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Georgia
 
[Kingdom of Georgia Flag,
                                    1762-1802]
19 Jan 1762 - 14 Apr 1802
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
24 Apr 1802 - 22 Apr 1918
 
[Flag
                                    of Democratic Republic of Georgia
                                    1918]
26 May 1918 - 10 Sep 1918
   
[Democratic Republic of Georgia
                                    flag 1918-1921]
10 Sep 1918 - 17 Mar 1921
 
[Flag of
                                    Soviet Union 1923-1991]
12 Nov 1923 - 25 Dec 1991
[Flag
                                    of Republic of Georgia 1990-2004]
14 Nov 1990 - 14 Jan 2004
 
[Flag of
                                    Georgia]
Adopted 14 Jan 2004

Map of Georgia
Hear National Anthem
"Tavisupleba" (Liberty)
Adopted 23 Apr 2004
Hear Former Anthem
"Dideba" (Praise)
(1918-1921, 1991-2004)
Constitution
(17 Oct 1995)
(21 Feb 1921)
Capital: T'bilisi
(
Tiflis 1801-1936)
Currency: Lari (GEL); 1993-95 Kupon Lari (GEK); 1991-93 Russian Ruble (RUR); 1919-23
Georgian Ruble (GER)
National Holiday: 26 May (1918)
Damouk’ideblobis Dghe
(Independence Day)
Population: 4,926,087 (2018)
2,500,000 (1921)
GDP: $39.85 billion (2017)
Exports: $3.56 billion (2017)
Imports: $7.42 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Georgian 86.8%, Azeri 6.3%, Armenian 4.5%,
other 2.3% (includes Russian, Ossetian, Yazidi, Ukrainian,
Kist, Greek) (2014)
Total Active Armed Forces: 37,461 (2010)
21,000 (1920)

