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Russian Civil War Polities

Polities: "White" (anti-Bolshevik) Central Governments - North and Northwest: North-Western region (Pskov) - Ingria (Ingermanland) - Karelia - Moscow oblast - Murmansk - Northern commune - Northern region (Arkhangelsk) - North Ingria (Kirjasalo) - Karelia - Karelian Labor commune - Western Ingria (Kosemkina) - Western Volunteer Army (ZDA) - Crimea - Volga and the Urals: Bashkir - Idel-Ural (Kazan) - Orenburg Cossack Host - Tambov kray - Ufa oblast - Ural oblast - Volga Germans - Vyatka - South and the Caucasus: Astrakhan Host - Black Sea - Dagestan - Don Cossacks and Soviet - Kuban Cossacks and Soviet - Mountain People's Republic - North Caucasus Emirate - South of Russia - South-East Union of Cossack Hosts and Free Peoples of the Steppes - Stavropol - Terek Soviet and Cossacks - Central Asia: Alash-Orda - Bukhara - Khorazm - Transcaspia - Turkestan - Siberia: Buryat-Mongol - Czechoslovak Corps - Karakorum-Altay - Khakass - Pribaikalye - Semirechye Cossack Host - Siberia regional government - Tannu Tuva - Tobolsk federation - Transbaikal (Zabaikalye) - Ural Cossack Host - Western Siberian Commissariat - Yakutia (Yakutsk) - Far East: Amur oblast and Cossacks - Chukotka and Anadyr - Far Eastern Republic - Kamchatka oblast - Khabarovsk (Priamurye kray) - Primorye (Priamurye) - Provisional Government of the Far East - Sakhalin oblast - Tungus (Okhotsk) - Ukrainian Far Eastern kray Secretariat ("Green Ukraine") - Ussuri Cossack Host -

Note
:
This record contains a list of the polities that emerged on the Russian territory of the former Empire during the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922, and in the Far East to 1931. These polities included mainly three types: (a) semi-autonomous regional Bolshevik "Red" Soviet Republics or so-called "Soviet regional associations" and (b) "White" (anti-Bolshevik) Russian central governments or autonomous regional polities as well as (c) secessionist or autonomous ethnic minority polities. The purely military or partisan guerilla authorities, as well as local administrators of "White" or "Red" central or regional governments are not listed, however "White" governors-general are recorded. Some polities did not fit into traditional "White" and "Red" designations and were known as "Green" (mostly anti-Bolshevik rural Socialists, see Black Sea, Tambov or Tobolsk) or "Black" (anarchist, see "Makhnovschina" under Ukraine). Many polities are commonly referred to as "republics," but were simply given that designation historically and were not actually republics or did not call themselves by such designations.  The record below is organized along a geographic basis.

Party abbreviations: KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, 12 Oct 1905-1920, banned by Bolsheviks from 12 Dec 1917); MPK = Mlado-Yakutskaya Partiya Konfederalistov (Young Yakut Party of Confederalists, requested upgrade of Yakut A.S.S.R. to S.S.R., 1927-1928); NDS = Natsional-Demokraticheskiy Soyuz (National-Democratic Union, right-liberal, anti-socialist, 1921-1922); NSP = Narodno-Sotsialisticheskaya Partiya (People's Socialist Party, center-left, 1905-1920); Okt = Soyuz 17 Oktyabrya (Union of October 17, "Octobrists", conservative, Russian moderate constitutionalist, Nov 1905-1918); PLSR = Partiya Levykh Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, democratic socialist, split from PSR, allied with RSDRP-B/RKP, 1917–1923); PLSR = Partiya Levykh Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, democratic socialist, Aug 1917–1923, split from PSR, allied with RSDRP-B/RKP); PSRPartiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries, "SRs", democratic socialist, agrarian socialist, split Aug 1917 into Left [became PLSR] and Right wings, Jan 1902-1923); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, former RSDRP-B, state party, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)[All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)]); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Bolsheviks], Russian revolutionary socialist, Marxist communist, split from RSDRP est.1898, 1 Jan 1912-8 Mar 1918, renamed RKP); RSDRP-I = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya Internatsionalistov (Russian Social Democratic Worker's Party of Internationalists, split from RSDRP-M, allied with RKP, 1918-1920); RSDRP-MRossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Men'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Mensheviks], split from RSDRP, democratic socialist, Orthodox Marxist, 1 Jan 1912-1922); SGSK = Soyuz Gortsov Severnogo Kavkaza (Union of Mountain Peoples of North Caucasus, Mountain peoples nationalist, republican, 1917-1919); SSO = Soyuz Sibirskikh Oblastnikov (Union of Siberian Regionalists, Siberian autonomist, 1905-1919); SSRM = Soyuz Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov-Maksimalistov (Union of Socialist-Revolutionary-Maximalists, Bolshevik-allied anarchist, 1917-1919); STK = Soyuz Trudovogo Krestyanstva (Union of Working Peasants, agrarian socialists of Tambov, Nov 1920 – 1921); Mil = Military



"White" (anti-Bolshevik) Central Governments
 
[Russian flag]
8 Jun 1918 - 16 Nov 1920
Maps of Russian Civil War
Hear National Anthem
"Kol' slaven nash Gospod'
v Sione" (How Glorious is
Our Lord in Zion)

Adopted 19 Nov 1918
Act on Establishment
of All-Russian
Supreme Authority
(23 Sep 1918; in Russian)

Provision on Temporary
Organization of State
Authority in Russia

(18 Nov 1918; in Russian)
Capital: Samara Jun-Sep 1918;
Ufa Sep-Oct 1918;
Omsk Oct 1918-Nov 1919;
Sevastopol' Apr-Nov 1920
Currency: "Siberian" Ruble
 1918-1919, "South Russian"
 Ruble 1918-1920
Military: 400,000 (Aug 1919);
 80,000 (Oct 1920, in Crimea)
Population: 50,000,000
(Aug 1919, estimate "White"
controlled territory)

18 Jan 1918 - 19 Jan 1918  All-Russian Constituent Assembly convened in Petrograd
                             (elected 25 Nov 1917, chairman Viktor Mikhaylovich Chernov
                             [b. 1873 - d. 1952] PSR), it declared Russia a democratic federal
                             republic before it was dissolved by the Soviet government. 
 8 Jun 1918                Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly ("Komuch")
                             created after occupation of Samara by the Czechoslovak Corps,
                             proclaimed itself the provisional supreme authority of the
                             Russian state, but was recognized by few local anti-Bolshevik
                             governments.
23 Sep 1918                Replaced by the Provisional All-Russian Government at Ufa
                             ("Ufa Directory") by the Act on Establishment of All-Russian
                             Supreme Authority, recognized as supreme authority of the Russian
                             state by most of local anti-Bolshevik governments in the
                             eastern part of Russia.
 4 Nov 1918                "Ufa Directory" declared all local governments dissolved (was
                              not fully effected).
18 Nov 1918                "Ufa Directory" disbanded, Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak granted
                             power as the Supreme Ruler, recognized as supreme authority by all
                             local "White" Russian governments by Aug 1919, and having the
                             de facto recognition by the Entente (Allied) powers.
15 Jan 1920                Upon arrest of Kolchak, the supreme authority devolved to Anton
                             Denikin, appointed on 4 Jan 1920 as successor, who accepted
                             neither the functions nor style of the Supreme Ruler (the supreme
                             authority lapsed).
11 Apr 1920                Baron Vrangel' (Wrangel), Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces in
                             the South of Russia, assumes the style of Ruler (without specific
                             territorial designation) claiming the supreme Russian authority
                             on the basis of resolution of the Governing Senate (supreme court)
                             of 6 Apr 1920 (his "government in South of Russia" obtained de
                             facto recognition by France on 10 Aug 1920).
16 Nov 1920                Last "White" forces under Baron Vrangel' (Wrangel) are defeated in
                             Crimea by Soviet forces and depart to Turkey.
1922/1924                  End of "White" Russian political authority in exile (Russian
                             Council dissolved, end of diplomatic representation, recognition
                             of Soviet Russia by France and U.K.).

Chairman of the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly ("Komuch")(in Samara)
 8 Jun 1918 - 23 Sep 1918  Vladimir Kazimirovich Vol'skiy     (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  PSR
Chairmen of the All-Russian Provisional Government
("Ufa Directory")
24 Sep 1918 - 18 Nov 1918  Nikolay Dmitriyevich Avksentyev    (b. 1878 - d. 1943)  PSR
                             (in Ufa to 8 Oct 1918, then in Omsk)
 7 Nov 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Vasiliy Georgiyevich Boldyrev      (b. 1875 - d. 1933)  Mil
                             (acting for Avksentyev, in Omsk)
Supreme Rulers (Verkhovnyy Pravitel')
18 Nov 1918                Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (b. 1863 - d. 1928)  PSR
                             (acting)(chairman of council of ministers; in Omsk)
18 Nov 1918 - 15 Jan 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak      (b. 1874 - d. 1920)  Mil
                             (in Omsk to 12 Nov 1919, in Novo-Nikolayevsk from 20 Nov
                             1919 to 4 Dec 1919, then by Dec 25 1919 in Nizhneudinsk)
15 Jan 1920 - 11 Apr 1920  Supreme "White" central authority lapsed
Ruler (Pravitel') and Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces in the South of Russia
11 Apr 1920 - 19 Aug 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (b. 1878 - d. 1928)  Mil
                             (Wrangel)(in Sevastopol')
Ruler (Pravitel') and Commander-in-chief of
the Russian Army
19 Aug 1920 - 16 Nov 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (s.a.)               Mil
                             (in Sevastopol')
Chairman of the Russian Council
 5 Apr 1921 - Oct 1922     Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (s.a.)               Mil
                             (in Istanbul exile; from Sep 1922 in
                             Sremski Karlovci, Yugoslavia)

Chairman of the Council of Managers (in Samara)
16 Aug 1918 - 23 Sep 1918  Yevgeniy Frantsevich Rogovskiy     (b. 1888 - d. 1950)  PSR 
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
(in Irkutsk)
 4 Nov 1918 - 22 Nov 1919  Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (s.a.)             PSR;Dec 1918 KDP
22 Nov 1919 - 15 Jan 1920  Viktor Nikolayevich Pepelyayev     (b. 1885 - d. 1920)  KDP
                             (left seat of government Irkutsk 26 Dec 1919,
                             to join Kolchak in Nizhneudinsk)
28 Dec 1919 -  5 Jan 1920  Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Cherven-  (b. 1872 - d. 1920)  KDP
                             Vodali
                             (acting for Pepelyayev, in Irkutsk) 

Chairman of the Council of Managers with the Commander-in-chief
11 Apr 1920 - 19 Aug 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Krivoshein   (b. 1857 - d. 1921)  Non-party
                             (acting to 2 Jun 1920)(in Sevastopol')
Chairman of the Council of Managers of Government in the South of Russia

19 Aug 1920 - 11 Nov 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Krivoshein   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (in Sevastopol')


North and Northwest Russia


North-Western Region (Pskov)

[North-Western
                        Oblast Government 1918-1919 (Russia)]
Oct 1918 - 5 Dec 1919

 8 Nov 1917                Bolshevik rule in Pskov (re-occupied 10 - 14 Nov 1917 by troops
                             loyal to deposed Prime minister Aleksandr Kerenskiy).
24 Feb 1918 – 25 Nov 1918  Pskov occupied by German troops (taken on 25 Nov 1918 by Soviet
                             troops).
Nov 1918                   North-Western Oblast Council of Defense organized by Russian
                             Volunteer Northern Army, created 10 Oct 1918, however only on
                             25 Nov 1918 Germans offered civil administration to the Russians.
 6 Dec 1918                Remaining "White" Russian units, having retreated from Pskov to
                             Estonian territory, by agreement put under Estonian authority.
17 May 1919                "White" units with Estonian assistance took Yamburg (modern
                             Kingisepp).
25 May 1919 – 26 Aug 1919  "White" Russians (to 29 May 1919, Estonian troops) occupied Pskov.
19 Jun 1919                 All "White" Russian units released from Estonian authority and
                              merged into the North-Western (to 1 Jul 1919, Northern) Russian
                              Army.
11 Aug 1919                 North-Western Oblast Government established, it recognized the
                              authority of Supreme Ruler Kolchak, however Kolchak did not
                              recognize the Government, but authorized appointment of governor-
                              general.
18 Oct 1919                 Maximum "White" advance, reaching Tsarskoye Selo (modern Pushkin), a
                              suburb of Petrograd.
 5 Dec 1919                 Oblast Government dissolved as all territory was lost to Soviet
                              Russia (Yamburg lost 14 Nov 1919), the army was interned by
                              Estonian government.

German Commander in Pskov (of 5th Reserve Infantry Division)
Mar 1918 - 25 Nov 1918     Georg von Stangen                  (b. 1852 - d. 1940)  Mil
Chairman of Pskov Okrug Council of Administration (civil administrator)
10 Apr 1918 - Nov? 1918    Neuhaus                                                 Mil
Chairman of the North-Western Oblast Council of Defense
(remained in Kiev)
Nov 1918                   Fyodor Nikolayevich Bezak          (b. 1865 - d. 1940)  Non-party
Chairman of the Political Conference (in Helsinki, Finland; from 26 Jul 1919 Tallinn, Estonia)
24 May 1919 - 11 Aug 1919  Nikolay Nikolayevich Yudenich      (b. 1862 - d. 1933)  Mil
                             (also commander-in-chief of the North-Western
                             Front 10 Jun 1919 – 28 Nov 1919)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Russian North-Western Oblast Government (in Tallinn)
11 Aug 1919 -  5 Dec 1919  Stepan Georgiyevich Lianozov       (b. 1872 - d. 1949)  Non-party
                             (Stepan Lianosyan)
Governor-general of North-Western Oblast (in Narva; chief administrator of the occupied area)
18 Oct 1919 - 28 Nov 1919  Pyotr Vladimirovich Glazenap       (b. 1882 - d. 1951)  Mil


Moscow Oblast

[Moscow oblast 1917-1918
                  (Russia]

Dec 1917 – Dec 1918        Moscow Oblast created as "Soviet regional association" with
                             authority over Governorates of Moscow, Kaluga, Kostroma, Kursk,
                             Nizhny Novgorod, Orel, Ryazan, Tambov, Tver, Tula, Vladimir,
                             Voronezh and Yaroslavl, however its Council of People's Commissars
                             existed only briefly.

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of Moscow Oblast (in Moscow)
11 Mar 1918 – 20 May 1918  Mikhail Nikolayevich Pokrovskiy    (b. 1868 - d. 1932)  RKP


Northern Commune

[Northern Commune
                  1918-1919 (Russia)]

Apr 1918 – Feb 1919        Northern Oblast (Severnyy oblast) also styled as "Northern Commune")
                             created as
"Soviet regional association" with authority over
                             Governorates
of Petrograd, Arkhangelsk (city of Arkhangelsk under
                             "White" rule
from 2 Aug 1918), Novgorod, Olonets, Pskov (city of
                             Pskov under
German occupation to 25 Nov 1918) and Vologda.

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of Northern Oblast (in Petrograd)
29 Apr 1918 - 24 Feb 1919  Grigoriy Yevseyevich Zinovyev      (b. 1883 - d. 1936)  RKP


Northern Region (Arkhangelsk)

[Russian flag]

10 Nov 1917                Local Councils (Soviets) refuse to recognize Bolshevik authority.
 7 Dec 1917                Revolutionary Committee assumed temporary "supreme administration
                             of political, administrative, and economy affairs" of the
                             governorate.
17 Feb 1918                Bolshevik rule recognized by the Governorate Council (Soviet).
 2 Aug 1918                Supreme Administration of the Northern Region ("VUSO")
is
                             declared by "White" Russians on the eve of occupation of
                             Arkhangelsk
by Anglo-American military forces.  
28 Sep 1918                Provisional Government of the Northern Region (Severnaya oblast)
                             es
tablished.
Oct 1918                   Recognized supreme authority of the "Ufa Directory" (see above).
30 Apr 1919               
Recognizes the supreme authority of the Kolchak government, but kept
                             "sovereignty" (samostoyatel'nost') in regional matters.

27 Sep 1919                British evacuate Arkhangelsk (and Murmansk 12 Oct 1919).
19 Oct 1919                Provisional Government turned into department for civil affairs
                             under chief administrator of Northern Region
(Severnyy kray) but
                             use of former name continued.
19 Feb 1920                "White" government evacuates Arkhangelsk by sea to Norway.

