         (s.a.)               YAP
                                 (2nd time) 


    Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

    Apr 1921 - 1922            Abbas Kadymov                                         AKP
    Jan 1922 -  3 May 1922     Beybut Aga Shakhtakhtinskiy      (s.a.)               AKP
    1922 - 27 Feb 1923         Teymur Makhmud ogly Aliyev       (b. 1896 - d. 1938)  AKP
                                 (1st time)
    Feb 1923 - Jan 1924        Council abolished
    18 Jan 1924 - 1925         Akper Akhundov                   (b. 1900 - d. 1938)  AKP
    1925 - 1927                Gamid Gasan ogly Sultanov
            (b. 1889 - d. 1937)  AKP
    1927 - af.1928             Guseyn Musayev                   (d. 1938)            AKP
    1929 - 1930                Teymur Makhmud ogly Aliyev       (s.a.)              
    AKP
                                 (2nd time)
    1930 - 1938                authority of the Council transferred to
                               Presidium
    of the Central Executive Committee
    1938 - 1942                Balamet Yuz Akhmed ogly Balametov(b. 1907 - d. 19..)  AKP

    c.1943                     Isak Musa ogly Gyulmamedov
    bf.1944 - 1946             Adi Gyozal Khalil ogly Gyozalov
      (b. 1907 - d. 19..)  AKP
    Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
    28 Mar 1946 - 1947         ....
    1947 - af.1950             Balamet Yuz Akhmed ogly Balametov(s.a.)              
    AKP
    195. - 1953                Isak Musa ogly Gyulmamedov                            AKP
    Jun 1953 - 1955            Neymat Guseyn ogly Novruzov      (b. 1908 - d. 19..)  AKP
    1955 - 1959                Ragim Karam ogly Ragimov         (b. 1920 - d. 2009)  AKP
    1959 - 1964                Mamed Gasan ogly Askerov         (b. 1918 - d. 1988)  AKP
    1964 - 1970                Ramazan Akper ogly Ismailov      (b. 1928)            AKP
    1970 - Jan 1979            Yusif Mustafa ogly Nabiyev       (b. 1926 - d. 1980)  AKP
    Jan 1979 - May 1983        Imran Azim ogly Mekhtiyev        (b. 1936)            AKP
    May 1983 - Mar 1988        Zul'fi Salekh ogly Gadzhiyev     (b. 1935 - d. 1991)  AKP
    Mar 1988 - Nov 1988        Geydar Isa ogly Isayev           (s.a.)               AKP
    Nov 1988 - 1989            .... (acting)
    1989 - Jan 1990            Afetdin Dzhalil ogly Dzhalilov   (s.a.)               AKP
    1990 - Sep 1991            Mir Ismail Mir Ali ogly Aliyev   (b. 1941)            AKP
    Prime ministers
    Sep 1991 - 1993            Bejan Ibrahim oglu Farzaliyev    (b. 1946)            1992:YAP
    1993 - 2000                Shamsaddin Huseyn oglu           (b. 1939)            YAP
                                 Khanbabayev
    2000 - 23 May 2020         Alovsat Gazanfar oglu Bakhshiyev (b. 1956)            YAP
    23 May 2020 -              Sabuhi Hidayat oglu Mammadov     (b. 1969)            YAP

    Party abbreviationYAP = Yeni Azerbaycan Partiyasi (New Azerbaijan Party, nationalist, center-right, est.18 Dec 1992);
    - Former parties:
    AKP = Azerbaycan Kommunist Partiyasi (Azerbaijan Communist Party, to 1952 named Azerbaijan Communist [Bolshevik] Party, Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, 1920-16 Sep 1991); HHD = Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutyun (Armenian Revolutionary Federation, "Dashnak", democratic socialist, Armenian nationalist, anti-communist, 1920-90 and 1994-98 banned, 1890-1920, re-est.1991); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks])



    Talysh-Mughan (Talishtan)
     
    [Russian flag]
    4 Aug 1918 - 25 Apr 1919
    [Mughan Soviet
                          Republic 1919 (Azerbaijan)]
    25 Apr 1919 - 25 Jul 1919
    Mughan Soviet
    [Flag of
                          Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic 1993
                          (Azerbaijan)]
    21  Jun - 23 Aug 1993 Talysh-Mughan Flag

    1500                       Part of Persia.
    1723 - 1732                Russian rule, a Khan of Lankaran recognized by Russia.
    1747                       Talysh (Talesh)(also known as Lankaran by name of capital)
                                 Khanate founded.