Merchant marine: 82 ships (2018)
Religions: Orthodox (official) 83.4%, Muslim 10.7%, Armenian
 Apostolic 2.9%, other 1.2% (includes Catholic, Jehovah's
Witness, Yazidi, Protestant, Jewish), none 0.5%, unspecified/
no answer 1.2% (2014)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AIIB, APM, BSEC, BTWC, CD, CE, CFE, CPLP (associate observer), CTBT, CWC, DC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, G-11, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NPT, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OS, OSCE, PAM (observer), PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Georgia Index
Chronology
c.550 BC - 164 BC          Kingdom of Colchis in western part of modern Georgia
                             (annexed to Pontus 164 BC, annexed to the Roman
                             Empire in 65 BC).
c.299 BC - 580 AD          Kingdom of Iberia in eastern part of modern Georgia
                             (annexed to the Sassanid Empire 580 AD, annexed to
                             the Muslim Caliphate in 645 AD).
131 - 697                  Kingdom of Lazica, a successor to Colchis (annexed to
                             the Muslim Caliphate in 697).
c.326                      Christianity adopted in Iberia (also in Lazica c.456).
786                        Kingdom of Abkhazia (Abasgia), a successor to Lazica
                             (from 806, capital in Kutaisi).
888                        Kingdom of Iberia (in Georgian: K`art`li), a successor
                             to earlier Iberia.
1008                       King of Abkhazia (in Georgian: Egrisi) inherited
                             Iberia, both states merged into the Georgian kingdom
                             (capital Kutaisi, from 1122 T'bilisi), its ruler
                             styled the King of Kings of the Abkhazians and
                             Iberians (only after c.1245 additionally All Georgia
                             appeared on the style).
1014 - 1106                Rival Kingdom of Kakheti and Hereti established by
                             prince of Kakheti upon the annexation of the Kingdom
                             of Albania at Sheki. 
1491                       Kingdom of Georgia divided into three Kingdoms 
                             (Imertia, K`art`li, and Kakhet`i).
1555                       Persia and Ottoman Empire divide Georgia by agreement.
19 Jan 1762                Kingdoms of K`art`li and Kakhet`i in personal 
                             union, often officially styled Kingdom of 
                             Georgia.
1790                       Treaty of Kings and Princes of Iberia (Kartli,
                             Kakheti, Imereti, Mingrelia, Guria), the King of
                             Kartli and Kakheti recognized as senior Georgian
                             king.
28 Feb 1801                Kingdom of Georgia declared annexed by the Russian
                             Empire by manifesto of Emperor Pavel I.
24 Apr 1802                Incorporation into Russian Empire ("Georgian Tsar"
                             added to imperial style from 1882), Governorate of
                             Georgia (Gruzinskaya guberniya) established.
1802 - 1917                Part of the Viceroyalty and other Russian regional
                             administrations of the Caucasus.
23 May 1810                Kingdom of Imeretia incorporated into Russia, Imeretia
                             oblast established.
1812                       Ottoman claims to western part of Georgia ceded to
                             Russia by the Treaty of Bucharest.
1813                       Persian claims to eastern part of Georgia ceded to
                             Russia by the Treaty of Gulistan.
23 Apr 1840 - 1846         Georgian-Imeretian Governorate.
1846 - 1918                Kutais and Tiflis governorates (within Viceroyalty
                             of the Caucasus).
13 Oct 1864                Serfdom abolished in Georgia by emancipation decree of
                             Emperor Aleksandr II.
Feb 1905 - Jan 1906        Local rebellions as part of the Russian Revolution of
                             1905 (most prominently in Guria).
28 Nov 1917                Part of Transcaucasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia).
22 Apr 1918 - 26 May 1918  Part of Democratic Federative Republic of
                             Transcaucasia.
26 May 1918                Democratic Republic of Georgia (Sakartvelos
                             demok'rat'iuli resp'ublik'a)(Republic of Georgia
                             [Sakartvelos resp'ublik'a] also in official use and
                             specified in the constitution of 21 Feb 1921).
28 May 1918 - 11 Nov 1918  German protectorate (German forces land 4 Jun 1918,
                             withdrawal completed 13 Dec 1918).
18 Sep 1918 -  6 Feb 1919  Sochi district annexed by Georgia (occupied 
                             from 6 Jul 1918).
25 Dec 1918 - 24 Sep 1919  Allied (British) forces garrison T'bilisi and occupy
                             Batumi (to 14 Jul 1920).
 7 May 1920                Independence recognized by Soviet Russia.
27 Jan 1921                Independence de jure recognized by the Allied Powers
                             (de facto from 10 Jan 1920).
16 Feb 1921                Georgia proclaimed a Soviet republic in rebellion.
25 Feb 1921                Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic of Georgia
                            (see below), Soviet Russian troops occupied T'bilisi.
18 Mar 1921                Government of the Republic of Georgia left Batumi and
                             goes into exile.
12 Mar 1922 - 13 Dec 1922  Part of the Federative Union of Socialist Soviet
                             Republics of Transcaucasia (see below).
13 Dec 1922                Part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative 
                             Soviet Republic (T.S.F.S.R.)(see below).
30 Dec 1922                T.S.F.S.R. founding component of the Soviet Union
                             (see Russia).
28 Aug 1924 -  4 Sep 1924  Anti-Soviet rebellion in central part of Georgia.
 5 Dec 1936                T.S.F.S.R. dissolved; Georgian Soviet Socialist
                             Republic becomes a full union republic.
18 Nov 1989                Declaration of state sovereignty.
14 Nov 1990                Republic of Georgia (Sakartvelos resp'ublik'a)
                            (alternative official name Georgia
[Sakartvelo] in
                             use from 6 Nov 1992).
 9 Apr 1991                Independence declared.
28 Nov 1991                South Ossetia declares independence from Georgia.
26 Dec 1991                Final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.).
23 Jul 1992                Abkhazia declares its independence from Georgia.
26 Nov 1995                Georgia (Sakartvelo)(alternative official name of the
                             state already from 6 Nov 1992).
8/9 Aug 2008               Russian intervention in South Ossetia and Abkhazia
                             (and Georgia proper at Gori, Poti and Zugdidi;
                             Russian forces leave Georgia proper 8 Oct 2008,
                             but remain in Abkhazia and South Ossetia).
Georgia
(1918-1922,
from 1993)
Abkhazia
Adjaria
South Ossetia
Georgian S.S.R.
(1921-1991)
Transcaucasia
(1802-1936)
Georgian Principalities
Guria
 
Mingrelia
(Samegrelo)
 
Svania
(Svanet`i)
Georgia (Tiflis)
governorate
(1802-1917)

Kutaisi governorate (1810-1917)
Georgian Orthodox
Church

Map of Georgia
in May 1921
 

K`art`li

[Banner of
                        K`art`li c.1745 (Georgia)]
c.1745 Banner of K'art'li
   

[Banner of Georgians
                      c.1745 (Georgia)]
c.1745 Banner of Georgians  

1491                       Kingdom of K`art`li, part of the Kingdom of Georgia,
                             established (capital T'bilisi).
1523                       Vassal of Persia (with interruptions below).
1578 - 1606                Vassal of Ottoman Empire (in 1590 ceded by Persia).

Jun 1723 - 1727            Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
1727 - 1735                Annexed by Ottoman Empire (part of Eyalet of Çıldır [Childir]).
1736 - 1744                Annexed by Persia (Iran).
1747                       Persian suzerainty reduced to nominal.
19 Jan 1762                Personal union with Kakhet`i re-established.