21 Feb 1920                Bolsheviks enter Arkhangelsk.               

Chairman of the Arkhangelsk Governorate Revolutionary Committee
 
8 Nov 1917 - Feb 1918     A.A. Zhitkov                       (b. c.1887 - d. 19..)RSDRP-M
Chairman of the Supreme Administration of Northern Region

 2 Aug 1918 -  6 Sep 1918  Nikolay Vasilyevich Chaykovskiy    (b. 1850 - d. 1926)  NSP
                             (1st time)
Commander-in-chief of the Russian Army and Navy in the Northern Region
 6 Sep 1918 -  8 Sep 1918  Georgiy Yermolayevich Chaplin      (b. 1886 - d. 1950)  Mil
Chairman of the Supreme Administration of Northern Region
 8 Sep 1918 - 28 Sep 1918  Nikolay Vasilyevich Chaykovskiy    (s.a.)               NSP
                             (2nd time)
Chairmen of the Provisional Government of the Northern Region
28 Sep 1918 - 19 Feb 1920  Nikolay Vasilyevich Chaykovskiy    (s.a.)               NSP
                             (from 23 Jan 1919 on diplomatic mission to Paris)
23 Jan 1919 – 10 Feb 1920  Pyotr Yulyevich Zubov              (b. 1871 - d. 1942)  KDP
                             (acting for Chaykovskiy)
Chief Administrator of the Northern Region (with rights of governor-general)
10 Sep 1919 – 19 Feb 1920  Yevgeniy Karlovich Miller          (b. 1867 - d. 1937)  Mil


Commanders—in-chief of British and (from Sep 1918) Allied troops in Northern Russia
Aug 1918 - Oct 1918        Frederick Cuthbert Poole           (b. 1869 - d. 1938)  Mil
Oct 1918 - Sep 1919        William Edmond Ironside            (b. 1880 - d. 1959)  Mil

Commanders of the American Expeditionary Force, North Russia

Sep 1918 - Apr 1919        George Evans Stewart               (b. 1872 - d. 1946)  Mil
Apr 1919 - Sep 1919        Wilds Preston Richardson           (b. 1861 - d. 1929)  Mil



Ingria (Ingermanland)

[Ingrian flag, 1919-1920
                      (Russia)]
8 Sep 1919 - 1920

Western Ingria (Kosemkina)

May 1919 - Nov 1919        Estonian troops occupied southeastern coast of Gulf of Finland.
31 Aug 1919                Interim Committee moved to village of Kosemkina (in Russian:
                             Kuzyomkino), north of Ivangorod, claiming self-government of
                             Ingrian Finns within Russia.

Chairmen of the Interim Committee
31 Jan 1919 - Aug 1919     Pietari Toikka                     (b. 1862 - d. 1930)
                             (in Helsinki, from May 1919 in Tallinn)
31 Aug 1919 – 1920         Kaapre (Gabriel) Tynni             (b. 1877 - d. 1953)
                             (from late 1919, in Helsinki)


North Ingria (Kirjasalo)

23 Jan 1919                Northern Ingermanland declares independence in village of Kirjasalo                                 (next to Finnish border), referred to as "Republic of North Ingria"
                             (Pohjois-Inkerin tasavalta), or as the "Republic of Kirjasalo"
                             (Kirjasalon tasavalta).
 5 Dec 1920                Government collapses with the withdrawal of Finnish irregular forces
                             and a as result of the Russo-Finnish Peace Treaty of Tartu of
                             14 Oct 1920 (effective 31 Dec 1920).

Chairmen of the Provisional Committee
 9 Jul 1919 - Sep 1919     Santeri Termonen
14 Sep 1919 - Nov 1919     Juho Pekka Kokkonen                (b. 1875 - d. 1939)
16 Nov 1919 - May 1920     Yrjö (Georg) Elfvengren            (b. 1889 - d. 1927)  Mil
Jun 1920 -  6 Dec 1920     Jukka Tirranen                     (b. 1889 - d.af.1961)Mil



Karelia

[Provisional
                      Government of Karelia flag 1918-1920 (Russia)]
21 Jun 1918 - 29 Mar 1920

[Proposed
                      flag of [East Karelia] 1919-1920 (Russia)]
1919 - 29 Mar 1920 Proposed Flag
[flag of (East) Karelia
                      and Karelian United Government, 1920-1922
                      (Russia)]
29 Mar 1920 - 2 Feb 1922

15 May 1919                Olonets Government founded in Vidlitsa in Southern Karelia after
                             invasion by Finnish irregulars and occupation of Olonets (Aunus)
                             from 24 Apr 1919 to 13 May 1919.
27 Jun 1919                Vidlitsa captured by the Soviet Army; Olonets government flees to
                             Finland.
21 Jul 1919                Provisional Government of Karelia of Arkhangelsk (Arkangelin
                             Karjalan
väliaikaisen hallituksen
) formed at Uhtua (modern
                             Kalevala) in
Northern Karelia near the Finnish border.
21 Mar 1920                Renamed the Provisional Government of Karelia (Karjalan väliaikainen
                             hallitus), declares the independence of Karelia.
18 May 1920                Uhtua captured by Soviet Red Army, government moves to Vuokkiniemi 
                             (Voknavolok).
 8 Jun 1920                Karelian Labor Commune founded (within the Russian S.F.S.R.)
                             (see Karelia A.S.S.R. under Russian S.F.S.R. admin. divisions).
30 Jun 1920                Most of Northern Karelia is conquered by the Soviet Red Army, the
                             Provisional Government of Karelia
crosses the border into Finland.
14 Oct 1920                Russo-Finnish Peace Treaty of Tartu; by Mar 1921 Finland restores
                             Repola (Reboly) and Porajärvi (Porosozero) to Soviet Russia.
10 Dec 1920 - 1923         Karelian United Government formed in Finland exile by a merger of
                             the remnants of the former Provisional Government of Karelia and
                             the Olonets Government.
20 Oct 1921 -  2 Feb 1922  Intervention of Karelian exiles and Finnish volunteers from the
                             territory of Finland into Northern Karelia and Uhtua retaken; it
                             is eliminated by the Soviet Red Army.

Chairman of the Olonets Government (in Vidlitsa)
15 May 1919 - 27 Jun 1919  German V. Kuttuyev
                             (in Finland exile to 10 Dec 1920)
Chairmen of the Provisional Government (in Uhtua)
21 Jul 1919 - 21 Mar 1920  Anton Timofeyevich Tikhonov        (b. 1883 - d. 1942)
                             (= Antti Vierma)
21 Mar 1920 - 30 Jun 1920  Fyodor Timofeyevich Tikhonov       (b. 1880 - d. 1952)
                             (= Huoti Hilippälä)
                             (in Finland exile to 10 Dec 1920)     
Chairman of the United Government
10 Dec 1920 - 1923         Paavo Kettinen (in Finland exile)  (b. 1880 - d. 1966)



Murmansk

[Russia flag]

 9 Nov 1917                Bolshevik rule recognized in Murmansk.

 6 Mar 1918                Landing by British troops according to agreement of 3 Mar 1918.
30 Jun 1918                Local Council (Soviet), having non-Bolshevik majority from Mar 1918,
                             declares end of relations with Soviet Russia.

 5 Aug 1918                Recognizes authority of Supreme Administration in Arkhangelsk (see
                             Northern Region).

12 Oct 1919                British evacuate Murmansk.
21 Feb 1920                Local Bolsheviks seized Murmansk (on 13 Mar 1920 regular Soviet
                             troops reach Murmansk).

Chairman of the Murmansk Kray Council of Deputies
Mar 1918 – Oct 1918        Aleksey Mikhaylovich Yuryev        (b. 1887 - d.af.1922)Non-party

Commanders of British Troops (from Aug 1918, subject to Commander-in-chief in Arkhangelsk)
Mar 1918 - Jun 1918        Thomas Webster Kemp                (b. 1866 - d. 1928)  Mil
Jun 1918 - Aug 1918        Frederick Cuthbert Poole           (b. 1869 - d. 1938)  Mil
Aug 1918 - Oct 1919        Charles Clarkson Maynard           (b. 1870 - d. 1945)  Mil

Western Volunteer Army (ZDA): see under Latvia


Belorussia, Bessarabia, Crimea, and the Ukraine

Belorussian (Byelorussian) Socialist Soviet Republic: see Belarus

Bessarabia: see Moldova

Bessarabian Socialist Soviet Republic: see under Moldova

Crimean People's Republic: see Crimea under Ukraine
Crimean Soviet Socialist Republic: see Crimea under Ukraine
Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Basins Soviet Republic (Kharkov and Donetsk regions): see under Ukraine
Galician Soviet Republic: see under Ukraine
Lithuania and Belorussia ("Litbel") Socialist Soviet Republic: see under Lithuania

Makhnovist Forces ("Makhnovshchina"): see under Ukraine
Moldavian Democratic Republic: see Moldova
Odessa (Odesa) Soviet Republic: see under Ukraine
Romanian Front Committee ("Rumcherod"): see Odessa under Ukraine

South Ukraine Labor Federation: see Makhnovist Forces under Ukraine
Taurida (Tavrida) Governorate: see Crimea under Ukraine
Ukrainian People's Republic: see Ukraine
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic: see Ukrainian S.S.R. under Ukraine

Volga and the Urals


"Antonovshchina": see under Tambov


Idel-Ural (Kazan)

[Idel-Ural (Kazan) Soviet
                      Republic 1917-1918 (Russia)]
8 Nov 1917 - 6 Aug 1918

 8 Nov 1917                Bolshevik rule in Kazan.
 2 Dec 1917 - 24 Jan 1918  National Assembly of National Autonomy of Muslim Turkic-Tatars of
                             Russia's Interior and Siberia convened in Ufa, on 18 Jan 1918 it
                             established its executive, the National Administration
                             (Milli Idara), as non-territorial authority.
 6 Feb 1918 - 16 May 1918  Kazan Soviet Republic (within Russian S.F.S.R.) proclaimed in Kazan
                             Governorate.
 1 Mar 1918 - 28 Mar 1918  Tatar autonomists proclaimed "autonomous Idel-Ural Republic within
                             federal Russian Soviet republic" as territorial autonomy of Tatars
                             and Bashkirs in Kazan and Ufa Governorates and adjoining areas
                             (also Chuvash, Udmurts, Mari, and Mordovians were invited to join)
                             and took over the Trans-Bulak suburb of Kazan (thus referred to
                             as "Zabulachnaya Republic") in rebellion against the Kazan Soviet
                             Republic
.
 6 Aug 1918 - 10 Sep 1918  Kazan occupied by "Komuch" (see there) troops and Czechoslovak Corps.
27 May 1920                Tatar Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic established, within the
                             Russian S.F.S.R. (see Russian S.F.S.R. admin.)


Chairman of the National Administration (Milli idara) of Muslim Turkic-Tatars (in Ufa) 
18 Jan 1918 - 25 Apr 1918  Sadretdin Nizametdinovich Maksudov (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
                             (= Sadretdin Nizametdin-ugly Maqsudyy)
Chairman of Council of People's Commissars of Kazan Soviet Republic
26 Feb 1918 -  3 Jun 1918  Yakov Semyonovich Sheynkman        (b. 1891 - d. 1918)  RKP
Chairman of Council of People's Commissars of Idel-Ural Republic (in opposition)
 1 Mar 1918 - 28 Mar 1918  Ismagil Zakirovich Atnagulov       (b. 1891 - d.af.1938)
                             (= Ismagyyl Zakir-ugly Atnagulov)


Ural

[Provisional Oblast
                      Government of Ural 1918 (Russia)]
18 Aug 1918 - 10 Nov 1918

 8 Nov 1917                Bolshevik rule in Yekaterinburg (soon after in the whole eastern
                             part of the Perm Governorate), but in the city of Perm only from
                             8 Dec 1917.
Jan 1918 – Jan 1919        Ural Oblast created as "Soviet regional association" with authority
                             over Governorates of Perm, Orenburg, Ufa and Vyatka.
25 Jul 1918                Yekaterinburg occupied by the Czechoslovak Corps and Siberian
                             troops (also Perm from 25 Dec 1918).
13 Aug 1918                Provisional Oblast Government of Ural ("VOPU") formed in
                             Yekaterinburg (did not recognize authority of "Komuch").
24 Sep 1918                Recognized supreme authority of the Provisional All-Russian
                             Government (see PARG above).
26 Oct 1918                Transfers power to All-Russian Provisional Government, effective
                             from 10 Nov 1918.
Jul 1919                   Bolshevik advance, the "White" troops of Supreme Ruler Kolchak
                             lost Ural oblast (Perm 1 Jul 1919, Yekaterinburg on 15 Jul 1919).

Chairman of the Ural Oblast Council of People's Commissars
Jan 1918 – Jan 1919        Aleksandr Georgiyevich Beloborodov (b. 1891 - d. 1938)  RKP
                             (in Yekaterinburg, in Perm Jul 1918-Dec 1918,
                              then
in Vyatka from Dec 1918)
Chairman of the Provisional Oblast Government of Ural
(in Yekaterinburg)
13 Aug 1918 - 10 Nov 1918  Pyotr Vasilyevich Ivanov           (b. 1867 - d. 1932)  KDP 
Chief Administrator of Ural Kray (with rights of governor-general; in Yekaterinburg)
 1 Dec 1918 – Apr 1919     Sergey Semyonovich Postnikov       (b. 1870 - d.af.1920)Non-party



Orenburg Cossack Host


[Orenburg Cossack Host (possible
                          reconstruction) flag in exile 1934]
Orenburg Cossack in exile (reconstruction) 1934
1755                       Orenburg Cossack Host formed.
 
8 Nov 1917                Ataman of the Orenburg Cossack Host does not recognize the Soviet
                             government and assumes supreme authority in the Orenburg
                             Governorate and (from 24 Dec 1917) in Turgay oblast (the modern
                             north-western part of Kazakhstan).
31 Jan 1918                Bolshevik forces take Orenburg, Dutov falls back to Verkhneuralsk,
                             which also surrenders in Mar 1918, in Apr he moved to Troitsk,
                             then on 10 May 1918 he retreats
to Turgay (Torgay).
 3 Jul 1918                Orenburg Cossacks re-take Orenburg and proclaim (on 12 Aug 1918)
                             the autonomous Orenburg Host Oblast within a federal Russian
                             republic; recognized authority of "Komuch" (from Jul 1918) and
                             Provisional All-Russian Government (from Sep 1918).
Nov 1918                   Orenburg Cossacks recognized the authority of Aleksandr Vasilyevich
                             Kolchak, the Supreme
Ruler (autonomy continued de facto).
22 Jan 1919                Red Army retakes Orenburg, the Cossack capital moved to Troitsk
Sep 1919                   Orenburg Cossack Host evacuates the Orenburg Governorate (Troitsk
                             on 4 Aug 1919) and reached first (in Dec 1919) Semirechye (see
                             under Kazakhstan) and then (in Apr 1920) China.       
     
Atamans of Orenburg Cossack Host and (to 5 Nov 1918) Chairman of the Host Government
 8 Nov 1917 -  7 Feb 1921  Aleksandr Ilyich Dutov             (b. 1879 - d. 1921)
                             (in China exile from 2 Apr 1920; 13 Feb 1919
                              – 23 May 1919 also chief administrator of

                             the Orenburg kray with rights of governor-general)
1921 - 1923                Nikolay Semyonovich Anisimov       (b. 1877 - d. 1931)
                             (in Harbin, China exile; in Vladivostok 1921–22;
                             from 1922 in Korea)(acting)
1923 - 26 Nov 1944         Ivan Grigoryevich Akulinin         (b. 1880 - d. 1944)
                             (in Yugoslavia exile; in Berlin 1923–1925;
                            
in Paris from 1925)


Bashkir


[Bashkir Government
                      1918-1919 (Russia)]
20 Aug 1918 - 23 Mar 1919

20 Jul 1917                First All-Bashkir Assembly (Qoroltay) requestes Bashkir autonomy
                             (within Russia).
28 Nov 1917                Bashkir territory declared an "autonomous part of Russian Republic",
                             the Bashkir autonomy within Orenburg Governorate recognized by the
                             Orenburg Cossack Ataman Dutov.
21 Dec 1917                Third All-Bashkir Assembly established the Bashkir Government and
                             organized 9 Bashkir Cantons (by Sep 1918 increased to 13 Cantons)
                             as subdivisions of Orenburg and Ufa Governorates.
17 Feb 1918 -  3 May 1918  Bashkir autonomy taken over by Bashkir Soviet (Council), however on
                             30 Mar 1918 the Orenburg Governorate Soviet of Deputies declared
                             the autonomy abolished.
May 1918                   Bashkir Government restored, from Jul 1918 it recognized supreme
                             authority of "Komuch" (see above)(from 24 Sep 1918, of Provisional
                             All-Russian Government [PARG]), and "Komuch" recognized the Bashkir
                             autonomy.
 4 Nov 1918                Dissolution of the Bashkir Government declared by the PARG (not
                             effected) and the Bashkir troops to be subjected to the Orenburg
                             Cossack Host.
16 Feb 1919                Bashkir Government recognizes the authority of the Soviet Russian
                             government, on 18 Feb 1919 autonomous Bashkir Soviet Republic
                             proclaimed.
23 Mar 1919                Bashkir Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic established, within the
                            
Russian S.F.S.R. (see under Russian S.F.S.R. admin.)

Chairman of the Bashkir Central Council (Shura)(in Orenburg)
20 Jul 1917 - 21 Dec 1917  Sharif Ahmetzyanovich Manatov      (b. 1887 - d. 1936)  RSDRP-M
                             (= Sharif Ahmatzyan-uly Manat)
Chairman of the Bashkir Government (in Orenburg)   
21 Dec 1917 - 17 Feb 1918  Yunus Yulbarisovich Bikbov         (b. 1883 - d. 1942)  PSR
                             (= Yunys Yulbarys-uly Bikbov)
                             (1st time) 
Chairman of the Bashkir Provisional Revolutionary Soviet (in Orenburg, from Apr 1918 Sterlitamak)
17 Feb 1918 -  3 May 1918  Abdulla Sibagatullovich Davletshin (b. 1894 - d. 1963)  RKP
                             (= Abdulla Sibaghatulla-uly Daulat)
Chairmen of the Bashkir Government
May 1918 - 30 Jun 1918     Sagit Gubaydullovich Mryasov       (b. 1880 - d. 1932)
                             (= Saghit Ghobayzulla-uly Merasov)
                             (in Chelyabinsk) (acting)
Jul 1918 - Dec 1918        Yunus Yulbarisovich Bikbov         (s.a.)               PSR
                             (in Chelyabinsk, from Aug 1918 in Orenburg)
                             (2nd time)
Dec 1918 - 26 Jan 1919     Abdullah Kamaletdinovich Adigamov  (b. 1896 - d. 1968) 
                             (= Abdulla Kamaletdin-uly Azesyamov)
                             (acting)
26 Jan 1919 - 23 Mar 1919  Mstislav Aleksandrovich Kulayev    (b. 1873 - d. 1958)  Mil
                             (= Mohammatkhan Sahipgaray-uly Qulayev)
                             (in Temyasovo, in south-eastern Bashkiria)


Tambov

[Provisional
                Democratic Republic of Tambov Kray, 1920 (Russia)]

18 Aug 1919 – Aug 1919     "White" Don Cossacks briefly occupied Tambov.
19 Aug 1920                "Antonovshchina" peasant revolt (named after Aleksandr Stepanovich
                             Antonov [b. 1888 – d. 1922], chief of staff of United Partisan
                             Army) in Tambov region against Bolshevik power (by Feb 1921 the
                             rebels controlled the most of Governorate of Tambov, except the
                             largest towns).