    1785 - 1789                Subordinated to the Quba Khanate.
    1809                       Under the Russian suzerainty.
    1812 - 1813                Occupied by Persia.
    12 Oct 1813                Annexed to
    Russia.
    1826                       Briefly occupied by Persia.
    1840                       Khanate abolished.
    Nov 1917                   Under the Transcaucasian Commissariat.
    14 Apr 1918                Soviet rule of Baku Commune (see there) established at Lenkoran.

     
    4 Aug 1918                Provisional Military Dictatorship of Mughan formed (which does
                                 not support independence of Azerbaijan), claimed allegiance to
                                 Central Caspian Dictatorship and declared to be
    part of Russia.
    Sep 1918                   Re-organized as the Mughan Kray Board, loyal to Caucasus-Caspian
                                 Government (see under Dagestan).
    Oct 1918 - 28 Dec 1918     Area occupied by the Azerbaijani troops.
    28 Dec 1918                Mughan Kray Board restored, loyal to "White" Russian forces under
                                 Denikin (see South of Russia).
    25 Apr 1919                A local Bolshevik-led committee dissolved the Kray Board. 
    15 May 1919               
    Mughan Soviet Republic (Muğan Sovet Respublikası/Muganskaya
                                 Sovetskaya Respublika) proclaimed, within Russian S.F.S.R.,
                                 by the
    Extraordinary Congress of Soviets of Workers' and
                                 Peasants'
    Deputies of Lenkoran district.

    25 Jul 1919                Local Russian anti-Bolshevik units dispersed the Soviets, claimed
                                 loyalty to "White" Russian forces under Denikin.

    13 Aug 1919                Azerbaijani troops terminated local rule, part of the Republic
                                 of Azerbaijan.
    21 Jun 1993 - 23 Aug 1993  Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic (Talış-Muğan Muxtar Respublikası)
                                 declared
    in seven districts around Lankaran in rebellion (not
                                 recognized by Azerbaijan).

    Khans of Talysh (Lankaran)
    1723 - 1726                Mir Abbas Quli Khan              (d. 1726)
    1726 - 173.                Mir Aziz Khan
    1732 - 1747                Persian rule
    1747 - Jun/Jul 1787        Mir Said Jamaladdin Khan        
    (b. 1708 - d. 1787)
                                
    "Gara Khan"
    Jun/Jul 1787 -  7 Aug 1814 Mir Mustafa Khan                 (b. 1747 - d. 1814)

    Aug 1814 - Jun 1826        Mir Hasan Khan                   (b. 1787 - d. 1832)
                                 (in exile 1826 - 25 Jun 1826)
    1826 - 1840                Provisional Administration
                               (Diwan)
    [3 members]

    Dictators of the Provisional Military Dictatorship of Mughan
     4 Aug 1918 - Sep 1918     Terentiy Pavlovich Sukhorukov    (d. 1919)            Mil/PLSR
                               + Fyodor M. Ilyashevich          (d. 1920)            Mil
                               (the above two were the leaders of Dictatorship)
                               + Dmitriy Nikolayevich Kropotov  (d. 1919)            Mil
                               + Samuil Bezhanovich Saratikov   (d. 1938)            RKP
                               + Shimanov

    Chairman of the Mughan Kray Board
    Sep 1918 - 25 Apr 1919     Fyodor M. Ilyashevich            (s.a.)               Mil
                                (interrupted Oct 1918 28 Dec 1918)

    Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Regional Soviet of Deputies of the
    Mughan Soviet Republic

    25 Apr 1919 - May 1919     Communication Committee
    15/18 May 1919-25 Jul 1919 Nikolay Ivanovich Tutyshkin      (b. 1886 - d. 1940)  RKP

    Azerbaijani Governor-general of Lankaran Uyzed
    Aug 1919 - Apr 1920        Javad Bey Malik-Yeganov          (b. 1878 - d. 1937)  TPM
    President of the Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic

    21 Jun 1993 - 23 Aug 1993  Alikram Hummatov                 (b. 1948)            PEP/Mil
                                (Alikram Gumbatov

    Party abbreviations: PEP = Party for Equality of the People's of Azerbaijan (formerly Party of the Talesh People, Talysh autonomist, 1992-Oct 1993); PLSR = Partiya Levykh Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, democratic socialist, Aug 19171923, split from PSR, allied with RSDRP-B/RKP); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks]); TPM = Turk Adam-i Markaziyyat-Musavat Firqasi (Turkic Party of Federalists - Equality Party, liberal, pan-Turkist, nationalist, 1917-1923); Mil = Military