Kings (title Mepe)(alternative names are the official Ottoman and/or Persian names)
1695 - 1703                Erekle I                           (b. 1643 - d. 1710)
                             (= Nazar `Ali Khan I) (2nd time)
                             (also in Kakhet`i)
1703 -  2 May 1709         Giorgi XI (=
Shah Nawaz Khan III   (b. 1651 - d. 1709)
                             "Gurjin Khan") (3rd time)
                             (absent, served as Persian governor of Kandahar)
1703 - 1704                Levan -Regent                      (b. c.1659 - d. 1709)
1704 - 1709                Vakhtang -Regent (1st time)        (b. 1675 - d. 1737)
 2 May 1709 - Jul 1709     Levan (= Shah Qoli Khan)           (s.a.)
Jul 1709 -  8 Oct 1711     K`aikhosro (= Khosraw Khan)        (b. 1674 - d. 1711)
                             (absent, served as Persian governor of Kandahar)
1709 - 1711                Vakhtang -Regent (2nd time)        (b. 1675 - d. 1737)
 8 Oct 1711 - Oct 1714     Vakhtang VI (= Hoseyn Qoli Khan)   (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
Oct 1714 - Jun 1716        Iese (= `Ali Qoli Khan) (1st time) (b. c.1680 - d. 1727)
1716 - 1717                Vakhtang VI (= Hoseyn Qoli Khan)   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1717 - Aug 1719            Bak`ari III (= Shah Nawaz Khan IV) (b. 1699 - d. 1750)
                             (1st time)
Aug 1719 - May 1723        Vakhtang VI (= Hoseyn Qoli Khan)   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
May 1723 - Jun 1723        Konstantine III                    (d. 1732)
                             (= Mahmud Qoli Khan)
                             (also in Kakhet`i)
Jun 1723 - Jul 1724        Bak`ari III (= Ebrahim Pasha)      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1724 - 1727                Iese (= Mostafa Pasha) (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1727 - 1735                annexed by Ottoman 
1735 - 1736                Alek`sandre II                     (d. 1739)
                             (= Nazar `Ali Khan II)    
                             (also in Kakhet`i)
1736 - 1744                annexed by Persia 
Jul 1744 - 19 Jan 1762     T`eimuraz II                       (b. 1680 - d. 1762)
                             (also king of
Kakhet`i)


Kakhet`i

[Banner of Kakhet`i
                        c.1745 (Georgia)]
c.1745 Banner of Kakhet`i
 

1491                       Kingdom of Kakhet`i, part of the Kingdom of Georgia, established
                             (from c.1650 capital Telavi).
1518                       Vassal of Persia (with interruptions below).
1578 - 1604                Vassal of Ottoman Empire (ceded by Persia in 1590).

1676 - 1703                Annexed by Persia (Iran).
1724 - 1734                Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
1747                       Persian suzerainty reduced to nominal.
19 Jan 1762                Personal union with K`art`li re-established.

Kings (title Mepe)(alternative names are the official Ottoman and/or Persian names)
1703 – May 1703            Erekle I                           (b. 1643 - d. 1710)
                             (= Nazar `Ali Khan I)
                             (also in
K`art`li)
May 1703 - May 1721        Davit` II (= Emam Qoli Khan)       (b. 1678 - d. 1721)
May 1721 -  4 Dec 1732     Konstantine II (= Mahmud Qoli Khan,(d. 1732)
                             [from 1724] Mahmud Pasha)
                             (also king of K`art`li)
 4 Dec 1732 - 1736         T`eimuraz II (1st time)            (b. 1680 - d. 1762)
1736 - 1738                Alek`sandre III                    (d. 1739)
                             (= Nazar `Ali Khan II)
                             (also in K`art`li)
1738 - 1744                T`eimuraz II (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                             (also in K`art`li)
Jul 1744 - 19 Jan 1762     Erekle II                          (b. 1721 - d. 1798)


K`art`li and Kakhet`i  (styled Kingdom of Georgia)

[Kingdom of Georgia Flag,
                1762-1802]

19 Jan 1762                Kingdoms of K`art`li and Kakhet`i in personal union,
                             often officially styled Kingdom of Georgia, nominally
                             recognized the Persian suzerainty.

 6 Feb 1784                Vassal of Russian Empire.
Dec 1799                   Russian troops enter the Kingdom.
28 Feb 1801                Annexed by Russia by manifesto of Emperor Pavel I.

24 Apr 1802                Incorporation into Russian Empire (the kingdom abolished);
                             "Georgian Tsar" added
to imperial style on 15 Nov 1882.