20 May 1921                A republic proclaimed "until convocation of All-Russia Constituent
                             Assembly" (Provisional Democratic Republic of Tambov Kray).
Summer 1921                Uprising is gradually quelled.

Head of Provisional Democratic Republic of Tambov Kray (near Kirsanov, east of Tambov)
20 May 1921 – 11 Jul 1921  Shendyapin                         (d. 1921)            STK


Ufa
[Russian flag]
5 Jul 1918 - 30 Dec 1918
 8 Nov 1917                Bolshevik rule in Ufa (also 9 Nov 1917 in Samara, on 23 Dec 1917
                             in Simbirsk [modern Ulyanovsk]).
Jun/Jul 1918               Area fell under authority of "Komuch" (see above) after rebellion
                             of the Czechoslovak Corps (Samara 8 Jun 1918, Ufa 5 Jul 1918,
                             Simbirsk on 23 Jul 1918).
Sep/Dec 1918               Soviet advance, the area lost by anti-Bolshevik troops (12 Sep
                             Simbirsk, Samara 7 Oct 1918, Ufa 30 Dec 1918).
23 Sep 1918                "Komuch" integrated into the Provisional All-Russian Government
                             (see PARG above), but its former executive body on 8 Oct 1918
                             re-established itself in Ufa as the Ufa Oblast Government,
                             claiming "oblast autonomy" for the Ufa Governorate.
 4 Nov 1918                Oblast Government declared abolished by the PARG (dissolution
                             effected 2 Dec 1918).
13 Mar 1919 -  9 Jun 1919  Ufa retaken by "White" troops of Supreme Ruler Kolchak.

Chairman of the Council of Managers of Ufa Oblast Government (in Ufa)
 8 Oct 1918 -  2 Dec 1918  Vasiliy Nikolayevich Filippovskiy  (b. 1882 - d. 1940)  PSR
Chief Administrator of Samara-Ufa Kray (with rights of governor-general)
10 Dec 1918 - Apr 1919     Yevgeniy Kondratyevich Vishnevskiy (b. 1876 - d.af.1945)Mil
                             (in Ufa, then in Chelyabinsk Dec 1918-Mar 1919,
                             from Mar 1919 in Ufa)

Ural Cossack Host: see under Kazakhstan
Volga Germans: see under Russian S.F.S.R. admin.

Vyatka
[Russian flag]
 9 Nov 1917                Supreme Council for Administration assumed provisional "supreme
                             authority" in the Vyatka Governorate (retrospectively referred
                             to as the "Vyatka Republic").
14 Dec 1917                Bolsheviks took over the city of Vyatka (modern Kirov), on
                             21 Dec 1917 and arrested the Council.

Chairmen of the Supreme Council for Administration of Vyatka Governorate

 9 Nov 1917 - 26 Nov 1917  Pyotr Timofeyevich Salamatov       (b. 1882 - d.af.1939)PSR
27 Nov 1917 - 21 Dec 1917  Vasiliy Alekseyevich Treyter       (b. 1875 - d. 1929)  Non-party


South and the Caucasus

Abkhazia: see under Georgia

Aradayan Republic: see Nakhichevan under Azerbaijan

Aras (Araxes) Republic: see Nakhichevan under Azerbaijan
Armenian National Council: see Armenia

Astrakhan Host

[Russian flag]
to 6 Feb 1918
1818                       Astrakhan Cossack Host formed.
27 Nov 1917                Kalmyks incorporated in the Host as the Kalmyk Department on the
                             basis of the resolution of the Kalmyk Congress of Nov 12-14, 1917
                             (not fully effected).
30 Nov 1917                Committee of People's Authority formed, on 10 Dec 1917 it proclaimed
                             itself a "provisional supreme authority" in Astrakhan Governorate.
25 Jan 1918                Take-over of Astrakhan by Ataman of Astrakhan Cossack Host.
 6 Feb 1918                Bolshevik rule in Astrakhan, the Astrakhan Cossacks retreat to Don,
                             mostly at Velikoknyazheskaya (modern Proletarsk), and Kuban
                             (later pro-German party), or join the Ural Cossacks (later

                             anti-German party; from Sep 1918, recognized the authority of the
                             "Ufa Directory").
Jan 1919                   The re-united Host, then at Rostov-na-Donu, recognized the authority
                             of Denikin, the Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces in the
                             South
of Russia (see below), on 8 Jan 1919 the Host "autonomy"
                             confirmed.
Jun 1919 – Jan 1920        "White" forces, including Astrakhan Cossacks, in control of the
                             Kalmyk Steppe and Tsaritsyn (which became seat of the Host
                             Ataman).

Apr 1920                   Cossacks departed to Crimea through Kuban and Tuapse.
 4 Aug 1920                "Full internal self-government" granted to four Cossack Hosts of
                              Southern Russia, then in Crimea, by Vrangel', the Ruler in the
                              South of Russia.

Nov 1920                    Cossacks evacuate Crimea for Turkey.

Chairman of the Committee of People's Authority of Astrakhan Governorate
30 Nov 1917 - 25 Jan 1918  Aleksandr Semyonovich Perfilyev    (b. 1889 - d. 19..)  PLSR
Atamans of the Astrakhan Cossack Host
25 Jan 1918 - 15 Feb 1918  Ivan Alekseyevich Biryukov         (b. 1856 - d. 1919)  Mil  
                             (in office from 15 Oct 1917)   
Mar 1918 - Jan 1919        Danzan Tundutov (acting)           (b. 1888 - d. 1923)  Mil   
Mar 1918 - Dec 1918        German Mikhaylovich Astakhov       (b. 1888 - d. 1970)  Mil
                             (1st time)(in opposition, at the Ural Host)
Jan 1919 - Nov 1920        Nikolay Vasilyevich Lyakhov        (b. 1878 - d. 1945)  Mil/KDP
                             (continued in exile in Constantinople
                             1920-1921
, in Belgrade
1921-1944,
                             finally in Berlin
1944-1945)
1945 - 20 Dec 1970         German Mikhaylovich Astakhov       (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)(in exile in Paris)

Chairmen of the Astrakhan Cossack Host Government
25 Jan 1918 – Mar 1918     Nikolay Vasilyevich Lyakhov        (s.a.)               Mil/KDP
                             (in office from Nov 1917, continued in opposition to
                             Dec 1918 at the Ural Host)
Mar 1918 - Jan 1919        Boris Emmanuilovich Krishtafovich  (b. 18.. - d. 1944)  KDP
                             (acting)
Jan 1919 - Nov 1920        Sandzhi Bayanovich Bayanov         (b. 1884 - d.af.1937)PSR
Adzharistan: see Adjaria under Georgia
Baku Commune: see under Azerbaijan

Batum (Batoum): see Adjaria under Georgia

Black Sea Governorate

[Black Sea Soviet
                        Republic 1917-1918 (Russia)]
17 Dec 1917 - 26 Aug 1918

[Flag of
                        Black Sea Liberation Committee 1920 (Russia)]
9 Feb 1920 - 2 Apr 1920
Black Sea Liberation Committee

13 Dec 1917                Bolshevik rule in Novorossiysk.
10 Mar 1918                Black Sea (Chernomorskaya) Soviet Republic proclaimed in Black Sea
                             governorate, part of the Russian S.F.S.R.

30 May 1918                United with Kuban Soviet Republic to form Kuban-Black Sea Soviet
                             Republic.
 
7 Jul 1918                Part of the North Caucasian Soviet Republic.
26 Aug 1918                Novorossiysk taken by the Volunteer Army (later Armed Forces in
                             the South of Russia).
18 Sep 1918 -  6 Feb 1919  Sochi district annexed by Georgia (occupied from 6 Jul 1918).
 9 Feb 1920 -  2 Apr 1920  Sochi under rule of the Black Sea Governorate Liberation Committee
                            (formed 1 Dec 1919, in rebellion against the "Whites", it is
                            
abolished by Russian Soviet forces on 2 May 1920). 
27 Mar 1920                Soviet Russian forces retake Novorossiysk (Sochi is retaken on
                            
29 Apr 1920).

Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Soviets and
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
10 Mar 1918 - 30 May 1918  Avraam Izrailevich Rubin            (b. 1883 - d. 1918)  RKP

Georgian commanders of the Sochi district
Jul 1918 - Oct 1918        Giorgi Mazniashvili                 (b. 1870 - d. 1937)  Mil
Oct 1918 - Feb 1919        Aleksandre Koniashvili              (b. 1873 – d. 1951)  Mil

Chairman of the Black Sea Governorate Liberation Committee
 1 Dec 1919 -  2 May 1920  Vasiliy Nikolayevich Samarin-       (b. 1882 - d. 1940)  PSR

                             Filippovskiy


Central Caspian Dictatorship: see under Azerbaijan


Don

[Don Soviet Republic
                        1918 (Russia)]
25 Feb 1918 - 8 May 1918

[Flag of All-Great
                        Don Host 1918-1920 (Russia)]
17 May 1918 - 8 Jan 1920

c.1549                     Don Cossack Host recorded for the first time (see under Russia).
 7 Nov 1917                Don Cossack Host Government assumed provisionally "the entire
                             executive state authority" in the Don Host Oblast.
20 Nov 1917                Host Ataman declared Don "provisionally independent until
                             establishment of legitimate Russian authority."
24 Feb 1918                Bolsheviks capture Rostov-na-Donu (the rebellion against the Don
                             Cossacks began on 23 Jan 1918 by forming of the Revolutionary
                             Committee in Kamenskaya).
25 Feb 1918                Bolsheviks capture Novocherkassk.
23 Mar 1918                Don Soviet Republic, part of the Russian S.F.S.R., established at
                             Rostov-na-Donu.
 8 May 1918                German and Cossack forces retake the area (Germans occupied Rostov-
                             na-Donu in so-called "police action" until Nov 1918), the
                             government of Don Soviet Republic goes to Tsaritsyn (modern
                             Volgograd) and then to Velikoknyazheskaya (modern Proletarsk) to
                             28 Jun 1918.
17 May 1918                All-Great Don Host, declared "provisionally independent until
                             restoration of legitimate Russian authority" and a republic, the
                             Host constitution (Fundamental Laws) adopted.
 8 Jan 1919                Under authority of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in the
                             South of Russia (see South of Russia), Host "autonomy" confirmed.
 8 Jan 1920                Novocherkassk is lost to Soviet forces (Rostov-na-Donu lost 10 Jan
                             1920), Cossacks retreat toward Kuban, then Novorossiysk and by
                             end of March 1920 the Crimea.
 4 Aug 1920                "Full internal self-government" granted to four Cossack Hosts of
                             Southern Russia, then in Crimea, by Vrangel', the Ruler in the
                             South of Russia.
Nov 1920                   Don Cossacks evacuate Crimea for Constantinople.

Don Cossack Host Atamans
20 Mar 1917 1 Jul 1917  Yevgeniy Andreevich Voloshinov     (b. 1881 - d. 1918)  Mil
                             (acting to 8 May 1917, then interim)
 1 Jul 1917 - 11 Feb 1918  Aleksey Maksimovich Kaledin        (b. 1861 - d. 1918)  Mil
12 Feb 1918 - 25 Feb 1918  Anatoliy Mikhaylovich Nazarov      (b. 1876 - d. 1918)  Mil
25 Feb 1918 - 15 Apr 1918  Pyotr Kharitonovich Popov (acting) (b. 1867 - d. 1960)  Mil
                             (in opposition to the Bolsheviks in Velikoknyazheskaya,
                             then in Konstantinovsk)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Soviets
23 Mar 1918 - 28 Jun 1918  Viktor Semyonovich Kovalyov        (b. 1883 - d. 1919)  RKP
                             (from May 1918 in exile in Tsaritsyn, then in Velikoknyazheskaya)
Chairman of the Don Council of Defense
15 Apr 1918 - 21 Apr 1921  Georgiy Petrovich Yanov            (b. 1878 - d. 1924)  Mil
                             (in opposition to the Bolsheviks in Novocherkassk,
                             from 18 Apr 1918, in Konstantinovsk)
Chairman of the Don Provisional Government
21 Apr 1918 - 17 May 1918  Georgiy Petrovich Yanov            (s.a.)               Mil
                             (to 8 May 1918 in opposition to the Bolsheviks in Konstantinovsk)
All-Great Don Host Atamans
17 May 1918 - 15 Feb 1919  Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov         (b. 1869 - d. 1947)  Mil
15 Feb 1919 - Nov 1920     Afrikan Petrovich Bogayevskiy      (b. 1873 - d. 1934)  Mil
                             (acting to 19 Feb 1919) (continued in exile in
                             Constantinople 1920-1921, Sofia 1921-1922,
                             Belgrade 1922-1923, Paris 1923 - 21 Oct 1934)
1934 - 23 Jul 1942         Graf Mikhail Nikolayevich Grabbe   (b. 1868 - d. 1942)    
                             (in Paris exile)
1942 - 14 Oct 1947         Grigoriy Vasilyevich Tatarkin      (b. 1873 - d. 1947)
                             (in exile Belgrade 1942-1944, Berlin 1944-1945,
                             Munich
1945 - 14 Oct 1947)
Atamans of the All-Great Don Host Abroad (in exile in New York)
1947 - 1965                Ivan Alekseyevich Polyakov         (b. 1886 - d. 1969)
1965 - 18 Sep 2003         Nikolay Vasilyevich Fyodorov       (b. 1901 - d. 2003)
                             [not the last]

Chairmen of the Don Cossack Host Government
 1 Jul 1917 - 25 Dec 1917  Aleksey Maksimovich Kaledin        (s.a.)               Mil
25 Dec 1917 - 25 Feb 1918  Mitrofan Petrovich Bogayevskiy     (b. 1881 - d. 1918)  Non-party
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
(from May 1918 in exile in Tsaritsyn, then in Velikoknyazheskaya)
23 Mar 1918 - 11 May 1918  Fyodor Grigoryevich Podtyolkov     (b. 1886 - d. 1918)  Mil/PLSR
11 May 1918 - 11 Jun 1918  Sergey Ivanovich Syrtsov (acting)  (b. 1893 - d. 1937)  RKP
11 Jun 1918 - 28 Jun 1918  Ippolit Antonovich Doroshev        (b. 1896 - d. 1939)  RKP
Chairmen of the Host Council of the Directors of Departments
17 May 1918 - 19 Feb 1919  Afrikan Petrovich Bogayevskiy      (s.a.)               Mil
20 Feb 1919 -  1 Nov 1919  Pyotr Kharitonovich Popov          (s.a.)               Mil
 1 Nov 1919 - 23 Dec 1919  Zakhar Akimovich Alferov           (b. 1874 - d. 1957)  Mil
23 Dec 1919 - Feb 1920     Nikolay Mikhaylovich Melnikov      (b. 1882 - d. 1972)  Non-party
Feb 1920 - Nov 1920        Mitrofan Vasilyevich Korzhenevskiy (b. 1862 - d. 1926)  Non-party
                             (acting)

German Commander in Rostov-na-Donu (of Korps Knoerzer: 7th and 20th Landwehr Divisions)
May 1918 – Oct 1918        Karl Albert von Knoerzer           (b. 1858 - d. 1932)


Karabakh People's Government: see Nagorno-Karabakh under Azerbaijan
Kars National Council: see South-Western Caucasus under Turkey

Kuban

[Flag of Kuban
                        Cossack Host 1918-1920 (Russia)]
5 Dec 1918 - 17 Mar 1920

[Kuban Soviet Republic, 1918 (Russia)]
14 Mar 1918 - 17 Aug 1918

1788                       Black Sea Cossack Host formed (largely former Zaporozhian Sich
                             Cossacks, in 1793 relocated to Kuban from modern Transnistria).
1860                       Renamed Kuban Cossack Host, incorporated the western part of the
                             dissolved Caucasus Line Cossack Host.
20 Oct 1917                Kuban Oblast is renamed Kuban Kray, the first constitution
                            (Provisional Fundamental Regulations on Supreme Governing
                             Institutions) adopted.
 8 Nov 1917                Kuban Cossack Host Government assumed provisionally "entire state
                             authority" in Kuban Kray.
28 Jan 1918                Kuban Kray declared a "sovereign republic" within a federal Russia.
14 Mar 1918 - 17 Aug 1918  Communist occupation of Yekaterinodar (modern Krasnodar) (the
                             rebellion against the Kuban Cossacks begun 16 Feb 1918 by forming
                             of the Revolutionary Committee in Armavir).
13 Apr 1918                Kuban Soviet Republic, part of the Russian S.F.S.R.
30 May 1918                Kuban-Black Sea (Kubano-Chernomorskaya) Soviet Republic created by
                             merger of Kuban Soviet Republic and Black Sea Soviet Republic.
 7 Jul 1918                North Caucasian (Severo-Kavkazskaya) Soviet Republic founded on First
                             Congress of Councils of Northern Caucasus in Yekaterinodar by
                             merger of the Kuban-Black Sea Soviet Republic, Stavropol Soviet
                             Republic, and nominally the Terek People's Soviet Republic.
17 Aug 1918                Yekaterinodar captured by Denikin's Russian Volunteer Army (later
                             Armed Forces in the South Russia) and Kuban Cossacks, the Soviet
                             government is moved to Pyatigorsk (from Dec 1918 in Tsaritsyn
                             [modern Volgograd]).
11 Nov 1918                Kuban Kray declared a "sovereign state" within a Russian federal
                             republic, on 5 Dec 1918 the second constitution (Provisional
                             Fundamental Regulations on Governance) adopted.
 8 Jan 1919                Under authority of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in the
                             South of Russia (see South of Russia), Host "autonomy" confirmed.
11 Jan 1919                North Caucasian Soviet Republic is formally liquidated by Russian
                             S.F.S.R.
17 Mar 1920                Yekaterinodar is retaken by Communist forces.
 3 May 1920                Capitulation of part of "White" Cossack forces of Kuban at Sochi
                             and Tuapse, part of Cossacks evacuated to Crimea or Georgia.
 4 Aug 1920                "Full internal self-government" granted to four Cossack Hosts of
                             Southern Russia, then in Crimea, by Vrangel', the Ruler in the
                             South of Russia.
Nov 1920                   Kuban Cossacks evacuate Crimea for Lemnos Island, Greece.