    Azeri Khanates under Persian rule

    Note: Recorded here are Azeri khanates under mostly nominal Persian rule in present-day Azerbaijan. Azeri sultanates of Arash and Qutqashen (subdivisions of the khanate of Sheki) and Azeri sultanates of Qazakh and Shamshaddil (subdivisions of Kartli-Kakheti), as well as Persian governors (some were named or styled Khans) are omitted. There were further Azeri khanates in Southern Azerbaijan (in modern Iran) and in Erivan and Derbent. Azeri khans ruled largely independently from Persia, but recognized Persian suzerainty, for example by minting coins with name of Persian rulers. By the Persian suzerain the khans were merely styled Hakim. Additionally two ethnic Daghestani polities in the territory of modern Azerbaijan (Jar-Balakan and Ilisu) are recorded at the end of this record.

    Baku

    [Baku khanate
                          flag c.1806 (Azerbaijan)]Flag c.1806

    1538                       Part of Persia.
    1588 - 1607                Part of the Ottoman Empire (occupied from 1583).
    10 Jul 1723 - 10 Mar 1735  Occupied by Russia (annexed 12 Sep 1723), a khanate
                                 recognized by Russia from 1727.   
    1735                       Re-annexed to Persia.
    1747                       Khanate of Baku re-founded.
    1768 - 1789                Vassal of khanate of Quba.
    Jul 1796 - Mar 1797        Occupied by Russia.
    14 May 1805                Under the Russian suzerainty.
     6 Oct 1806                Annexed to Russia.
    1826                       Baku briefly under siege by Persia.

    Khans
    1727 - 1730                Dargah Quli Khan                 (d. 1738)
    1731 - 1735                Salim Khan                       (d. af.1747)
    1735 - 1747                Persian rule
    1747 - 1768                Haji Mirza Muhammad Khan I       (b. 1727 - d. 1768)
    1768 - 1772                Fath `Ali Khan                   (b. 1736 - d. 1789) 
                                 (also in Quba, Shamakha)
    1770 - 1772                `Abd Allah Beg -Regent           (d. 1772)
                                 (also in Shamakha)
    1772 - 1784                Malik Muhammad Khan              (b. 1736 - d. 1784)
    1784 - 1791                Mirza Muhammad Khan II (1st time)(b. 1770 - d. 1836) 
    1784 - 1791                Khadija Bike (f) -Regent         (b. 1739 - d. 1803)
    1791 - 1792                Muhammad Quli Khan               (d. 1792)
    1792 - 1797                Husayn Quli Khan (1st time)      (b. 1774 - d. 1845)
    1797 - 1801                Mirza Muhammad Khan II (2nd time)(s.a.)
    18016 Oct 1806         Husayn Quli Khan (2nd time)      (s.a.)
    1826                       Husayn Quli Khan (3rd time)      (s.a.)



    Ganja

    [Khanate of
                            Ganja flag c.1804 (Azerbaijan)]Flag c.1804

    1501                       Part of Persia.
    1588 - 1606                Part of the Ottoman Empire.
    1723 - 1734                Ottoman occupation (annexed in 1724)
    1747                       Khanate of Ganja founded.
    1796 - 1797                Occupied by Russia.

     3 Jan 1804                Annexed to Russia.

    Khans
    1747 - 1760                Shah Wardi Khan                (d. 1760)
    1760 - 1778                Muhammad Hasan Khan (1st time) (b. 1742 - d. 1785)
    1778 - 1780                Muhammad Khan                  (d. 1789)

    1780 - 1784                Ibrahim Khalil Khan            (b. 1732 - d. 1806)
                                 (Khan in Qarabagh)
    1784 - 1785                Muhammad Hasan Khan (2nd time) (s.a.)
    1785 - 1786                Muhammad Rahim Khan            (b. 1745 - d. 17..)
    1786 -  3 Jan 1804         Jawad Khan                     (b. 1748 - d. 1804)



    Jawad

    1607                       Part of Persia.
    1726 - 1735                Russian rule.
    1747                       Khanate of Jawad founded.
    1768 - 1789                Vassal of khanate of Quba.
    1796                       Annexed to khanate of Shamakha.