Kings (title Mepe)(full style: "King of K`art`li, Kakhet`i and All Georgia")
(title in relations with Persian suzerain: Wali)
19 Jan 1762 - 22 Jan 1798  Erekle II                          (b. 1721 - d. 1798)

22 Jan 1798 -  9 Jan 1801  Giorgi XII                         (b. 1746 - d. 1801)
 9 Jan 1801 - 18 Jun 1801  Crown Prince Davit` Bagrationi     (b. 1767 - d. 1819)
                             (semi-officially recognized as regent)
18 Jun 1801 - 20 May 1802  Provisional Administration

                           - Ivan Petrovich Lazarev           (b. 1763 - d. 1803)
                              (chairman)
                           - Prince Ioane Bagrationi          (b. 1768 - d. 1839)
                           - Egnate T`umanishvili             (d. af.1807)


Imeret`i

[Banner of
                        Imereti c.1745 (Georgia)]
c.1745 Banner of Imeret`i

1491                       Kingdom of Imeret`i, part of the Kingdom of Georgia,
                             established (capital Kutaisi).
1578                       Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
1767                       Ottoman suzerainty reduced to nominal by the agreement
                             (confirmed in 1772 and 1792).

21 Apr 1804                Russian protectorate.
23 May 1810                Incorporation into Russian Empire.
14 Sep 1829                Ottoman Empire cedes the port of Poti to Russia.

Kings (title Mepe)
1699 - 1701                Simoni                             (d. 1701)
1701 - 1702                Mamia "Didi" (1st time)            (b. 16.. - d. 1714)
                             (prince of Guria)
1702 - 1703                Giorgi VI (1st time)               (b. 16.. - d. 1722)
1703                       Giorgi VII (1st time)              (b. 1670 - d. 1720)
1703 - 1707                Giorgi VI (2nd time)               (s.a.)
1707 - Oct 1711            Giorgi VII (2nd time)              (s.a.)
Oct 1711 - Jun 1712        Mamia "Didi" (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Jun 1712 - Nov 1713        Giorgi VII (3rd time)              (s.a.)
Nov 1713 - May 1714        Mamia "Didi" (3rd time)            (s.a.)
May 1714 - Mar 1720        Giorgi VII (4th time)              (s.a.)
Mar 1720 - Jun 1720        Giorgi VIII                        (b. 1702 - d. 1726)
                             (prince of Guria)
Jun 1720 - 1741            Alek`sandre V (1st time)           (b. 1703 - d. 1752)
1741 - 1742                Giorgi IX                          (b. 1721 - d. af.1772)
1742 - 1747                Alek`sandre V (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1747 - 1749                Mamuka
1749 - Mar 1752            Alek`sandre V (3rd time)           (s.a.)
Mar 1752 - 1766            Solomon I "Didi" (1st time)        (b. 1735 - d. 1784)
1766 - 1768                T`eimuraz                          (d. 1772)
1768 -  4 May 1784         Solomon I "Didi" (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 4 May 1784 - 1789         Davit` II                          (b. 1756 - d. 1795)
1789 - 23 May 1810         Solomon II                         (b. 1773 - d. 1815)


Georgia


Chairman of the Executive Committee of the National Council of Georgia

11
Dec 1917 - 29 May 1918  Noe Nikolozis dze Zhordania        (b. 1868 - d. 1953)  RSDRP-M
                             (Noy Nikolayevich Zhordaniya)
Chairman of the National Council of Georgia
29 May 1918 -  8 Oct 1918 
Nikolozis "Karlo" Simonis dze      (b. 1865 - d. 1926)  SDLP-G
                             Chkheidze

                             (Nikolay Semyonovich Chkheidze)
 

Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia
 
8 Oct 1918 - 12 Mar 1919  Nikolozis "Karlo" Simonis dze      (s.a.)               SDLP-G
                            
Chkheidze 
                            (abroad on diplomatic mission from 5 Jan 1919)
Deputy Chairmen of the Parliament of Georgia
(acting for absent Chkheidze)
 5 Jan 1919 - 12 Mar 1919  Ioseb Aleksandres dze Baratashvili (b. 1874 - d. 1937)  SSPR
                           + Ekvtime Simonis dze Taqaishvili  (b. 1862 - d. 1953)  EDP 

Chairmen of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia

12 Mar 1919                Silibistro "Silva" Besarionis dze  (b. 1859 - d. 1922)  SDLP-G
                            
Jibladze
                             (Silvestr Vissarionovich Dzhibladze)

                             (acting)
12 Mar 1919 - 17 Mar
1921  Nikolozis "Karlo" Simonis dze      (s.a.)               SDLP-G
                             Chkheidze
                            (abroad on diplomatic missions to 5 Jan 1921;
                             from 25 Feb 1921 at Kutaisi, then Batumi)

12 Mar 1919 - 21 Jan 1921  Aleksandre Spiridonis dze
         (b. 1882 - d. 1924)  SDLP-G
                             Lomtatidze