Kuban Cossack Host Atamans

Mar 1917 - 23 Oct 1917     Konstantin Porfiryevich Gadenko                         Mil
                             (acting)
23 Oct 1917 -
23 Nov 1919  Aleksandr Petrovich Filimonov      (b. 1867 - d. 1948)  Mil
                            
(in opposition to the Bolsheviks Mar 1918 -
                             Aug 1918, first in various locations in Kuban
                             countryside, from May 1918 in Novocherkassk at Don)

Oct 1917 - Nov 1917        Ivan Leontyevich Makarenko         (b. 1882 - d. 1945)  CH
                             (acting for Filimonov)
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee of Soviets and Chairmen of the Council
of People's Commissars
(from Aug 1918 in exile in Pyatigorsk, from Dec 1918 in Tsaritsyn)
13 Apr 1918 -  5 Jun 1918  Yan Vasilyevich Poluyan            (b. 1891 - d. 1937)  RKP
 5 Jun 1918 - 21 Oct 1918  Avraam Izrailevich Rubin           (b. 1883 - d. 1918)  RKP
21 Oct 1918 - 28 Oct 1918  .... (acting)
28 Oct 1918 - 11 Jan 1919  Maksim Sergeyevich Akulov          (b. 1897 - d. 1924)  RKP
Kuban Cossack Host Atamans
23 Nov 1919 - 24 Nov 1919  Pavel Ivanovich Kurganskiy (acting)(b. 1879 - d. 1957)  CH
24 Nov 1919 - 29 Dec 1919  Nikolay Mitrofanovich Uspenskiy    (b. 1875 - d. 1919)  Mil
29 Dec 1919 - 13 Jan 1920  Filip Semyonovich Sushkov (acting) (b. 1864 - d. 1946)  LI
13 Jan 1920 - Mar 1920     Nikolay Andrianovich Bukretov      (b. 1876 - d. 1930)  Mil
Mar 1920 - Nov 1920        Vasiliy Nikolayevich Ivanis        (b. 1888 - d. 1974)  Mil
                             (acting)
1920 - 1958                Vyacheslav Grigoryevich Naumenko   (b. 1883 - d. 1973)
                             (in exile Lemnos Island, Greece 1920-1921;
                             Belgrade 1921-1944, in Berin 1944-1945,
                             West Germany 1945-1949, from 1949 New York)
Atamans of the Kuban Cossack Host Abroad
(in exile in New York, from 1978 in Howell, New Jersey)
1958 - 1966                Boris Ivanovich Tkachev            (b. 1896 - d. 1972)
1966 - 18 Sep 1975         Vladimir Ivanovich Tretyakov       (b. 1897 - d. 1975)
1975 -  7 Mar 1984         Aleksandr Vasilyevich Bublik       (b. 1934 - d. 1984)
1984 -                     Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Pevnev      (b. 1929)

Chairman of the Kuban Cossack Host Government
30 Apr 1917 - 14 Nov 1917  Alexander Petrovich Filimonov      (s.a.)               Mil
Chairmen of the Kuban Kray Government

14 Nov 1917 - 31 Dec 1918  Luka Lavrentyevich Bych            (b. 1870 - d. 1945)  PSR/CH
                             (in opposition to the Bolsheviks Mar 1918 –
                             Aug 1918, first in various locations in Kuban
                             countryside, from May 1918 in Novocherkassk at Don)

18 Dec 1918 - 19 May 1919  Filip Semyonovich Sushkov
         (s.a.)               LI
                             (
acting for Bych to 31 Dec 1918)
                             (1st time)  
19 May 1919 - 25 May 1919  Daniil Yermolayevich Skobtsov      (b. 1884 - d. 1969)  LI
                             (acting)
25 May 1919 - 11 Dec 1919  Pavel Ivanovich Kurganskiy         (s.a.)               CH
11 Dec 1919 - 18 Jan 1920  Filip Semyonovich Sushkov          (s.a.)               LI
                             (2nd time)  
18 Jan 1920 - Nov 1920     Vasiliy Nikolayevich Ivanis        (s.a.)               Mil
c.Aug 1920                 Ivan Georgiyevich Zakharov                              Mil
                             (acting for Ivanis)

Abbreviations: CH = Chernomortsy (Black Sea Cossacks, informal, Kuban Cossack nationalist, 1917-1920); LI = Lineytsy (Line Cossacks, informal, Kuban Cossack moderate autonomist, 1917-1920)


Mountainous Armenia: see Nagorno-Karabakh under Azerbaijan


Nakhichevan: see under Azerbaijan


Mugan: see Talysh-Mughan under Azerbaijan



South of Russia

[Russian flag]

 7 Jan 1918                Volunteer Army formed in Rostov-na-Donu (the first anti-Bolshevik
                             unit to be called the "White Guard").
22 Feb 1918                Volunteer Army left Don for Kuban, on 30 Mar 1918 allied with the
                             Kuban Cossacks, then based in various locations along Kuban-Don
                             border.
21 Jul 1918                Stavropol taken by "Whites", the Volunteer Army begun to acquire
                             territory outside of Cossack areas (Novorossiysk taken 26 Aug 1918).
 3 Oct 1918                "Governorates and Oblasts Occupied by Volunteer Army", a provisional
                             territorial entity proclaimed (All-Russian authority, claimed by
                             the "Ufa Directory", not recognized).
 8 Jan 1919                Armed Forces in the South of Russia (AFSR) organized by agreement
                             between the Volunteer Army and the All-Great Don Host, the "Areas
                             Administered by AFSR" created (included the Don, Kuban and
                             eventually Terek Cossack Host areas), the commander-in-chief of
                             AFSR recognized as the supreme "White" authority in the South of
                             Russia.
25 Jun 1919                AFSR recognized Aleksandr Kolchak as Supreme Ruler of the Russian
                             state (see Alternative "White" Central Governments), while Anton
                             Denikin, commander-in-chief of AFSR, retained "entire military and
                             civil authority in the South of Russia."
Sep 1919 - Oct 1919        Maximum "White" advance towards Moscow (Kursk occupied 20 Sep-19 Nov,
                             Voronezh occupied 6 Oct-24 Oct, Oryol occupied 13 Oct-20 Oct).
15 Jan 1920                Supreme authority of the Russian state devolved to Denikin,
                             appointed as successor of Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak on 4 Jan
                             1920, but he accepted neither the functions nor style of Supreme
                             Ruler (the supreme authority lapsed).
21 Feb 1920 - 27 Mar 1920  Government in South of Russia created by Denikin (he was recognized
                             as "head of authority in South of Russia", a status but not
                             style) in Novorossiysk by agreement of AFSR with 3 Cossack Hosts.
27 Mar 1920                Novorossiysk occupied by Soviet Russian forces, the "White"
                             headquarters moved to Crimea.
11 Apr 1920                Baron Vrangel' (Wrangel) assumes the style of the Ruler claiming
                             the supreme Russian authority (see Alternative "White" Central
                             Governments).

Commanders-in-chief of the Volunteer Army (from Aug 1918, in Yekaterinodar)
 7 Jan 1918 -  8 Oct 1918  Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseyev      (b. 1857 - d. 1918)  Mil
                             (with style of the Supreme Chief)
 8 Oct 1918 -  8 Jan 1919  Anton Ivanovich Denikin            (b. 1872 - d. 1947Mil
Commanders-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in the South of Russia

 8 Jan 1919 -  4 Apr 1920  Anton Ivanovich Denikin            (s.a.)               Mil
                             (in Taganrog to Dec 1919, in Tikhoretsk Dec 1919 - Feb
                             1920, in Novorossiysk Feb 1920-Mar 1920, then Feodosiya)
 4 Apr 1920 - 11 Apr 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (b. 1878 - d. 1928)  Mil
                             (Wrangel)(in Sevastopol')

Chairmen of the Special Consultation with the Commander-in-chief (on 15 Feb 1919 formally
granted the executive function)(to Jul 1919 in Yekaterinodar, then in Rostov-na-Donu)
31 Aug 1918 -  8 Oct 1918  Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseyev      (b. 1857 - d. 1918)  Mil
 8 Oct 1918 - 25 Oct 1919  Avram Mikhaylovich Dragomirov      (b. 1868 - d. 1955)  Mil
Sep 1919 - 25 Oct 1919     Aleksandr Sergeyevich Lukomskiy    (b. 1868 - d. 1939)  Mil
                             (acting for Dragomirov)
25 Oct 1919 - 30 Dec 1919  Aleksandr Sergeyevich Lukomskiy    (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of the Council of Managers with the Commander-in-chief (in Novorossiysk)
30 Dec 1919 - 21 Feb 1920  Aleksandr Sergeyevich Lukomskiy    (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Government in the South of Russia
21 Feb 1920 - 27 Mar 1920  Nikolay Mikhaylovich Melnikov      (b. 1881 - d. 1972)  Non-party
                             (in Novorossiysk)



South-East Union of Cossack Hosts, Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, and Free People of the Steppes

 2 Nov 1917                Treaty of union of Cossack hosts of Don, Kuban, Astrakhan and Terek,
                             Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, and Free People of the 
                             Steppes (this designation stood for the Kalmyks) is signed at
                             Vladikavkaz.
14 Nov 1917                Treaty of union also approved by the Ural Host Government.
29 Nov 1917                United government of the South-East Union of Cossack Hosts, Mountain
                             Peoples of the Caucasus, and Free People of the Steppes is
                             constituted in Yekaterinodar (Kuban), as part of the Russian
                             federal republic.
28 Feb 1918                United government ceases to function.

Chairman of the United Government
29 Nov 1917 – 28 Feb 1918  Vasiliy Akimovich Kharlamov        (b. 1875 – d. 1957)  KDP


South-Western Caucasus Government: see under Turkey


Stavropol 

[Stavropol
                            Soviet Republic, 1918 (Russia)]
14 Jan 1918 - 21 Jul 1918

19 Nov 1917                Bolshevik rule rejected by the Stavropol Governorate Zemstvo
                             (self-administration).
14 Jan 1918                Bolshevik rule in Stavropol governorate, Stavropol Soviet Republic   
                             (this designation came in use later and was not formally adopted),
                             founded in Stavropol, part of the Russian S.F.S.R..
 7 Jul 1918                Stavropol Soviet Republic merged into North Caucasian Soviet Republic.
21 Jul 1918                Under "White" forces (later Armed Forces in the South of Russia).
29 Feb 1920                Soviet Russian forces retake Stavropol.

Chairman of the Stavropol Governorate Zemstvo Board
1917? - 14 Jan 1918        Anatoliy Matveyevich Kukhtin ?     (d. af.1919)
Chairmen of the Stavropol Governorate Executive Committee of Soviets

14 Jan 1918 - 27 May 1918  Grigoriy Ivanovich Meshcheryakov                        SSRM
27 May 1918 -  7 Jul 1918  Ivan Yemelyanovich Deyneko (Shatov)(b. 1881 – d. 1942)  RKP

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars

21 Jan 1918 - 27 May 1918  Aleksandr Andreyevich Ponomaryev   (b. 1876 - d. 1941)  RSDRP-B/RKP
27 May 1918                Post abolished


Syunik Republic: see Nakhichevan under Azerbaijan


Terek 

[Terek People's Soviet
                        Republic, 1918-1919 (Russia)]
19 Mar 1918 - 11 Feb 1919

[Terek Cossack Host Flag
                      in exile c.1950s (adopted possibly in the 1920s)
                      (Russia)]
Terek Cossack Host Flag in exile c.1950's
(adopted possibly in the 1920's)

1712                       Grebni Cossack Host organized.
1832                       Caucasus Line Cossack Host formed from Grebni Host and other
                             Cossack entities.
1860                       Renamed Terek Cossack Host.
10 Nov 1917                Host Government assumed provisionally "entire state authority"
                             in Terek Oblast.
14 Dec 1917 - 18 Mar 1918  Provisional Government Council of Terek-Dagestan Kray formed in
                             Vladikavkaz by agreement between Terek Cossacks and Mountain
                             Peoples, claimed "provisional entire authority until establishment
                             of legitimate Russian authority" in Terek and Dagestan Oblasti.
16 Mar 1918                Terek People's Soviet Republic, as part of the Russian S.F.S.R.,
                             founded by Congress of Terek Peoples at Pyatigorsk (the rebellion
                             against Terek-Dagestan Government begun by Bolshevik takeover of
                             Grozny on 13 Jan 1918 and by forming of the People's Council on
                             31 Jan 1918 in Pyatigorsk).
19 Mar 1918                Soviet troops occupied Vladikavkaz.
 3 Jul 1918 - 23 Nov 1918  Cossack rebellion, a provisional government formed in Mozdok (the
                             Cossacks briefly occupy Vladikavkaz 6 - 17 Aug 1918), on 3 Oct
                             1918 the Terek Republic, as part of a Russian federal republic,
                             proclaimed.
 7 Jul 1918 - 11 Jan 1919  Terek People's Soviet Republic declared to be merged into the North
                             Caucasian Soviet Republic (not effected); on 11 Jan 1919 the Terek
                             republic is dissolved by the Russian S.F.S.R.
11 Feb 1919                Vladikavkaz occupied by Denikin's "White" Armed Forces in the South
                             of Russia (AFSR)(see South of Russia) and Terek Cossacks
                             (Pyatigorsk occupied already 20 Jan 1919, Grozny 4 Feb 1919).
 7 Mar 1919                Authority of the "autonomous" restored Terek Cossack Host limited to
                             the Cossack areas in the Terek Oblast (areas of the Mountain
                             Peoples and the 3 main urban areas remained under direct authority
                             of AFSR), on 20 Jun 1920 the Host constitution (Provisional
                             Regulations on Governance) adopted.
 5 Apr 1920                Soviet occupation of Vladikavkaz (Pyatigorsk already taken 16 Mar
                             1920, Grozny 20 Mar 1920), the Terek Cossacks evacuated to
                             Georgia and then Crimea.
 4 Aug 1920                "Full internal self-government" granted to four Cossack Hosts of
                             Southern Russia, then in Crimea, by Vrangel', the Ruler in the
                             South of Russia.
Nov 1920                   Terek Cossacks evacuate Crimea for Turkey.
20 Jan 1921                Some territory part of Mountain Autonomous Socialist Soviet
                             Republic (proclaimed 17 Nov 1920).