    Khans
    1747 - 1750                Qiyas Khan                       (b. 1696 - d. 1750)
    1750 - 1789                Tala Hasan Khan                  (b. 1730 - d. 1789)
    1789 - 1794                Ibrahim Khan                     (b. 1738 - d. 1794)
    1794 - 1796                Safi Khan                        (d. af.1805)


    Nakhchivan: see under Nakhichevan

    Qarabagh: see under Nagorno-Karabakh


    Quba (Kuba)

    1538                       Part of Persia.
    1588 - 1607                Annexed to the Ottoman Empire.
    1722 - 1726                Part of khanate of Shirvan (Shamakha).
    1726 - 1734                Russian rule, a nominal khan at Khudat appointed by Russians.
    1747                       Khanate of Quba founded.
    1768 - 1789                Khan of Quba ruled over most of other Azeri khanates (Baku,
                                 Shamakha, Derbent, Salyan, Jawad, Sheki, Talysh).
    1774 - 1776                Occupied by Qazi-Qumuq of Daghestan, khan relocated to Salyan.
    1796 - 1797                Occupied by Russia.

    1806                       Russian protectorate.
    29 Mar 1810                Annexed to Russia.
    1826                       Quba briefly under siege by Persia.

    Khans
    1726 - 1734                Husayn `Ali Khan (1st time)      (b. c.1711 - d. 1758)
    1734 - 1747                Persian rule
    1747 - 1758                Husayn `Ali Khan (2nd time)      (s.a.)
    1758 - Mar 1789            Fath `Ali Khan                   (b. 1736 - d. 1789) 

                                 (also in Baku, Shamakha, Derbent, Salyan)
                                 (also styled himself Wali of all Shirvan)

    1789 - 1791                Ahmad Khan I                     (d. 1791)
    1791 - 1806                Shaykh `Ali Khan                 (b. 1761 - d. 1820)
                                 (also in Derbent, Salyan)
    1806 - 1810                Provisional Administration
                               (Diwan)
    [4 members]
    1826                       Ahmad Khan II



    Salyan

    1607                       Part of Persia.
    1723 - 1732                Russian rule, from 1730 a khanate recognized by Russia.
    1747                       Khanate of Salyan re-founded.
    1796                       Annexed to khanate of Shamakha.

    Khans
    1730 - 1732                `Ali Quli Khan                   (d. af.1735)
    1732 - 1747                Persian rule
    1747 - 1757                Ibrahim Khan
    1757 - 1796                khans of Quba
    Regents
    1757 - 1768                Kalb `Ali Sultan
    1768 - 1782                Qubad Sultan
    1782 - 1791                Shaykh `Ali Agha                 (b. 1761 - d. 1820)
    1791 - 1796                Hassan Agha



    Shakki (Sheki)

    [Shakki (Sheki)
                          Khanate flag c.1806 (Azerbaijan)]
    Flag c.1806

    c.1380                     Khanate of Sheki founded.
    1551                       Annexed to Persia.
    1583 - 1603                Annexed to Ottoman Empire.
    1722 - 1734                Part of khanate of Shirvan (Shamakha).
    1743 - 1746                Occupied by local rebels.
    1747                       Khanate of Sheki re-founded.
    1761 - 1762                Occupied by Qazi-Qumuq of Daghestan.
    1768 - 1789                Vassal of khanate of Quba (interrupted 1774 - 1785).
    1796 - 1797                Occupied by Russia.
    21 May 1805                Annexed to
    Russia.
     5 Aug 1819                Khanate abolished
    1826                       Khanate proclaimed in brief rebellion.

    Ruler (title Bashchi)
    1743 - 1746                Haji Chalabi Khan                (b. 1703 - d. 1755) 
    Khans
    1747 1755                Haji Chalabi Khan                (s.a.)
    1755 - 1759                Agha Kishi Khan                  (d. 1759)
    1759 - 1780                Muhammad Husayn Khan             (d. 1780)
    1780 - 1783                `Abd al-Qadir Khan               (d. 1783)
    21 Dec 1783 - 1795         Muhammad Hasan Khan (1st time)   (b. c.1758 - d. 1831)
    1795 - 1797                Mustafa Salim Khan (1st itme)    (d. 1826)
    1797 - 1805                Muhammad Hasan Khan (2nd time)   (s.a.)
    1805                       Fath
    `Ali Khan                   (d. 1815)
    1805 - Nov 1806            Mustafa Salim Khan (2nd time)    (s.a.)
    10 Dec 1806 - Dec 1814     J
    afar Quli Khan                 (d. 1814)
    1815 -  5 Aug 1819         Ismail Khan                     (d. 1819)
    1826                       Husayn Khan                      (d. 1829)