                            
(Aleksandr Spiridonovich Lomtatidze)
                             (acting for
Chkheidze)
18 Mar 1919 - 21 Jan 1921  Simon (Svimon) Gurgenis dze Mdivani(b. 1876 - d. 1937)  SSPR
                             (Simon Gurgenovich Mdivani)
                           + Ekvtime Simonis dze Taq'aishvili (s.a.)               EDP 
                           (acting for Chkheidze)
Chairman of the Committee for the Independence of Georgia
Mar 1923 - Sep 1924        Konstantine "Kote" Andronikashvili (b. 1876 - d.af.1925)SDLP-G
                             (underground to Aug 1924, in rebellion)
Chairman of the Supreme Council 

14 Nov 1990 - 14 Apr 1991  Zviad Konstantines dze             (b. 1939 - d. 1993)  MM-TS
                             Gamsakhurdia
Presidents
14 Apr 1991 -  2 Jan 1992¹ Zviad Konstantines dze             (s.a.)               MM-TS
                             Gamsakhurdia
                            (in dissidence to 6 Jan 1993)
 2 Jan 1992 - 10 Mar 1992  Tengiz Kalistrates dze Kitovani    (b. 1939)            Mil
                           + Jaba Aleksandres dze Ioseliani   (b. 1926 - d. 2003)  Mil
                           (co-leaders of the Military Council)
Chairman of the State Council
10 Mar 1992 -  4 Nov 1992  Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze   (b. 1928 - d. 2014)  Non-party
Head of State
 4 Nov 1992 - 26 Nov 1995  Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (chairman of the Parliament 4-6 Nov 1992)
Presidents

26 Nov 1995 - 23 Nov 2003  Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze   (s.a.)               SMK
23 Nov 2003 - 25 Jan 2004  Nino Anzoris asuli Burjanadze (f)  (b. 1964)            BDA
                             (1st time) (acting)
25 Jan 2004 - 25 Nov 2007  Mikheil Nikolozis dze Saakashvili  (b. 1967)            ENM
                             (1st time)
25 Nov 2007 - 20 Jan 2008  
Nino Anzoris asuli Burjanadze (f)  (s.a.)               BDA
                             (2nd time) (acting)
20 Jan 2008 - 17 Nov 2013  Mikheil Nikolozis dze Saakashvili  (s.a.)               ENM
                             (2nd time)
17 Nov 2013 -
16 Dec 2018  Giorgi Teimurazis dze              (b. 1969)            KODS
                             Margvelashvili
16 Dec 2018 -              Salome Nino Levanis asuli          (b. 1952)            Non-party
                             Zurabishvili (f)
                            (= Salomé Nino Zourabichvili)

Chairmen of the Government (Prime ministers)
(specified to be also head of state by the constitution of 21 Feb 1921)
26 May 1918 - 24 Jun 1918  Noe Besarionis dze Ramishvili      (b. 1881 - d. 1930)  SDLP-G

                             (Noy Vissarionovich Ramishvili)
24 Jun 1918 - 17 Mar 1921  Noe Nikolozis dze Zhordania        (s.a.)               
SDLP-G
                             (Noy Nikolayevich Zhordaniya)
                             (from 25 Feb 1921 at Kutaisi, then Batumi)