Terek Cossack Host Atamans
 9 Apr 1917 - 29 Dec 1917  Mikhail Aleksandrovich Karaulov    (b. 1878 - d. 1917)  Mil
29 Dec 1917 -  8 Mar 1918  Lev Yefimovich Medyanik (acting)   (b. 1873 - d. 1918)  Mil
Chairmen of the Provisional Terek-Dagestan Kray Government Council
14 Dec 1917 - 18 Mar 1918  Knyaz' Rashid-Khan Zabitovich      (b. 1883 - d. 1937)  SGSK
                             Kaplanov
                             (left Feb 1918 for Tiflis, Georgia)
Feb 1918 - 18 Mar 1918     Aslan-Bek Butayev                  (b. 1880 – d. 1938)  SGSK
                             (acting for Kaplanov)
Chairmen of the Terek People's Council
15 Mar 1918 - Aug 1918     Yermolay Sergeyevich Bogdanov                           RSDRP-I
Aug 1918 - Dec 1918        Akhmet Tambulatovich Tsalikov      (b. 1882 – d. 1928)  RSDRP-I
Dec 1918 - 11 Jan 1919     Said Ibragimovich Gabiyev          (b. 1882 – d. 1963)  PLSR
Chairman of Terek Kray Provisional Cossack-Peasant People's Government (in rebellion, in Mozdok)
 3 Jul 1918 - 23 Nov 1918  Georgiy Fyodorovich Bicherakhov    (b. 1878 – d. 1920)  RSDRP-M
                             (continued in exile at Petrovsk-Port to 8 Dec 1918)
Chief administrators of Terek-Dagestan Kray (with rights of governor-general, in Pyatigorsk)
23 Jan 1919 - 29 Apr 1919  Vladimir Platonovich Lyakhov       (b. 1869 – d. 1920)  Mil
Mar 1919 - 29 Apr 1919     Yevgeniy Vasilyevich Maslovskiy    (b. 1876 – d. 1971)  Mil
                             (acting for absent Lyakhov)
Chief administrator of North Caucasus (with rights of governor-general, in Pyatigorsk)
(in charge of Terek, Dagestan, Stavropol, Kalmyk Steppe, and Transcaspia)
29 Apr 1919 - Apr 1920     Ivan Georgiyevich Erdeli           (b. 1870 – d. 1939)  Mil
Terek Cossack Host Ataman
 7 Mar 1919 - Nov 1920     Gerasim Andreyevich Vdovenko       (b. 1867 - d. 1946)  Mil
                             (continued in exile in Constantinople 1920-1921,
                             Belgrade  1921-1945, Soviet prisoner from 1945)
Atamans of the Terek Cossack Host Abroad
1952 - 1970                Konstantin Konstantinovich Agoyev  (b. 1889 – d. 1971)
                             (in exile in Fairfield, Connecticut)
1970 - 1973                Vladimir Ivanovich Staritskiy      (b. 1885 – d. 1975)
                             (in exile in Dorchester, Maryland)
1973 - 1981                Konstantin Iosifovich Shcherbakov  (b. 1891 – d. 1983)
                             (in exile in Richmond, Virginia)
1981 -  7 Jan 1998         Nikolay Nikolayevich Protopopov    (b. 1921 – d. 1998)
                             (in exile in Monterey, California)

Chairman of the Terek Cossack Host Government 
Apr 1917 -  8 Mar 1918     Lev Yefimovich Medyanik            (s.a.)               Mil
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners
18 Mar 1918 - 20 Jun 1918  Samuil Grigoryevich Buachidze      (b. 1882 - d. 1918)  RKP
20 Jun 1918 - 20 Aug 1918  Yuriy Gavrilovich Pashkovskiy      (b. 1889 - d. 1918)  PLSR
20 Aug 1918 - Dec 1918     Frits Khristianovich Bulle         (b. 1883 – d. 1939)  RKP
                             (Fricis Bulle)
Dec 1918 -  11 Jan 1919    Yakov Petrovich Butyrin            (b. 1884 – d. 1919)  RSDRP-I
Chairmen of Terek Cossack Host Government
 7 Mar 1919 - early 1920   Valentin Iosifovich Abramov                             Non-party
early 1920 - Nov 1920      Yevgeniy Aleksandrovich            (b. 1890 – d. 1943)  Mil
                             Bukanovskiy


Dagestan
 
[Mountain
                            People's Republic 1918-1919 (Dagestan,
                            Russia)]
11 May 1918 - 24 May 1919
Mountain Republic Flag
[Caucasus-Caspian Government Flag 1918
                            (same color arragement as Serbia)(Dagestan,
                            Russia)]
19 Oct 1918 - 8 Nov 1918
Caucasus-Caspian Government Flag
[North
                            Caucasus Emirate Flag 1919-1920 (Dagestan,
                            Russia)]
19 Sep 1919 - Apr 1920
North Caucasus Emirate Flag
[Mountain
                            Republic Flag or Council of Defense of North
                            Caucasus (possible) flag 1919-1920
                            (Dagestan, Russia)]
19 Oct 1919 -  7 Feb 1920 Mountain Rep. Flag
or Council of Defense of North Caucasus (possible)


Nov 1917                   Dagestan Oblast Executive Committee, located in Temir-Khan-Shura
                             (modern Buynaksk), does not recognize Bolshevik rule.
13 Dec 1917                Petrovsk-Port (modern Makhachkala) City Soviet seizes power in the
                             city and along the coast.
14 Dec 1917                Dagestan claimed by the Terek-Dagestan provisional government
                             (largely not effected).
23 Mar 1918                Petrovsk-Port occupied by anti-Bolshevik forces.
19 Apr 1918                Communists from Baku (see Baku Commune) retake Petrovsk-Port
                             (Temir-Khan-Shura also taken on 1 May 1918).
May 1918 – Oct 1918        Imam of Dagestan (Imamate was proclaimed 25 Jan 1918) attempted to
                             organize "government of Dagestan" in Gunib in opposition to the
                             Bolsheviks.
11 May 1918                Republic of the Union of Mountain Peoples of the North Caucasus
                             (also officially styled as "Mountain Republic" or "North Caucasus
                             Republic") founded in exile in Batumi (nominally consisting of 7
                             "states" - Dagestan, Chechen-Ingush, Ossetia, Kabarda, Karachay-
                             Balkar, Circassia, and Abkhazia), independence from Russia
                             proclaimed
(not recognized by Soviet Russia or "White" Russians).
 8 Jun 1918                Independence of the Mountain Republic recognized by the Ottoman
                             Empire in the Treaty of Batum.
 2 Sep 1918                Petrovsk-Port occupied by troops of Central Caspian Dictatorship
                             from Baku (Temir-Khan-Shura occupied 18 Sep 1918), on 19 Oct 1918
                             the local Caucasus-Caspian Union Provisional Government organized
                             in Petrovsk-Port, it
recognized the supreme Russian authority of 
                             the "Ufa Directory".

 8 Nov 1918 – 30 Nov 1918  Turkish occupation of Petrovsk-Port (in Derbent already from 6 Oct
                             1918, in Temir-Khan-Shura from 23 Oct 1918) on behalf of the
                             Mountain Republic.
 8 Nov 1918                Government of the Mountain Republic moved to Temir-Khan-Shura (in
                             Derbent from 12 Oct 1918).
Dec 1918 – Jul 1919        British troops stationed in Petrovsk-Port.
22 Dec 1918                Constitution (Provisional Regulations on the Union Council and
                             Government of the Mountain Republic) adopted, the Republic
                             actually controlled only the largest part of the Dagestan Oblast.
24 May 1919                Mountain Republic abolished with occupation of Temir-Khan-Shura by
                             Denikin's "White" Armed Forces in the South of Russia (Petrovsk-
                             Port occupied on 21 May 1919).
19 Sep 1919 – Apr 1920     North Caucasus Emirate founded (in rebellion against Russian "White"
                             Army), capital Vedeno (in south-east Chechnya).
19 Oct 1919 –  7 Feb 1920  Pro-republican Council of Defense of North Caucasus founded (in                                     rebellion against Russian "White" Army), capital in Levashi; on 
                             7 Feb 1920 taken over by the formerly allied Red partisans.
30 Mar 1920                Soviet Red Army takes Petrovsk-Port (Temir-Khan-Shura taken on
                             24 Mar 1920), "White" troops leave for Persia.
 5 Sep 1920 - May 1921     Imamate of Dagestan (again) proclaimed, in rebellion against Soviet
                             rule, capital in Botlikh.
20 Jan 1921                Dagestan A.S.S.R. (within Russian S.F.S.R.)(proclaimed 13 Nov 1920)
                             (see under Russian S.F.S.R admin.)

Note: Ethnic affiliation given in brackets.

Chairman of Dagestan Oblast Executive Committee (in Temir-Khan-Shura)
23 Nov 1917 - Apr 1918     Temir-Bulat Bammatov [Kumyk]       (b. 1887 - d. 1918)  SGSK
Imam of Dagestan (in Gunib)
May 1918 - Oct 1918        Najmuddin Hutsi [Avar] (1st time)  (b. 1859 - d. 1925)
                             (= Nazhmudin Gotsinskiy)
                             (proclaimed 25 Jan 1918)
Chairmen of the Government of the Republic of the Union of Mountain Peoples

11 May 1918 - 20 Dec 1918  Abdul-Madzhid "Thapa" Chermoyev    (b. 1882 - d. 1937)  SGSK
                             [Chechen](in Tiflis, Georgia, exile May - Oct 1918)
20 Dec 1918 - 20 May 1919  Pshemakho Tamashevich Kotsev       (b. 1884 - d. 1962)  SGSK
                             [Kabardian]
Feb 1919 - 22 Mar 1919     Knyaz' Nukh-Bek Tarkovskiy [Kumyk] (b. 1878 - d. 1951)  Mil
                              (acting for absent Kotsev)
20 May 1919 - 24 May 1919  Minkail Khalilov [Lak]             (b. 1869 - d. 1935)  Mil
Chairman of the Caucasus-Caspian Union Provisional Government
19 Oct 1918 -  8 Nov 1918  Lazar Fyodorovich Bicherakhov      (b. 1882 - d. 1952)  RSDRP-M/Mil
                             [Ossetian]
                           (in opposition to the Republic of Mountain Peoples)
Emirs of North Caucasus (in Vedeno)
19 Sep 1919 - 30 Mar 1920  Uzun Haji Khair Khan Salti [Avar]  (b. 1848 - d. 1920)
                             (= Uzun-Khadzhi Saltinskiy)
30 Mar 1920 - Apr 1920     Sheikh Dervish Mukhammad [Avar]
Chairmen of Council of Defense of North Caucasus (in Levashi)
19 Oct 1919 -  7 Feb 1920  Sheikh Ali Haji Aqushi [Dargin]    (b. 1847 - d. 1930)
                             (= Ali-Khadzhi Akushinskiy)
Oct 1919 - Nov 1919        Ali-Khan Kantemir  [Ossetian]      (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
                             (acting for Ali Haji)
Imams of Dagestan (in Botlikh)
 5 Sep 1920 - May 1921     Najmuddin Hutsi [Avar] (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (= Nazhmudin Gotsinskiy)
May 1921                   Mukhammad Said-Bek [Avar]          (b. 1901 - d. 1981)


Grand Vizier of Emirate (prime minister)(in Vedeno)
22 Sep 1919 -  6 Feb 1920  Inaluk Arsanukayev-Dyshninskiy     (d. 1921)            Mil
                            ("Mukhammad Kiyamil Khan") [Chechen]
                   

Ottoman Turkish Commander (of the 15th Division)
Oct 1918 - 30 Nov 1918    Yusuf Izzet Pasha                   (b. 1876 - d. 1922)
British Representative in the North Caucasus
Dec 1918 - Jul 1919       Sir Alfred "Toby" Rawlinson         (b. 1867 - d. 1934)


Mountain People's Republic: see under Dagestan

Mugan Republic: see under Azerbaijan
Nakhichevan Republic Soviet Socialist Republic: see under Azerbaijan

North Caucasus Emirate: see under Dagestan
North Caucasian Soviet Republic: see under Kuban
Syunik Republic: see Nagorno-Karabakh under Azerbaijan

Transcaucasia Democratic Federative Republic: see under Georgia


Central Asia


Alash-Orda (All-Kirghiz People's Council): see Kazakhstan

Amudarya Provisional Government: see Karakalpakstan under Uzbekistan

Basmachi: see Kokand under Uzbekistan
Bukhara (Bokhara) and Bukharan People's Soviet Republic: see under Uzbekistan
Fergana Autonomy: see Kokand under Uzbekistan

Khorazm/Khiva/Khorazmian People's Soviet Republic: see under Uzbekistan
Pamir Revolutionary Committee: see Gorno-Badakshan under Tajikistan
Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic ("Turksovnarkom"): see under Uzbekistan

Transcaspian Oblast: see under Turkmenistan

Turkestan Turkic Independent Islamic Republic: see Kokand under Uzbekistan
Siberia

Siberia Region

[Siberian Autonomist
                        flag, 1917-1918 (Russia)]
28 Oct 1917 - 14 Feb 1918;
26 May 1918 - 4 Nov 1918

[Siberian Tsentrosibir 1918 (Russia)]
14 Feb 1918 - 26 May 1918
“Tsentrosibir”
[Siberia
                      alternative flag (as used by Siberian troops) 1918
                      (Russia)]
26 May 1918 - 4 Nov 1918
Alternative Flag
(as used by Siberian troops)

28 Oct 1917               First Siberian Oblast Assembly elects an executive committee at
                            Tomsk.

Nov/Dec 1917              Bolshevik authority established in most of Siberia (Krasnoyarsk 10
                            Nov, Irkutsk 2 Dec, Omsk 13 Dec, Tomsk 19 Dec, Barnaul 20 Dec 1917)
                            under the largely autonomous Central Executive Committee of Soviets
                            of Siberia ("Tsentrosibir"), described as "Soviet regional
                            association", in Irkutsk.
20-28
Dec 1917            All-Siberian Oblast Extraordinary Assembly is convened in Tomsk (with
                            representatives from the Governorates and Oblasti of Akmolinsk,
                            Altay, Irkutsk, Semipalatinsk, Tobolsk, Tomsk, Transbaikal,
                            Yakutsk, and Yenisey), and declares itself "autonomous oblast
                            authority" and its opposition to the Bolsheviks in Petrograd.

26 Dec 1917               Provisional Siberian Oblast Council
accepted 'regulations' for the
                            provisional institutions of the
Siberian administration
                            (provisional
constitution).
 
7-8 Feb 1918             Bolshevik forces begin arresting local autonomy leaders.
10 Feb 1918               Provisional Siberian Government (PSG) is established at Tomsk by the
                            first (underground) session of Siberian Oblast Duma (8 Feb-14 Feb
                            1918), which claimed "entire authority until convocation of the
                            Siberian Constituent Assembly."

Feb 1918                  PSG flees Bolshevik forces for Chita, then in exile in Harbin, later
                            Vladivostok; by then only the Tobolsk Governorate (see
Tobolsk)
                            and Yakutsk Oblast (see Yakutia) were outside of Bolshevik control.

20 May 1918               The Czechoslovak Corps refuses Bolshevik demands to disarm and
                            convenes a congress of
corps units delegates at Chelyabinsk and the
                            congress forms the Provisional Executive Committee of the
                            Czechoslovak Corps and the Military Council.
25-26 May 1918            Bolshevik forces in central Siberia are overthrown by Czechoslovak
                            Corps and "White" Russian (Siberian) forces. Bolsheviks evacuate
                            Novo-Nikolayevsk (modern Novosibirsk) on 26 May 1918, Tomsk on
                            31 May 1918, Omsk on 7 Jun 1918, Barnaul 15 Jun 1918, Krasnoyarsk
                            19 Jun 1918, Irkutsk on 11 Jul 1918.

26 May 1918               Western Siberian Commissariat (WSC)(Zapadno-Sibirskiy Komissariat),
                            earlier established by PSG, at Novo-Nikolayevsk (in Omsk from 7 Jun
                            1918) led the anti-Bolshevik resistance (WSC nominally represented
                            PSG, on 30 Jun 1918 renamed the Provisional Government of
                            Autonomous Siberia [PGAS], located in Vladivostok [see Primorye]).

29 Jun 1918               Alternative Provisional Government of Siberia (PGS) formed in Omsk,
                            at a meeting featuring several members of the former body (PSG)
                            who were still in Western Siberia, and WSC dissolved (PGS rejected
                            authority of "Komuch" in Samara).

30 Jun 1918               PGAS in Vladivostok (see under Primorye) refuse to recognize the
                            reformed PGS in Omsk and continue in dissidence to 22 Sep 1918
                            claiming to be the legitimate Siberian government.

 4 Jul 1918               Declaration on Siberian state sovereignty (Deklyaraciya o
                            gosudarstvennoy samostoyatel'nosti Sibiri) "within Russian state"
                            adopted by PGS "until such time as territory of European Russia]
                            was cleared of Bolshevik and German occupation" (PGS claimed
                            "supreme authority of Siberia" from the Pacific to the Urals). The
                            declaration was opposed by the PGAS.

23 Sep 1918                PGS together with "Komuch" established Provisional All-Russian
                             Government in Ufa ("Ufa Directory")(see PARG
above) and recognized
                             its supreme authority.

 
3 Nov 1918                Provisional Government of Siberia passes power to Provisional All-
                             Russian Government and dissolves itself (as decided 23 Oct 1918).
27 Jan 1919                Trans-Siberian Railway between Novo-Nikolayevsk and Irkutsk made a
                             "Czechoslovak zone of operations" by the Inter-Allied Railway
                             Agreement of 9 Jan 1919.
Oct 1919/Jan 1920          Red Army retook Siberia as "White" troops of Supreme Ruler Kolchak
                             retreated (Omsk 15 Nov 1919, Barnaul 11 Dec 1919, Tomsk on 22 Dec
                             1919, and Krasnoyarsk on 4 Jan 1920).
25 Dec 1919 -  4 Jan 1920  Krasnoyarsk taken over by the Yenisey Governorate Zemstvo Board
                             (self-administration) with support of the local garrison.
 5 Jan 1920 – 21 Jan 1920  Irkutsk taken over by the Socialist Political Center (claiming to be
                             Siberian authority) in opposition to Kolchak (on 21 Jan 1920 they
                             surrendered city to the "Red" partisans).
 7 Feb 1920                The Soviet government and the Command of the Czechoslovak Army sign
                             a truce in Irkutsk (
Czechoslovaks left Irkutsk by Mar 1920 and by
                             2 Sep 1920 were evacuated via Vladivostok).

Feb 1921 – Jun 1921        "Western Siberian Peasant Rebellion," controls large areas
                             (except of main cities) from the Ob River estuary in the north to
                              Lake Balkhash in the south (no overall political administration,
                              but the principal center was Tobolsk (see Tobolsk).