    Shamakha

    861 - 1538                 Shirvan, ruled by a Shah, with its capital in Shamakha, as the
                                 most prominent state in modern-day Azerbaijan.
    1538                       Part of Persia.
    1588 - 1603                Part of the Ottoman Empire (occupied from 1583).
    1721 - 1734                Khanate of Shirvan (Shamakha), in rebellion against Persia.
    1722 - 1734                Under the Ottoman suzerainty.
    1734                       Part of Persia.
    1747                       Khoja ("Old") Shamakha (capital Shamakha) and Yeni ("New")
                                 Shamakha (capital Aghsu) khanates founded.
    1760 - 1762                Occupied by Qazi-Qumuq of Daghestan.
    1768                       Shamakha re-united; to 1789 a vassal of khanate of Quba
                                 (interrupted 1774 - 1786).
    1796 - 1797                Occupied by Russia.

    25 Dec 1805                Annexed to Russia.
    1820                       Khanate abolished.
    1826                       Briefly occupied by Persia, khanate restored.

    Khans of Shirvan (Shamakha)
    1721 - 1728                Haji Dawud Bek                   (b. 1680 - d. 1736)
    1728 - 1734                Surkhay Khan "Chulaq"            (b. 1680 - d. 1748)
                                 (khan of Qazi-Qumuq in Daghestan)
    Khan of Khoja Shamakha
    1747 - 1768                Muhammad Said Khan              (b. 1729 d. 1788)
    Khans of Yeni Shamakha
    1747 - 1763                Haji Muhammad
    `Ali Khan          (b. 1682 d. 1763)
    1763 - 1768                Aghazi Khan                      (b. 1731 d. 1788)
    Khans of
    Shamakha
    1768 - 1774                Fath
    `Ali Khan (1st time)        (b. 1736 d. 1789)
                                 (khan of Quba)
    1769 - 1770               
    `Abd Allah Beg -Regent           (d. 1772)
                                 (also in Baku) 
    1770 - 1774                Ildar Beg -Regent                (d. 1774)
    1774 - 1786                Aghazi Khan                      (s.a.)
    1786 - 1789                Fath
    `Ali Khan (2nd time)        (s.a.)
    1789 (6 months)            Askar Khan                       (b. 1756 d. 1820)
    1789 - 1792                Qasim Khan                       (b. 1763 d. 1828)
    1792 - 1820                Mustafa Khan (1st time)          (d. 1844)
    1826                       Mustafa Khan (2nd time)          (s.a.)


    Talish: see under Talysh-Mughan

    Jar-Balakan

    c.1560                     Union of five "free" societies, led by Jar (modern
                                 Zaqatala), founded by Dagestani Avars and Lezgians.
    1728 - 1734                Tributary to the Ottoman Empire.
    1735 - 1738                Occupied by Persia.
    10 Apr 1803                Annexed to Russia.
    1830                       Polity abolished.
    1863                       Brief anti-Russian rebellion.

    Qadis of Jar (elected judges)
    c.17..                     Muhammad Wali                    (d. 1733)
    c.17..                     Haji
    `Ali                        (d. 1744)
    c.1735                     Haji Murtuz
    `Ali                 (d. 1745)
    c.17..                     Malla Usman                      (d. 1763)
    c.1750                     Malla Muhammad Guludi            (d. 1766)
    c.1803                     Haji Mahmud            
    1863                       Muhammad
    `Ali Kahazul            (d. 1863)
                                 "Zanki Efendi"


    Ilisu

    [Ilisu flag
                          c.1844 (Azerbaijan)]
    Flag c.1844

    1562                       Tsakhur (from c.1725 known as Ilisu, by name of capital)
                                 sultanate founded.
    1616 - 1711                Vassal of Persia.
    1722 - 1735                Tributary to the Ottoman Empire.
    17 Apr 1803                Annexed to Russia.
    1844                       Pro-Imamate rebellion, the polity abolished by Russia.
    1847                       Briefly re-occupied by sultan.

    Sultans
    1695 - 1738               
    `Ali Sultan II
    1738 - 1747                Muhammad Bek II
    1747 - 1756                Ahmad Khan I
    1756 - af.1762             Alkhaz Bek
    c.1773                     Muhammad Bek III
    bf.1796 - 1805            
    `Ali Sultan III "Khan Baba"
    1805 - 1830                Ahmad Khan II                    (d. 1830)
    1830                       Musa Bek                         (d. 1830)
    1830 - 1844                Daniyal Bek (1st time)           (b. 1803 d. 1870)
    1847                       Daniyal Bek (2nd time)           (s.a.)







    Ben Cahoon