Prime ministers

15 Nov 1990 - 18 Aug 1991  Tengiz Ippolitis dze Sigua         (b. 1934 - d. 2020)  Non-party
                             (1st time)
18 Aug 1991 - 23 Aug 1991  Murman Omanidze (acting)           (b. 1938)            Non-party
23 Aug 1991 -  6 Jan 1992¹ Bessarion Paatis Gugushvili        (b. 1945)            MM-TS
 6 Jan 1992 -  6 Aug 1993  Tengiz Ippolitis dze Sigua         (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
 6 Aug 1993 - 20 Aug 1993  Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting) 
20 Aug 1993 -  5 Oct 1995  Otia Ambakis Patsatsia             (b. 1929)            Non-party
Ministers of State
 8 Dec 1995 -  7 Aug 1998  Nikoloz "Niko" Mikheilis dze       (b. 1947)            SMK
                             Lekishvili
 7 Aug 1998 - 11 May 2000  Vazha Giorgis dze Lortkipanidze    (b. 1949)            SMK
11 May 2000 - 21 Dec 2001  Giorgi Longinozis Arsenishvili     (b. 1942 - d. 2010)  SMK
21 Dec 2001 - 27 Nov 2003  Avtandil Khristoforis Jorbenadze   (b. 1951)            SMK
27 Nov 2003 - 17 Feb 2004  Zurab Besarionis dze Zhvania       (b. 1963 - d. 2005)  BDA
Prime ministers
17 Feb 2004 -  3 Feb 2005  Zurab Besarionis dze Zhvania       (s.a.)               BDA
 3 Feb 2005 - 17 Feb 2005  Mikheil Nikolozis dze Saakashvili  (s.a.)               ENM
                             (acting) 
17 Feb 2005 - 22 Nov 2007  Zurab Teimurazis Nogaideli         (b. 1964)            BDA
22 Nov 2007 -  1 Nov 2008  Vladimer "Lado" Iraklis Gurgenidze (b. 1970)            Non-party
 1 Nov 2008 -  6 Feb 2009  Grigol "Gega" Zarubis
             (b. 1973)            Non-party
                             Mgaloblishvili   
 6 Feb 2009 -
 4 Jul 2012  Nikoloz "Nika" Gilauri             (b. 1975)            Non-party
 4 Jul 2012 - 
25 Oct 2012  Ivane "Vano" Sergeis Merabishvili  (b. 1968)            ENM
25 Oct 2012 - 20 Nov 2013  Bidzina Grigolis dze Ivanishvili   (b. 1956)            KODS
20 Nov 2013 - 30 Dec 2015  Irakli Garibashvili (1st time)     (b. 1982)            KODS
30 Dec 2015 - 20 Jun 2018  Giorgi Kvirikashvili               (b. 1967)            KODS
20 Jun 2018 - 
8 Sep 2019  Mamuka Bakhtadze                   (b. 1982)            KODS 
 8 Sep 2019 -
22 Feb 2021  Giorgi Zauris dze Gakharia         (b. 1975)            KODS
22 Feb 2021 -              Irakli Garibashvili (2nd time)     (s.a.)               KODS

National Government of Georgia (NGG) in exile

[Flag of Democratic
                  Republic of Georgia 1918-1921]

Heads of the National Government of Georgia
18 Mar 1921 - 11 Jan 1953  Noe Nik'olozis dze Zhordania       (s.a.)               SDLP-G
                             (Noy Nikolayevich Zhordaniya)
                             (briefly in Constantinople, then Leuville-sur-Orge, France exile)
11 Jan 1953 -  5 Jun 1954  Evgeni Petres dze Gegechkori       (b. 1881 - d. 1954)  SDLP-G
                             (Yevgeniy Petrovich Gegechkori)
                             (in Leuville-sur-Orge, France exile)


Allied (British) Forces

British Military Representatives, in Tiflis
19 Jan 1919 -  3 Apr 1919  Keith Maitland Davie               (b. 1868 - d. 19..)  Mil
 3 Apr 1919 - Aug 1919     Francis Stewart Montague-Bates     (b. 1876 - d. 1954)  Mil
British High Commissioners to Transcaucasia
(in Tiflis [now T'bilisi, Georgia])
Jul 1919 - 25 Apr 1920     John Oliver Wardrop                (b. 1864 – d. 1948)
25 Apr 1920 - Sep 1920     Harry Charles Lukes                (b. 1884 - d. 1969)
13 Sep 1920 - 24 Feb 1921  Clyde Bayfield Stokes              (b. 1875 - d. 1948)

Commanders of the British Forces in (to Mar 1919, only Western) Transcaucasia
 
(in Tiflis [now T'bilisi, Georgia])(commanders of the British 27th Division)
19 Jan 1919 -  9 Mar 1919  George Townshend Forestier-Walker  (b. 1866 - d. 1939)  Mil
10 Mar 1919 - 10 May 1919  William Montgomerie Thomson        (b. 1877 - d. 1963)  Mil
                             (acting)
10 May 1919 - Sep 1919     George Norton Cory                 (b. 1874 - d. 1968)  Mil

German Forces 1918

Commander of German Expeditionary Corps to Georgia (in Tiflis [now T'bilisi, Georgia])
Jun 1918 - Dec 1918        Ferdinand Freiherr Kress von       (b. 1870 - d. 1948)  Mil
                             Kressenstein

 ¹The ousted administration of Gamsakhurdia and Gugushvili formed a counter-government at Zugdidi on 24 Sep 1993 that controlled part of western Georgia until 6 Nov 1993.

Territorial Disputes: Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Meshkheti Turks scattered throughout the former Soviet Union seek to return to Georgia; boundary with Armenia remains undemarcated; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian government; Azerbaijan and Georgia continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas including the Georgian David Gareja monastery complex. 