Chairman of the Siberian Oblast Executive Committee
(in Tomsk)
28 Oct 1917 - 26 Dec 1917  Vladimir Mikhaylovich Krutovskiy   (b. 1856 - d. 1938)  SSO
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee of Soviets of Siberia
(in Irkutsk)
(also chairmen of Council of People's Commissars 16 Feb-28 Feb 1918 and 21 Aug-28 Aug 1918)
 5 Nov 1917 - 28 Feb 1918  Boris Zakharovich Shumyatskiy      (b. 1886 - d. 1938)  RSDSRP-B
28 Feb 1918 - 28 Aug 1918  Nikolay Nikolayevich Yakovlev      (b. 1886 - d. 1918)  RKP
Jul 1918 - 28 Aug 1918     Nikolay Andreyevich Gavrilov       (b. 1886 - d. 1919)  RKP
                             (acting for absent Yakovlev; in Verkhneudinsk,
                             from 16 Aug 1918 in Chita)
Chairmen of the Provisional Siberian Oblast Council
(in Tomsk, increasingly underground)
26 Dec 1917 - 14 Jan 1918  Grigoriy Nikolayevich Potanin      (b. 1835 - d. 1920)  SSO
14 Jan 1918 - 10 Feb 1918  Pyotr Yakovlevich Derber           (b. 1888 - d. 1929)  PSR
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Siberian Government (PSG)
10 Feb 1918 - 30 Jun 1918  Pyotr Yakovlevich Derber           (s.a.)               PSR
                             (in Tomsk underground, in Feb 1918 briefly in Chita;
                             in Harbin, China exile 1 Mar - Jun 1918; continued
                             as chairman of Provisional Government of Autonomous
                             Siberia in dissidence to PGS in Vladivostok
                             30 Jun 1918 - 21 Jul 1918)
Western Siberian Commissariat of the Provisional Siberian Government

(in Novo-Nikolayevsk [Novosibirsk]; from 7 Jun 1918 in Omsk)
26 May 1918 - 30 Jun 1918  Mikhail Yakovlevich Lindberg       (b. 1889 - d. 1938)  PSR
                           + Boris Dmitriyevich Markov        (b. 1884 - d. 1920)  PSR
                           + Vasiliy Osipovich Sidorov        (b. 1884 - d.af.1920)PSR 
                           + Pavel Yakovlevich Mikhaylov      (b. 1889 - d. 1920)  PSR
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Government of Siberia (PGS)
30 Jun 1918 -  3 Nov 1918  Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (b. 1863 - d. 1925)  PSR
                             (in Omsk, from 3 Sep 1918 often in Ufa and on All-Russian business)
Chairmen of the Administrative Council of Provisional Government of Siberia

(delegated the executive functions by PGS; in Omsk)
 3 Sep 1918 - 14 Sep 1918  Ivan Innokentyevich Serebrennikov  (b. 1882 - d. 1940)  SSO
14 Sep 1918 -  3 Nov 1918  Ivan Andrianovich Mikhailov        (b. 1891 - d. 1946)  SSO
Chairman of the Yenisey Governorate Zemstvo Board (in Krasnoyarsk)
25 Dec 1919 -  4 Jan 1920  Grigoriy Prokhorovich Sibirtsev    (b. 1874 - d. 1921)  NSP?
                             (in office from 1918/19)
Chairman of the Political Centre
(in Irkutsk)
 5 Jan 1920 - 21 Jan 1920  Florian Florianovich Fyodorovich   (b. 1876 - d. 1928)  PSR


Czechoslovak Corps
 
Commanders-in-chief of the Czechoslovak Corps (from 1 Feb 1919, Army)

10 Sep 1917 -  1 Sep 1918  Vladimir Nikolayevich Shokorov     (b. 1868 - d. 1940)  Mil
 1 Sep 1918 - Nov 1918     Jan Bohumír Syrový                 (b. 1888 - d. 1970)  Mil
                             (continued as "chief of operations" to Sep 1920)
Nov 1918 – Sep 1920        Pierre Thiébaut Charles Maurice    (b. 1862 - d. 1946)  Mil
                             Janin
                             (also commander-in-chief of Allied Forces
                             in Siberia Feb 1919 - Feb 1920)


Tobolsk federation

[Tobolsk federation
                      (one of several flags) 1921 (Siberia, Russia)]
1921 Tobolsk federation (one of several flags)

Nov/Dec 1917               Bolshevik rule rejected, the Tobolsk Governorate representatives
                             participated in the Siberian regional authorities.
19 Feb 1918                Executive Committee of Councils and Zemstvo (self-administration)
                             established.
 9 Apr 1918                Bolshevik troops (see Siberia) reached Tobolsk (in May 1918 also
                             Obdorsk [modern Salekhard]).
18 Jun 1918                "White" Siberian troops take Tobolsk (from 3 Nov 1918, under the
                             Provisional All-Russian Government).
21 Oct 1919                Red Army retakes Tobolsk (Obdorsk remained under "White" control
                             until Jan 1920).
21 Feb 1921 -  8 Apr 1921  Principal center of "Western Siberian Peasant Rebellion", the council
                             of Tobolsk expanded authority over so-called "Tobolsk federation"
                             down to the Northern Ocean (rebels controlled Obdorsk until
                             2 Jun 1921).

Chairman of the Tobolsk Governorate Executive Committee of Councils and Zemstvo
19 Feb 1918 -  9 Apr 1918  Vasiliy Nikolayevich Pignatti      (b. 1862 - d. 1920)  NSP
Mar 1918 -  9 Apr 1918     Vladimir Semyonovich Lanitin       (b. 1880 - d. 1918)
                             (acting for Pignatti)
Chairman of the Tobolsk Peasant-City Council
27 Feb 1921 -  8 Apr 1921  Aleksey Petrovich Stepanov                              Non-party
                             (continued to 9 May 1921 in Samarovo [present Khanty-Mansiysk])
Chairman of the Obdorsk Peasant-City Council (initially under authority of Tobolsk council)
 7 Apr 1921 -  2 Jun 1921  Konstantin Vasilyevich Durasov     (b. 1896 - d. 19..)  Non-party



Buryat-Mongol

25 Apr 1917                Eventual Buryat-Mongol polity proclaimed at the First All-Buryat
                             Assembly, the Assembly
requests autonomy of Buryat areas.
Jan/Feb 1918               Buryats organized 7 district (uyezd) level "aymaks" (4 within
                             Transbaikal Oblast, 3 within Irkutsk Governorate).
 
5 Feb 1918                Bolshevik rule (see Siberia) in Verkhneudinsk (modern Ulan-Ude).
 3 Jul 1918                Autonomy of Buryat people within Transbaikal Oblast recognized by
                             Transbaikal Oblast Soviet (confirmed by Transbaikal Cossack
                             Host Ataman Semyonov Oct 1918).
20 Aug 1918                Verkhneudinsk taken by Siberian and Czechoslovak troops (Sep 1918
                             replaced by Transbaikal Cossacks and Japanese troops).
Apr 1919 - Jan 1920        Verkhneudinsk sector of Trans-Siberian Railway garrisoned by U.S.
                             troops under the Inter-Allied Railway Agreement of 9 Jan 1919.
23 Apr 1919 - 11 May 1919  An attempt to organize theocratic Buryat state (Kodunay Erkhij
                             Balgasan).

Nov 1919                   People's Duma suspended by Ataman Semyonov (dissolved Oct 1920).

 2 Mar 1920                "Red" partisans of Pribaikalye (see under Transbaikal) enter
                             Verkhneudinsk.

Chairmen of the Buryat-Mongol Central National Committee 

Apr 1917 - Dec 1917        Elbek-Dorzhi Rinchino (1st time)   (b. 1888 – d. 1938)  PSR
Dec 1917 - Mar 1918        Tsyben Zhamtsarano (1st time)      (b. 1881 – d. 1942)  PSR
Mar 1918 - May 1918        Elbek-Dorzhi Rinchino (2nd time)   (s.a.)               PLSR?
May 1918 - Sep 1918        Tsyben Zhamtsarano (2nd time)      (s.a.)               PSR
Sep 1918 - Nov 1918        Dashi Sampilon                     (b. 1891 – d. 1937)  PSR
Chairman of the Buryat-Mongol People's Duma
Nov 1918 - Nov 1919        Dashi Sampilon                     (s.a.)               PSR
Ruler (title Tsog-Tuguldur Dharma Raja Khan) (in opposition)
23 Apr 1919 - 11 May 1919  Lubsan-Sandan Tsydenov             (b. 1841 - d. 1922)

Commander of U.S. Troops in Verkhneudinsk (subordinated to commander in Vladivostok)
Apr 1919 – Jan 1920        Charles Haskell Morrow             (b. 1877 - d. 1935)  Mil



Karakorum-Altay

[Karakorum-Altay, 1918-1919 (possible
                          reconstruction)(Russia)]
Adopted 7 Mar 1918 (possible reconstruction)

 1-6 Jul 1917              First Assembly of Representatives of Indigenous Sub-districts of
                             Altay takes place in Biysk. They adopted a declaration "On
                             Recognition of Self-Determination of Indigenous People of Altai"
                             and calls for a separate Mountainous-Altay Zemstvo (self-
                             administration
) in the future.
30 Dec 1917                Bolshevik rule (see Siberia) recognized in the Biysk district
                             (to Jun 1918).
12 Mar 1918                Constituent Second Assembly of Indigenous and Peasants Deputies'
                             of the Mountainous-Altay Kray (Land), in village of Ulala (modern
                             Gorno-Altaysk), proclaims the separation of Mountainous-Altay
                             region from the Biysk district, Apr 1918 – 9 Jun 1918 recognized
                             as a Soviet institution by the Altay Governorate Soviet of
                             Deputies).
The new entity is called the Karakorum-Altay Okrug
                             (district).
18 Jul 1918 -  4 Aug 1918  Autonomous Altay republic proclaimed in opposition to Karakorum-
                             Altay Board, terminated by the Siberian troops.
30 Dec 1918                New Karakorum
uyezd (district)(within Altay Governorate) formally
                             recognized
by the "White" Government (effective 18 Jan 1919).
18 Dec 1919                Bolshevik forces take over Ulala and dissolved the district.
Dec 1919 - Apr 1920        Mountainous-Altay Board established opposition to the Red troops
                             before retreat of the "White" Altay units to Mongolia.

Chairman of the Altay Mountainous Duma
(in Biysk)
Jul 1917 - Mar 1918        Grigoriy Ivanovich Gurkin          (b. 1870 – d. 1937)  PSR
Chairman of the Karakorum-Altay (from Jan 1919, Karakorum) District Board (in Ulala)
Mar 1918 - Feb 1919        Grigoriy Ivanovich Gurkin          (s.a.)               PSR
                             (imprisoned from Dec 1918)
Chairman of the Mountainous-Altay Central Military Council (in opposition, in Onguday)
18 Jul 1918 -  4 Aug 1918  Dmitriy Vladimirovich Satunin      (b. 1885 - d. 1920)  Mil
Chairman of the Karakorum District Board (in Ulala)
Feb 1919 - Dec 1919        Viktor Timofeyevich Petrov         (b. 1879 - d. 1927)  Non-party?
Chairman of the Mountainous-Altay Board (in Onguday)
Dec 1919 - Apr 1920        Grigoriy Ivanovich Gurkin          (s.a.)               PSR



Khakass


Jul 1917                   Khakass National Committee set up by the Second Khakass Assembly.
13 Nov 1917                Bolshevik rule (see Siberia) in Minusinsk district (to 24 Jun 1918).
14 Mar 1918                Khakass Steppe Duma and its Board replaced the National Committee,
                             requested separation of Khakass district (within Yenisey
                             Governorate) from Minusinsk district, the Khakass declared to be
                             "self-governing people."
Apr 1918 – Jun 1918        Khakass autonomy confirmed by the Soviets, the Khakass Steppe Duma
                             to be turned into the Khakass Steppe Soviet (not fully effected).
Jul 1918                   Khakass Steppe Duma and its Board re-established by the Sixth Khakass
                             Assembly.
 1 Jan 1919                Khakass uyezd (district) created (by resolution of the Yenisey
                             Governorate authorities of Sep 1918), but abolished in Mar 1919.

Chairman of the Khakass National Committee

Jul 1917 - 14 Mar 1918     Stepan Dmitriyevich Maynagashev    (b. 1886 - d. 1920)  PSR
Chairman of the Khakass Steppe Board
14 Mar 1918 - Mar 1919     Stepan Dmitriyevich Maynagashev    (s.a.)               PSR


Semirechye Cossack Host: see under Kazakhstan
Tannu Tuva (Urianay kray): see under Russia

Zabaikalye (Transbaikal)

[Russian flag]
1 Sep 1918 - 22 Oct 1920

1851                       Transbaikal Cossack Host formed.
Nov/Dec 1917               Bolshevik rule rejected, Transbaikal oblast representatives
                             participated in the Siberian regional authorities.
 4 Jan 1918                People's Council established, it claimed "provisional coalition
                             authority" in Transbaikal oblast.

16 Feb 1918                Bolshevik rule (see Siberia) established in Chita.

 6 May 1918 – Sep 1918     Transbaikal Oblast Provisional Government formed in Borzya, in
                             opposition
to Bolshevik rule (dissolved upon recognition by Ataman
                             Semyonov of authority of the "White" "Ufa Directory" government).
26 Aug 1918                Chita taken by Siberian, Czechoslovak and Cossack troops (from 1 Sep
                             1918 only Cossacks remained).

Aug 1918 – 15 Oct 1920     Japanese troops present in Transbaikal (presence confirmed by the
                             Inter-Allied Railway Agreement of 9 Jan 1919).

21 Nov 1918 – 26 May 1919  Ataman Semyonov refuses to recognize authority of Aleksandr
                             Vasilyevich Kolchak
as the Supreme Ruler and claims "entire
                             authority" in the oblast

 4 Jan 1920                Admiral Kolchak authorizes Semyonov to assume all civil and 

                             military authority in the east part of Russia (Russkaya
                             vostochnaya
okraina)(no specific style;
effectively only in
                             Transbaikal).

 
5 Mar 1920                Provisional Zemstvo Government of Pribaikalye proclaimed at
                             Verkhneudinsk by "Red" partisans (on 6 Apr 1920, became the Far
                             Eastern
Republic [see under Russia]) in opposition to "White"
                            
Transbaikal government.
20 Sep 1920                Semyonov recognizes the supreme authority of Baron Vrangel'
                             (Wrangel), Ruler in the South of Russia.
22 Oct 1920                Chita occupied by the Far Eastern Republic (Transbaikal part of Far
                             Eastern Republic to 15 Nov 1922), Semyonov had moved to Borzya.

21 Nov 1920                Semyonov and his troops are forced to leave Transbaikal for China.

Chairman of the Commissariat of Transbaikal Oblast People's Council
 4 Jan 1918 - 16 Feb 1918  Ivan Afanasyevich Butin            (b. 1886 – d. 1919)  PLSR
Chairman of the Transbaikal Oblast Provisional Government 
 6 May 1918 - Sep 1918     Grigoriy Mikhaylovich Semyonov     (b. 1890 - d. 1946)  Mil
                             (in opposition to Bolshevik rule to Aug 1918)
Atamans of the Transbaikal Cossack Host
Sep 1918 -  9 Jun 1919     Vasiliy Vasilyevich Zimin (nominal)(b. 1874 - d. 1942)  Mil  
Sep 1918 - 19 Nov 1920     Grigoriy Mikhaylovich Semyonov     (s.a.)               Mil
                            (to 9 Jun 1919 as "Field Ataman" de facto acting for Zimin;
                             from 18 Jul 1919 to Jan 1920, with title "assistant chief
                             administrator"
and authority of governor-general of
                             Transbaikal oblast
granted by Kolchak; from Jan 1920
                             also authority in the east part of Russia)
Chairman of the Provisional Zemstvo Government of Pribaikalye
 
5 Mar 1920 -  6 Apr 1920  Ivan A. Pyatidesyatnikov                                RSDRP-M
                             (at Verkhneudinsk, in opposition)
Ataman of the Transbaikal Cossack Host
1920 - 30 Aug 1946         Aleksey Proklovich Baksheyev       (b. 1873 - d. 1946)
                             (acting to 12 Jul 1922; in Harbin, China exile [1921-1922
                             in Vladivostok]; from Aug 1945 Soviet captive)

Assistants for Civil Affairs to authority in the East part of of Russia

16 Jan 1920 - 26 Jun 1920  Sergey Afanasyevich Taskin         (b. 1876 – d. 1952)  KDP
26 Jun 1920 - 18 Sep 1920  A.V. Volgin                       
Chairman of the Council of Managers with authority in the East part of Russia
18 Sep 1920 -  3 Nov 1920  Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Vinogradov(b. 1877 - d. 1938)  KDP


Yakutia

[Siberian
                          Autonomist flag, 1917-1918 (Russia)]
Nov/Dec 1917 - 1 Jul 1918;
21 Aug 1918 - 4 Nov 1918;
Sep 1922 - Jun 1923
[Russia]
4 Nov 1918 - 14/15 Dec 1919,
12 Mar 1922 - 2 Sep 1922

Nov/Dec 1917               Bolshevik rule rejected, Yakutsk oblast representatives participated
                             in the Siberian regional authorities.
22 Feb 1918                Yakutsk Oblast Council established, it assumed "supreme authority
                             until convocation of the Siberian or Russian Constituent Assembly"
                             in the oblast.
 1 Jul 1918                Bolshevik forces from Irkutsk (see Siberia) overthrow the pro-
                             independence Yakutsk government. 
21 Aug 1918                "White" Russian (Siberian) forces overthrow the Bolsheviks in
                             Ya
kutia.
14/15 Dec 1919             Local Bolsheviks regain control of Yakutia following the withdrawal
                             of Kolchak's "White" Russian forces (under "supreme Soviet
                             authority" of the partisan "Tsentrosovet", which by early Jan 1920
                             controlled large area from north-west of Lake Baikal to Okhotsk on
                             the Pacific).

12 Mar 1922               
Provisional Yakutsk Oblast People's Administration is formed at
                             Churapcha by local "White" Russian and Yakut rebels (at first
                             claimed "full supreme authority", but then recognized
the
                             authority of Priamurye [see under Primorye]), who besieged the town
                             of Yakutsk on
23 Mar 1922 (to Jun 1922) and took control of most
                             of Yakutia
(except the major towns along Lena River).
27 Apr 1922                Soviet Russia establishes the Yakut A.S.S.R. (within Russian SFSR).
Jul 1922                   "White" forces are ousted from Yakutsk and the remains withdraw to
                             the Pacific
coast to port towns of Okhotsk (see under Tungus) and
                             Ayan.

 2 Sep 1922                Local "White" forces are reinforced from Vladivostok by "volunteer"
                             troops under
General Anatoliy Nikolayevich Pepelyayev (b. 1891 -
                             d. 1938), acting for autonomous Siberia cause, that
disembarks in
                             Ayan and Okhotsk
and moves towards Yakutsk.
Mar 1923                   Soviet troops oust the "White" Army from Amga (south-east of Yakutsk).
 6 - 16 Jun 1923           Remainder of the "White" Army is defeated near Okhotsk on 6 Jun 1923
                             and near Ayan on 16 Jun 1923.
Aug 1923                   A further Soviet expedition landed at Kolyma to crush the last
                             significant resistance to Soviet rule (Kolyma under "White" Russian
                             control since Mar 1922).
Aug 1923 - Dec 1924        A "White" unit remained at the village of Allaikha on the lower
                             Indigirka River, close to the Northern Ocean, under Cavalry Capt.
                             Valentin Pavlovich Nikolayev (
nominally recognized Soviet rule
                             in
Nov 1923).
Sep 1927 – Jan 1928        Yakuts form "Young Yakut" party
and again attempt a rebellion in
                             south-eastern
Yakutia.

Chairman of the Executive Committee of Yakutsk Oblast Council
22 Feb 1918 -  1 Jul 1918  Vasiliy Vasilyevich Popov           (b. 1876?-d.af.1923)PSR
Chairman of the Temporary Central Soviet of North Eastern Kray
("Tsentrosovet")
 8 Nov 1919 - 26 Jan 1920  Vladimir Karlovich Brum                                 RKP
                             (to early Jan 1920 in rebellion against the "White"
                              troops; based in Ust'-Kut and other nearby locations
                              in Irkutsk governorate)
Chairmen of the Provisional Yakutsk Oblast People's Administration

(in Churapcha; from Aug 1922, in Okhotsk)
12 Mar 1922 - Jun 1923     Georgiy Semyonovich Yefimov        (b. 1892 - d.af.1960)Non-party
                             (left for Vladivostok in Sep 1922, then China;
                             did not resign)
Sep 1922 - Jun 1923        Ivan Fyodorovich Afanasyev         (b. 1885 - d. 1942)  Non-party
                             (acting for absent Yefimov)
Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Russkoye Ustye (at Allaikha)
Nov 1923 - Dec 1924        Valentin Pavlovich Nikolayev ?     (d. af.1928)         Mil
Secretary-general of the Central Committee

 4 Dec 1927 -  1 Jan 1928  Pavel Vasilyevich Ksenofontov      (b. 1890 - d. 1928)  MPK



Far East
Anadyr: see under Chukotka
 
Amur

[Russia]
to 25 Feb 1918;
18 Sep 1918 - 6 Feb 1920

[Amur Soviet 1918
                        (Russia)]
25 Feb 1918 - 18 Sep 1918

1858                       Amur Cossack Host established.
21 Nov 1917                Ataman of Amur Cossacks provisionally a "supreme authority" in the
                             Amur oblast.
 4 Dec 1917                Public Safety Committee formed with transitional "supreme
                             legitimate authority."
 7 Dec 1917                Amur Oblast Zemstvo Board (self-administration) established, with
                             "full authority" in the oblast (confirmed 14 Feb 1918)
25 Feb 1918                Soviet rule established by Bolsheviks, subject to the Far East
                             Executive Committee of Soviets (see Khabarovsk).
 7 Mar 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Blagoveshchensk briefly occupied by "White" Amur Cossack forces in
                             rebellion.
13 Mar 1918 - 18 Sep 1918  Bolshevik rule fully restored. 10 Apr 1918 the Amur Labor Socialist
                             Republic is formed (within Russian S.F.S.R.), partly in rejection
                             of policy of Far East Executive Committee of Soviets.
18 Sep 1918                Japanese and "White" Amur Cossack forces enter Blagoveshchensk,
                             Zemstvo restored; on 21 Sep 1918 the Amur Oblast Provisional
                             Government takes over, with "full governmental authority."
10 Nov 1918                Recognized the Provisional All-Russian Government (see PARG above)
                             and it's superiority, dissolved the Oblast government and handed
                             over power to Zemstvo Board until appointment of the Oblast
                             commissioner (effective 11 Nov 1918); the oblast subject to
                             chief "White" representatives in Far East (see under Primorye).
 4 Feb 1920                Ataman of Amur Cossacks removed the Kolchak-appointed oblast
                             administrator and assumed authority nominally for Oblast Zemstvo
                             Board.
 6 Feb 1920                Bolshevik partisan forces regain control of Amur the region (the
                             period of partisan rule to Aug 1920 referred to as "Amur Oblast
                             Government"), and Cossack leadership goes into China exile
                             (Japanese troops withdrew by 19 Mar 1920).
 5 Aug 1920 - 15 Nov 1922  Amur oblast part of the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
Jan 1924 – Feb 1924        Rebellion of Amur Cossacks in the countryside.


Ataman of the Amur Cossack Host
21 Nov 1917 -  4 Dec 1917  Ivan Mikhaylovich Gamov            (b. 1885 - d. 1969)  PSR
                             (in office of Host Ataman 20 Apr 1917 – 28 Feb 1919;
                             in China exile Mar 1918 - Sep 1918)
Public Safety Committee of Amur Oblast

 4 Dec 1917 -  7 Dec 1917  Nikolay Grigoryevich Kozhevnikov   (b. 1884 - d. 1937)  PSR
                           + Ivan Mikhaylovich Gamov          (s.a.)               PSR
                           + Aleksandr Nikolayevich           (b. 1878 - d. 1957)  PSR
                              Alekseyevskiy
Chairman of the Amur Oblast Zemstvo Board
 7 Dec 1917 - 25 Feb 1918  Ivan Nikolayevich Shishlov         (b. 1881 - d.af.1920)RSDRP-M
Chairman of the Executive Committee of Amur Oblast People's Council
 7 Mar 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Nikolay Grigoryevich Kozhevnikov   (s.a.)               PSR
                             (in rebellion)
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Amur Soviet of Deputies
and of the Council of People's Commissars

10 Apr 1918 - 18 Sep 1918  Fyodor Nikanorovich Mukhin         (b. 1878 - d. 1919)  RKP
Chairman of the Amur Oblast Zemstvo Board

18 Sep 1918 - 20 Sep 1918  Nikolay Nikolayevich Rodionov      (b. 1886 - d. 1937)  Non-party?
                             (1st time)
Chairman of the Amur Oblast Provisional Government
21 Sep 1918 - 10 Nov 1918  Aleksandr Nikolayevich             (s.a.)               PSR 
                             Alekseyevskiy 
Chairman of the Amur Oblast Zemstvo Board

10 Nov 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  Nikolay Nikolayevich Rodionov      (s.a.)               Non-party?
                             (2nd time)
Ataman of the Amur Cossack Host
 4 Feb 1920 -  6 Feb 1920  Andrey Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov      (b. 1878 - d. 1960)  Mil
                             (in office of Host Ataman from 5 Mar 1919;
                             from 24 Jan 1920 with authority [but not style]
                             of governor-general; continued in China exile,
                             1921-1922 in Vladivostok, and then London)
Chairmen of the (Provisional to 16 Feb 1920) Executive Committee
of the Amur Oblast Soviet of Deputies

 6 Feb 1920 - 16 Feb 1920  Yakov Ferapontovich Yakovlev       (b. 1884 - d. 1955)  RKP
16 Feb 1920 -  5 Apr 1920  Stepan Samoylovich Shilov          (b. 1885 - d. 1954)  RKP
Chairman of the Amur Oblast Revolutionary Committee
 5 Apr 1920 -  9 Aug 1920  Stepan Samoylovich Shilov          (s.a.)               RKP
Chairman of the Amur Oblast Provisional Government
14 Jan 1924 - Feb 1924     Rodion Grigoryevich Cheshev        (d. 1924)            Non-party
                             (in rebellion)


Chinese Eastern Railway Zone: see under China Foreign Colonies

Chukotka

[Russia]
14 Mar 1918 - 16 Dec 1919;
31 Jan 1920 - 28 Jul 1920;
Jan 1922 - 5  Jan 1923

14 Mar 1918 - 27 Jul 1918  Anadyr Uyezd (district) Council set up, did not recognized
                             Soviet rule in Kamchatka Oblast (see there).
16 Dec 1919 - 31 Jan 1920  Anadyr taken over by local Bolsheviks, eliminated in a coup.
 8 Feb 1920 - 28 Jul 1920  Non-Bolshevik council set up by locals (also in Uelen from Mar
                             1920).
Jul 1920                   Under effective rule from Kamchatka.
12 Dec 1920                Part (within Kamchatka) of Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
22 Mar 1921                Chukotka ceded to Russian S.F.S.R. by the Far Eastern Republic.
Jan 1922                   Anadyr taken by "White" troops from Kamchatka (Uelen in Jul 1922).
Dec 1922 -  5 Jan 1923     Poorly recorded attempt by remaining "Whites" and Anadyr locals
                             to set up own administration, terminated by Soviet troops.

Chairman of the Anadyr Uyezd Council (in Novo-Mariinsk [modern Anadyr])
14 Mar 1918 - 27 Jul 1918  Vasiliy D. Pchelintsev             (d. af.1926)         Non-party

Chairman of the Anadyr Uyezd Revolutionary Committee

16 Dec 1919 - 31 Jan 1920  Mikhail Sergeyevich Mandrikov      (b. 1888 - d. 1920)  RKP
Chairman of the Anadyr Uyezd Council

 8 Feb 1920 - 28 Jul 1920  Vasiliy I. Rybin                   (d. af.1923)         Non-party
Chairman of the Chukotka Uyezd Provisional Council
(in Uelen)

Mar 1920 - Jul 1920        Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Khrenov                          Non-party
Anadyr Uyezd People's Administration
[reported membership]
Dec 1922 -  5 Jan 1923     Nikita Andreyevich Polyakov        (b. 1876 - d. 1923)  Mil
                           + Makovkin                                              Non-party
                           + Mark Kandel'                                          Non-party


Far Eastern Republic: see under Russia


Kamchatka

[Russia]
9 Nov 1917 - 12 Mar 1918;
12 Jul 1918  - 10 Jan 1920;
30 Oct 1921 - 10 Nov 1922

 9 Nov 1917                Bolshevik rule "not recognized" by the Kamchatka Oblast Committee.
12 Mar 1918                Local Bolsheviks established the Oblast Soviet (subject to the
                             Far East Executive Committee of Soviets [see Khabarovsk]) and
                             dissolved the Committee.
12 Jul 1918                Oblast Committee restored (claimed provisional oblast "autonomy"
                             within Russia).
Oct 1918                   Oblast commissioner of Provisional Government of Siberia arrived
                             (followed to Jan 1920 by authorities of the Provisional All-
                             Russian Government [see PARG] and Supreme Ruler Kolchak); the
                             Oblast subject to chief "White" representatives in Far East
                             (see under Primorye).
10 Jan 1920                Local socialists took over, Kamchatka Revolutionary Committee
                             formed (on 23 May 1920, until then referred to as "Kamchatka
                             Oblast Government," recognized [largely nominally] the supreme
                             authority of Provisional Government of Primorye [see Primorye]).
12 Dec 1920                Part of the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
22 Mar 1921                Kamchatka oblast ceded to Russian S.F.S.R. by Far Eastern Republic.
30 Oct 1921 -  2 Nov 1922  Kamchatka occupied by "White" forces under the Provisional
                             Government of Priamurye (see under Primorye). On 2 Nov 1922
                             "White" troops leave for Japan.
 8 Jun 1922 -  2 Nov 1922  Japanese troops present in Petropavlovsk.
10 Nov 1922                Bolshevik partisans reached Petropavlovsk and take over the city
                             from the City Duma. 

Chairman of the Kamchatka Oblast Committee
Aug 1917 - 12 Mar 1918    Aleksandr Antonovich Purin          (b. 1885 - d. 1952)  Non-party
                            (1st time)
12 Jul 1918 - Oct 1918    Aleksandr Antonovich Purin          (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (2nd time)(continued in office to 2 Feb 1919)
Chairman of the Kamchatka Oblast Revolutionary Committee

10 Jan 1920 -  7 Apr 1920  Pyotr Sergeyevich Malovechkin      (b. 1891 - d. 1921)  Non-party/
                                                                                   Feb 1920 RKP
Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the Kamchatka Oblast Soviet of Deputies
 7 Apr 1920 -  7 Jun 1920  Pyotr Sergeyevich Malovechkin      (s.a.)               RKP
 7 Jun 1920 - Dec 1920     Ivan Yemelyanovich Larin           (b. 1890 - d. 1980)  RKP


Khabarovsk 

[Russia]
Nov 1917 - 25 Dec 1917;
4 Sep 1918 - 23 Oct 1920

[Far East Executive
                        Committee of Soviets (Dal'sovnarkom) flag
                        1917-1918 (Russia)]
25 Dec 1917 - 4 Sep 1918
Dal'sovnarkom

1889                       Ussuri Cossack Host formed.
Nov 1917                   Bolshevik rule not recognized by Priamurye Kray (covered Amur,
                             Kamchatka, Primorye [Maritime], and Sakhalin Oblasti) institutions
                             in Khabarovsk.
24 Dec 1917 - 27 Dec 1917  Priamurye Kray Provisional Bureau of Zemstvo (self-administration)
                             declared itself "supreme provisional civil kray authority."
25 Dec 1917                Far East Executive Committee of Soviets (eventually largely
                             autonomous), described as "Soviet regional association", formally
                             assumed authority in the whole Far East for
Soviet Russia.
 4 Sep 1918                Bolshevik rule ended by the Ussuri Cossacks and Japanese occupation,
                             the Cossacks proclaimed "autonomy" and non-recognition of any
                             government (on 22 Oct 1918 non-recognition of "Ufa Directory"
                             declared).
Nov 19181 Mar 1919     Ataman of Ussuri Cossacks refused to recognize Kolchak as Supreme
                             Ruler (from 1 Mar 1919, the Cossacks subject to chief "White"
                             representatives in Far East [see under Primorye].
16 Feb 1920                Cossack leadership left Khabarovsk for China and then Grodekovo
                             (near Vladivostok) to Oct 1922, and Provisional Government of
                             Primorye (see Primorye) troops took over.
22 Aug 1920 – 23 Aug 1920  "White" Russian "independent" government proclaimed at Khabarovsk,
                             dissolved by Primorye troops.
23 Oct 1920                Japanese forces depart; Khabarovsk part of the Far Eastern Republic
                             (see under Russia), to 15 Nov 1922 as capital of new Priamurye
                             Oblast (on 11 Nov 1920 split from Primorye Oblast).
22 Dec 1921 - 13 Feb 1922  Far Eastern Republic rule interrupted by Provisional Government
                             of Priamurye (see under Primore).