Party abbreviations: EDP = Erovnul Demokratiuli Partia (National Democratic Party, christian-democratic, 1917-1924, re-est.1988); ENM = Ertiani Nats'ionaluri Modzraoba (United National Movement, center-right, liberal conservative, est.Oct 2001); KODS = K'art'uli Ots'neba – Demokratiuli Sak'art'velo (Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia, center-left, social liberal, populist, pro-European, est.21 Apr 2012); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: BDA = Burjanadze-Demokratiuli Aliansi (Burjanadze-Democratic Alliance, reform, social-democratic, 2003-2004); KPS-B = Komunisturi Partiis (Bolshevikebis) Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Gruzii (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Georgia, communist, from 1921 state party, May 1920-13 Oct 1952, renamed Communist Party of Georgia); MM-TS = Mrgvali Magida - Tavisupali Sak'art'velo (Round Table-Free Georgia, Georgian nationalist bloc, 1990-1992); RSDRP-M = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Men'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Mensheviks], split from RSDRP-B, democratic socialist, Orthodox Marxist, 1 Jan 1912-1922); SDLP-G = Sak'art'velos Sotsial-Demok'rat'iuli Partia (Georgian Social Democratic Party, Marxist, democratic socialist, split from Russian Social Democratic Worker's Party "Mensheviks", 1918-1926, from 1921 in underground, continued to 1950's in exile); SMK = Sak'art'velos Mokalaketa Kavshiri (Citizens Union of Georgia, centrist, pro-Shevardnadze, 1995-2003); SSPR = Sak'art'velos Sotsialist'-pederalist' Revolutsiuri Partia (Georgian Socialist-Federalist Revolutionary Party, bourgeois nationalist, 1904-1923)



Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
 
[Flag of Georgian SSR in 1921]
25 Feb 1921 - 20 May 1921
 
[Flag of Georgian SSR 1921-1937]
20 May 1921 - 13 Feb 1937
 
[Flag of Georgian SSR 1937-1941]
13 Feb 1937 - 1941
 
[Flag of
                          Georgian SSR 1941-1951]
1941 - 11 Apr 1951
[Flag of Georgian
                          SSR 1951-1990]
11 Apr 1951 - 14 Nov 1990

Capital: T'bilisi
(Tiflis to 1936)
Hear SSR Anthem
"Sakartvelos Sabch'ota
Socialist'uri Resp'ublikas
sakhelmts'ipo himni"
(State Anthem of

Georgian SSR)
(1944-1991)
--------------------------------
Former Anthem
"Int'ernatsionali"
(The Internationale)
(1921-1922, de facto possibly)
Constitutions
(4 Mar 1922, 3 Apr 1927,
13 Feb 1937, 3 Apr 1978)
Population: 5,015,000 (1980)
2,140,000 (1923)

16 Feb 1921                Georgia proclaimed a Soviet republic in rebellion.
25 Feb 1921                Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic of Georgia (Sakartvelos
                             sotsialist'uri sabch'ota resp'ublik'a), Soviet Russian troops
                             occupied T'bilisi.
21 May 1921                Union Treaty with the Russian S.F.S.R.
12 Mar 1922 - 13 Dec 1922  Part of the Federative Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of
                            
Transcaucasia (
see under Georgia).

13 Dec 1922 -  5 Dec 1936  Part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet
                             Republic (see below).
 
5 Dec 1936                Accession individually to the Soviet Union (see under Russia).
 5 Dec 1936                Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Sakartvelos Sabch'ota
                            
Sotsialist'uri Resp'ublik'a/Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya
                            
Sotsialisticheskaya Respublik).
 7 Mar 1944 - 24 Nov 1956  Akhalkhevi district (of Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R.) annexed.
 5 Oct 1944 -  1 Jan 1957  Klukhori district (of
Karachay A.O.) annexed.
18 Nov 1989                State sovereignty declared.
14 Nov 1990                Republic of Georgia (Sakartvelos resp'ublik'a).

Executive Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
(Bolsheviks) of Georgia 

Aug 1921 - Apr 1922        Mamiya (Ivan) Dmitriyevich         (b. 1881 - d. 1937)
                            
Orakhelashvili 
                             (Mamia Dimitris dze Orakhelashvili)
                             (
secretary to 1 Feb 1922)
Apr 1922 - 22 Oct 1922     Mikhail Stepanovich Okudzhava
     (b. 1887 - d. 1937)
                             (Mikheil Stepanis dze Okudzhava)
25 Oct 1922 - Aug 1924     Vissarion Vissarionovich Lominadze (b. 1897 - d. 1935)

                            
(Besarion Besarionis dze Lominadze)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
of Georgia (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Georgia)
Aug 1924 -  6 May 1930     Mikhail Ivanovich Kakhiani         (b. 1896 - d. 1937)

                             (Mikheil Ivanis Kakhiani)
 6 May 1930 - 20 Nov 1930  Levan Davidovich Gogoberidze       (b. 1896 - d. 1937)
                            
(Lavrenti Davitis dze Gogoberidze)
20 Nov 1930 - 13 Oct 1931  Samson Andreyevich Mamulia         (b. 1892 - d. 1937)
                            