Chairmen of Priamurye Kray (from 25 Dec 1917, Far East) Executive
Committee of Councils (Soviets)

25 Aug 1917
- 25 Dec 1917  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Vakulin     (b. 1881 - d. 1919)  RSDRP-M
12 Dec 19178 May 1918  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich             (b. 1880 - d. 1937)  RSDRP-B
                             Krasnoshchekov 
Chairman of the Priamurye Kray Provisional Bureau of Zemstvo
24 Dec 1917 - 27 Dec 1917  Mikhail Akimovich Timofeyev                             PSR
                             (in opposition to Soviets; continued to
                             25 Jan 1918 in Blagoveshchensk exile)
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of Far East ("Dal'sovnarkom")
 8 May 1918 -  4 Sep 1918  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich             (s.a.)               RKP
                             Krasnoshchekov
                             (continued in  Blagoveshchensk exile to 18 Sep 1918)
Atamans of the Ussuri Cossack Host

 5 Sep 1918 - 16 Feb 1920  Ivan Pavlovich Kalmykov            (b. 1890 - d. 1920)  Mil
                             (in office of Host Ataman Feb 1918 - Sep 1920;
                             to 4 Jul 1918 and from 12 Feb 1920 in China exile
                             [4 Jul 1918 - Sep 1918 in Grodekovo]; from 2 Sep 1919
                             with authority [but not style] of governor-general)
12 Feb 1920 - 16 Feb 1920  Modest Aleksandrovich Demishkhan   (b. 1888 - d. 1963)  Mil
                             (acting for absent Kalmykov)
Chairman of the Khabarovsk Government
(in dissidence)
22 Aug 1920 - 23 Aug 1920  Konstantin Tikhonovich Likhoydov   (b. 1858 - d. 1923)  Non-party?
Ataman of the Ussuri Cossack Host (submitted to authorities in control of Vladivostok)
Sep 1920 - Oct 1922        Yuriy Aleksandrovich Savitskiy     (b. 1890 - d.af.1922)Mil
                             (acting to Apr 1921; in Grodekovo [near Vladivostok]
                             to Oct 1922, then in China exile)


Tungus (Okhotsk)
 
[Russia]
to 18 Apr 1918;
22 Sep 1918 - 14 Dec 1919;
3 Oct 1921 - 6 Jun 1923

[Provisional
                          Tungus People's Administration 1924-1925
                          (Russia)]
Jul 1924 - 9 May 1925

18 Apr 1918 - 22 Sep 1918  Soviet rule in Okhotsk uyezd (district) of Kamchatka Oblast (even
                             after they lost the main part of the oblast on 12 Jul 1918).
14 Dec 1919                Bolsheviks re-take Okhotsk, to Jan 1920 subject to "Tsentrosovet"
                             (see under Yakutia), then events generally follow Kamchatka.
 3 Oct 1921                Okhotsk taken by the Priamurye (see Primorye) troops under Colonel
                             Valeryan Aleksandrovich Bochkarev (b. 1892 – d. 1923), based at
                             Nayakhan (present Evensk, east of Magadan) 25 Oct 1921-13 Apr 1923.
 6 Sep 1922 -  6 Jun 1923  Passed to the "White" troops of Anatoliy Nikolayevich Pepelyayev
                             (b. 1891 - d. 1938)(see under Yakutia), remained under the
                             administrators appointed by Priamurye.
Dec 1922 - May 1923        Poorly recorded attempts by Okhotsk locals to set up their own
                             administration (on 21 Apr 1923 even claiming "supreme authority"
                             in Okhotsk Kray).
10 May 1924                A group of Tungus (Evenks) and Yakuts take Nel'kan (on 6 Jun 1924
                             also the port of Ayan on the Okhotsk Sea coast).
14 Jul 1924                All-Tungus Assembly of the Okhotsk Coast in Nel'kan establishes
                             the Provisional Tungus People's Administration, which claims
                             autonomy and requests to join the Yakut A.S.S.R.
 9 May 1925                Extinguished by Soviet Red Army (by agreement).
Mar 1931 – Apr 1931        Another Tungus (Evenk) rebellion, in Udsk (south of Ayan).

Chairman of the Okhotsk Kray Assembly (Council) of Representatives (in Okhotsk)
c.Apr 1923                 Ivan Mikhaylovich Yanygin          (d. 1923)            Mil
Chairman of the Provisional Tungus People's Administration (in Nel'kan)
14 Jul 1924 -  9 May 1925  Konstantin Afanasyevich Struchkov  (b. 1883 - d.af.1943)Non-party
                             (formally to 10 Aug 1925)
Chairman of the Tungus Provisional Government (in Udsk)
16 Mar 1931 – Apr 1931     Nikolay Kirillovich Tretyakov      (b. 1885 - d.af.1932)Non-party


Ukrainian Far Eastern Kray Secretariat ("Green Ukraine")

[Ukrainian
                          Republic of the Far East (Green Ukraine) flag
                          proposal (Russia)]
Proposed Flag

24 Jun 1917                First All-Ukrainian Far Eastern Congress at Nikol'sk-Ussuriyskiy.
                             (modern Ussuriysk) forms the Far Eastern Regional Council
                             (
Kray Rada).
30 Jan 1918                Second All-Ukrainian Far Eastern Congress at Khabarovsk. "Green
                             Ukraine"
proclaimed as part of the Ukrainian State (in spite of
                             the lack of geographical connection).
 
7 Apr 1918                Third All-Ukrainian Far Eastern Congress asked for creation of
                             an independent Ukrainian State on the Pacific Ocean, but no
                             territorial entity or authority is ever established.
20 Jun 1919 - 31 Jan 1920  Suppressed by Kolchak's "White" Russian forces.
11 Apr 1920                Order of Transbaikal Cossack Ataman Semyonov about right of Far
                             Eastern Ukrainians
for national self-determination and autonomy in
                             the limits of united
Far Eastern state of Cossacks, Buryats, and
                             Ukrainians (to no effect).
 
5 Nov 1922                Ukrainian Far Eastern Secretariat dissolved after the Soviet
                             takeover of Vladivostok. 

Chairmen of the Ukrainian Far Eastern Kray Secretariat
(in Khabarovsk, from 1918 in Vladivostok)
12 Apr 1918 - 24 Oct 1918  Gordey Petrovich Melashich         (d. af.1922)

25 Oct 1918 - 20 Jun 1919  Yuriy Kos'mych Glushko "Mova"      (b. 1882 - d. 1942)
                            
(= Yuriy Kos'mich Glushko)
                             (1st time)
31 Jan 1920 -  5 Nov 1922  Yuriy Kos'mych Glushko "Mova"      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)


Sakhalin

[Russia]
Nov 1917 - 25 Jan 1918;
7 Sep 1918 - 29 Feb 1920

Mar 1914 - 22 Nov 1920     Sakhalin oblast in addition to North Sakhalin (Sakhalin uyezd
                             [district]) included also mainland area around Nikolayevsk
                             (the later made oblast capital in Apr 1917).
Nov 1917                   Bolshevik rule not recognized by the Oblast Council (Soviet) of
                             Deputies.
25 Jan 1918                Sakhalin Oblast Soviet taken over by the Bolsheviks, subject to
                             Far East Executive Committee of Soviets (see under Khabarovsk).
 7 Sep 1918                Oblast Soviet transferred authority to the restored Sakhalin Oblast
                             Zemstvo Board (self-administration) in anticipation of the Japanese
                             landing at Nikolayevsk (which took place 9 Sep 1918).
26 Oct 1918                Oblast commissioner of Provisional Government of Siberia arrives
                             (followed to Feb 1920 by authorities of the Provisional All-Russian
                             Government [see PARG] and Supreme Ruler Kolchak), the oblast subject
                             to chief "White" representatives in Far East (see under Primorye).
14 Jan 1920                Local Socialists took over North Sakhalin (on 1 Feb 1920 recognized
                             authority of Provisional Government of Primorye [see Primorye]).
29 Feb 1920                Bolshevik partisans occupied Nikolayevsk (on 9 Mar 1920 North Sakhalin
                             submitted to authorities in Nikolayevsk).
15 Mar 1920                Japanese garrison at Nikolayevsk exterminated by partisans.
28 Mar 1920                Sakhalin Oblast Soviet of Deputies declared non-recognition of Far
                             Eastern Republic or Provisional Government of Primorye (this period
                             of local partisan rule referred to as "Nikolayevsk Commune").
22 Apr 1920 - 25 May 1925  Northern Sakhalin occupied by Japan.
 7 Jun 1920                Nikolayevsk occupied by Japan (on 2 Aug 1920 civil administration of
                             Sakhalin oblast taken over by Japanese military and Japanese law
                             made applicable).
25 Sep 1922                Japanese forces depart from Nikolayevsk; part of the Far Eastern
                             Republic (see under Russia) to 15 Nov 1922 (Sakhalin oblast was
                             dissolved already on 22 Nov 1920 and made part [nominally] of the
                             new Priamurye oblast).

Chairman of the Executive Committee of Sakhalin Oblast Council (Soviet) of Deputies
Nov 1917 - 25 Jan 1918     P.P. Krysin ?                                           RSDRP-M
Chairman of the Sakhalin Oblast Zemstvo Board
 7 Sep 1918 - 26 Oct 1918  Andrey Andreyevich Shelkovnikov    (b. 18.. - d. 1920)  PSR?
                             (1st time)(continues in office to 1920) 
Chairman of the Sakhalin Uyezd Provisional Revolutionary Committee (in North Sakhalin only)
13/14 Jan 1920-9 Mar 1920  Aleksandr Trofimovich Tsapko       (b. 1884 - d. 1920)  Non-party
Chairman of the Sakhalin Oblast Zemstvo Board
Feb 1920 - 29 Feb 1920     Andrey Andreyevich Shelkovnikov    (s.a.)               PSR?
                             (2nd time)
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Sakhalin Oblast Soviet of Deputies
29 Feb 1920 -  7 Jun 1920  Fyodor Vasilyevich Zhelezin        (b. c.1885 - d. 1920)RKP
                             (chairman of Oblast Revolutionary Committee
to 28 Mar 1920)
Provincial Chief (in North Sakhalin only)
May 1920 - 22 May 1920     Dmitriy Dmitriyevich Grigoryev     (b. 1865 - d. 1932)  Non-party
                             (appointed by Japanese, did not take office)

Japanese Military Commanders in North Sakhalin (and Jun 1920 - Sep 1922 in Nikolayevsk)
22 Apr 1920 - May 1920     Jirō Tamon                         (b. 1878 - d. 1934)  Mil
May 1920 - 29 Jul 1920     Yonekura
29 Jul 1920 - 15 Jun 1921  Sojirō Kojima                      (b. 1869 - d. 1922)  Mil
15 Jun 1921 -  1 Apr 1923  Keiu Machida                       (b. 1865 - d. 1939)  Mil
 1 Apr 1923 - 25 May 1925  Kazutsugu Inoue                    (b. 1873 - d.af.1940)Mil


Primorye (Priamurye)

[Russia]
29 Jun 1918 - 22 Sep 1918;
28 Oct 1918 - 12 Dec 1920;
26 May 1921 - 25 Oct 1922
21 Nov 1917                Vladivostok City Soviet of Deputies assumed authority in the city
                             (followed by the rest of Soviets of Primorye (Maritime) Oblast
                             by Dec 1917 [see Khabarovsk]).
29 Jun 1918                Czechoslovak Corps rebels in Vladivostok ending Bolshevik rule.
Jun 1918 - Sep 1918        "White" authority disputed among the Primorye Oblast Zemstvo Board,
                             Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia (PGAS, previous
                             activity see under Siberia) and General Dmitriy Leonidovich Khorvat,
                             who proclaimed himself a Provisional Ruler of Russia.
 2 Jul 1918                PGAS is nominally recognized by the Zemstvo Board (self-administration)
                             as political "central state authority," while the Board remained in
                             control as "supreme oblast state authority" (none of them recognized
                             claims of Khorvat).
 6 Jul 1918                Allies declared Vladivostok to be under "temporary Allied protection"
                            (followed by landing of Japanese troops on 11 Jul 1918 and by U.S.
                             troops on 15 Aug 1918) and recognized the Zemstvo Board (but not
                             PGAS) as the authority.
Sep 1918                   Supreme authority of Provisional Government of Siberia (see under
                             Siberia; followed by the Provisional All-Russian Government
                             [see PARG] and Supreme Ruler Kolchak) recognized (22 Sep 1918 by
                             PGAS, and on 30 Sep 1918 by General Dmitriy Leonidovich Khorvat).
Jan 1919                   Parts of Trans-Siberian Railway within the Primorye oblast under
                             control of the U.S. troops by the Inter-Allied Railway Agreement
                             of 9 Jan 1919.
31 Jan 1920                Authority of the representatives of Admiral Kolchak in Primorye
 
                            Oblast overthrown; Provisional Government of the Zemstvo Board of
                             Primorye Oblast formed, with "provisional full authority" (on
                             26 Feb 1920 recognized by Soviet Russia, but only as "local oblast
                             authority").
31 Mar 1920                Provisional Government alternatively styled as Provisional Government
                             of the Far East, its claims of "provisional supreme authority"
                             extended to Amur, Kamchatka, and Sakhalin oblasti (the former
                             Priamurye Kray).
 1 Apr 1920                Departure of the U.S. troops completed.
 4 Apr 1920 - 23 Apr 1920  Japanese military forces prevent local government from functioning.
11 Dec 1920                People's Assembly (Narodnoye Sobraniye) of Primorskaya oblast passes
                             a law for incorporation into the Far Eastern Republic.
12 Dec 1920 - 26 May 1921  Primorye oblast part of the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
26 May 1921                Provisional Priamurye Government established, as "supreme independent
                             kray authority", in opposition to the Far Eastern Republic.
 3 Aug 1922                Land Assembly (Zemskiy Sobor) of Priamurye decides that supreme
                             power in Russia belongs to the Romanov dynasty, and voiced the
                             wish to make a member of Romanov dynasty the Supreme Ruler of
                             Priamurye. On 8 Aug 1922, General Mikhail Konstantinovich Diterikhs
                             is installed as Ruler.
20 Oct 1922 - 22 Oct 1922  Abortive attempt by Siberian autonomists to take over Vladivostok.
25 Oct 1922 - 15 Nov 1922  Annexed by the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia) after the
                             departure of Japanese troops on 25 Oct 1922.

Chairman of the Primorye (Maritime) Oblast Zemstvo Board
29 Jun 1918 - 22 Sep 1918  Aleksandr Semyonovich Medvedev     (b. 1880 - d. 1928)  PSR
                             (nominally recognized authority of PGAS
                             on 2 Jul 1918, continued in office to Dec 1920)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers of the
Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia
30 Jun 1918 - 21 Jul 1918  Pyotr Yakovlevich Derber           (b. 1888 - d. 1929)  PSR
                             (in dissidence to 2 Jul 1918; arrived from Harbin, China)
21 Jul 1918 - 22 Sep 1918  Ivan Aleksandrovich Lavrov         (b. 1871 - d. 1942)  PSR
Provisional Ruler of Russia (self-proclaimed; in dissidence in Grodekovo [modern Pogranichnyy])
 9 Jul 1918 - 30 Sep 1918  Dmitriy Leonidovich Khorvat        (b. 1858 - d. 1937)  Mil
Chief Administering Officers in Far East (with authority of governor-general)
22 Sep 1918 - 28 Oct 1918  Radola Gajda                       (b. 1892 - d. 1948)  Mil
Sep 1918 - Oct 1918        Eduard Kadlec                      (b. 1880 - d. 1961)  Mil
                             (acting for mostly absent Gajda)
Supreme Commissioner in Far East
(with authority of governor-general)
28 Oct 1918 - 18 Jul 1919  Dmitriy Leonidovich Khorvat        (s.a.)               Mil
Chief Administrator of Priamurye Kray
(with authority of governor-general)
18 Jul 1919 - 31 Jan 1920  Sergey Nikolayevich Rozanov        (b. 1869 - d. 1937)  Mil
Chairman of the Provisional Government of the Zemstvo Board of Primorye Oblast
31 Jan 1920 - 12 Dec 1920  Aleksandr Semyonovich Medvedev     (s.a.)               PSR
                             (prevented by Japanese from exercising functions 5-23 Apr 1920)
Chairmen of the Provisional Government of Priamurye Kray
26 May 1921 -  8 Aug 1922  Spiridon Dionisyevich Merkulov     (b. 1870 - d. 1957)  NDS
 3 Jun 1922 - 11 Jun 1922  Mikhail Konstantinovich Diterikhs  (b. 1874 - d. 1937)  Mil
                             (appointed without consent and in absence,
                             in attempted military coup)
 3 Jun 1922 - 11 Jun 1922  Viktorin Mikhaylovich Molchanov    (b. 1886 - d. 1975)  Mil
                             (acting for absent Diterikhs)
Ruler (Pravitel') of Priamurye Kray

 8 Aug 1922 - 25 Oct 1922  Mikhail Konstantinovich Diterikhs  (s.a.)               Mil
                             (left Vladivostok 20 Oct 1922, to 27 Oct 1922 in Posyet)
Chairman of Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia
(in opposition)
20 Oct 1922 - 22 Oct 1922  Anatoliy Vladimirovich Sazonov     (b. 1861 - d. 1932)  PSR
                             (in Japan and Shanghai exile to 1925)


Chairman of the Council of Managers ("Business Cabinet") of Provisional Government of Russia
10 Jul 1918 - 30 Sep 1918  Stepan Vasilyevich Vostrotin       (b. 1864 - d. 1943)  KDP
                             (under Khorvat, Provisional Ruler of Russia; in Grodekovo)
Chairmen of the Council of Managers of Primorye Oblast

29 May 1920 - 10 Jul 1920  Pyotr Mikhaylovich Nikiforov       (b. 1882 - d. 1974)  RKP
10 Jul 1920 - 12 Dec 1920  Mechislav Stanislavovich Binasik   (b. 1883 - d. 1938)  RSDRP-M
Chairmen of the Council of Managers of Priamurye Kray

 5 Jul 1921 - Jul 1921     Vasiliy Fyodorovich Ivanov         (b. 1885 - d. 1944)
                             (1st time)
Jul 1921 - af.Aug 1921     Vladimir Stepanovich Kolesnikov    (d. af.1922)
c.Nov 1921                 Vasiliy Fyodorovich Ivanov         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
c.Feb 1922                 Vladimir Pavlovich Razumov         (d. af.1928)
bf.Jun 1922 - Aug 1922     Stepan Ilyich Yefremov
Chairmen of the Council of Land Affairs (from 19 Sep 1922, Council of Land Duma)
of Priamurye Kray

 9 Aug 1922 - Sep 1922     Vladimir Pavlovich Razumov         (s.a.)
19 Sep 1922 - 20 Oct 1922  Ivan Kondratyevich Artemyev        (d. af.1930)


Commander-in-chiefs of Japanese Expeditionary Forces 
 3 Aug 1918 - 26 Aug 1919  Kikuzō Ōtani                       (b. 1855 - d. 1923)  Mil
26 Aug 1919 -  6 Jan 1921  Shigemoto Ōi                       (b. 1863 - d. 1951)  Mil
 6 Jan 1921 - 25 Oct 1922  Koichirō Tachibana                 (b. 1861 - d. 1929)  Mil


Commander of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) in Siberia  
 2 Sep 1918 -  1 Apr 1920  William Sidney Graves              (b. 1865 - d. 1940)  Mil






©  Ben Cahoon