(Samson Andreis dze Manulia)
13 Oct 1931 - 14 Nov 1931 
Lavrentiy Iosipovich Kartvelishvili(b. 1890 - d. 1938)
                             (Lavrenti Isipis dze Kartvelishvili)
14 Nov 1931 -
18 Oct 1932  Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beriya         (b. 1899 - d. 1953)
                             (Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria)
                             (1st time)
18 Oct 1932 - 15 Jan 1934  Pyotr Semyonovich Agniev           (b. 1896 - d. 1937)
                             (Petre Simonis dze Aghniashvili)
15 Jan 1934 - 31 Aug 1938  Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beriya         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
31 Aug 1938 -  2 Apr 1952  Kandid Nestorovich Charkviani
     (b. 1907 - d. 1994)
                            
(Kandid Nestoris dze Charkviani)
 2 Apr 1952 - 14 Apr 1953  Akakiy Ivanovich Mgeladze          (b. 1910 - d. 1980)

                             (Akaki Ivanis dze Mgeladze)
14 Apr 1953 - 19 Sep 1953  Aleksandr Iordanovich Mirtskhulava (b. 1911 - d. 2009)
                            
(Aleksandri Iordanis dze Mirtskhulava)
20 Sep 1953 - 29 Sep 1972  Vasiliy Pavlovich Mzhavanadze      (b. 1902 - d. 1988)
                            
(Vasil Pavelis dze Mzhavanadze)
29 Sep 1972 -  6 Jul 1985  Eduard Amvrosiyevich Shevardnadze  (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
                            
(Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze)
 6 Jul 1985 - 14 Apr 1989  Dzhumber Ilyich Patiashvili        (b. 1940)

                             (Jumber Ilichis dze Patiashvili)
14 Apr 1989 -  7 Dec 1990  Givi Grigoryevich Gumbaridze       (b. 1945)
                            
(Givi Grigoris dze Gumbaridze)
 7 Dec 1990 - 19 Feb 1991  Avtandil Antonovich Margiani       (b. 1945)
                            
(Avtandil Antonis dze Margiani)
First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Independent Communist Party of Georgia
20 Feb 1991 - 26 Aug 1991  
Dzhemal ("Jimi") Pridonovich       (b. 1936 - d. 2014)
                             Mikeladze 
                             (Jemal Pridon dze Mikeladze)

                          ("leading role" of party abolished Mar 1990)

Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee ("Gruzrevkom")
16 Feb 1921 –  6 Mar 1921  Mamiya (Ivan) Dmitriyevich         (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             Orakhelashvili (acting)
                             (Mamia Dimitris dze Orakhelashvili)
                             (
at Shulaveri to 25 Feb 1921)
 6 Mar 1921 -  7 Jul 1921 
Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (b. 1868 - d. 1941)  KPS-B
                             (Pilipe Eses dze Makharadze)
                             (appointed 16 Feb 1921)
 7 Jul 1921 -  7 Mar 1922  Polikarp
"Budu" Gurgenovich        (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                             Mdivani
                             (Polikarpe "Budu" Gurgenis dze Mdivani)
Chairmen of the All-Georgian Central Executive Committee of Soviets

 
7 Mar 1922 - Oct 1922     Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (Pilipe Eses dze Makharadze)
                             (1st time)

Oct 1922 - 22 Jan 1923     Ivan "Vano" Fyodorovich Sturua     (b. 1870 - d. 1931)  KPS-B

                             (Ivane "Vano" Tedores dze Sturua)
22 Jan 1923
 - Jun 1925     Mikhail Grigoryevich Tskhakaya     (b. 1865 - d. 1950)  KPS-B
                             (Mikheil Grigolis dze Tskhakaia)
                             (1st time)
Jun 1925 - 14 Jun 1927     Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (2nd time)
14 Jun 1927 - Apr 1928     Lavrentiy Iosipovich Kartvelishvili(s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (Lavrenti Iosebis dze Kartvelishvili)
Apr 1928 - Jun 1929        Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (3rd time) 
Jun 1929 - 20 Feb 1931     Mikhail Grigoryevich Tskhakaya     (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (2nd time)
20 Feb 1931 -  8 Jul 1938  Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (4th time)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
10 Jul 1938 - 10 Dec 1941  Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (Pilipe Eses dze Makharadze)
10? Dec 1941 -  3 Jan 1942 Daud Aliyevich Davitadze           (b. 1901 - d. 19..)  KPS-B
                              (Daud Alis dze Davitadze)

                           +
Mikhail Konstantinovich Delba    (b. 1905 - d. 1992)  KPS-B
                             
(Mikheil Konstantines dze Delba)
                          
(acting)
 3 Jan 1942 - 26 Mar 1948  Georgiy Fyodorovich Sturua         (b. 1884 - d. 1956)  KPS-B
                             (Giorgi Tevdores dze Sturua) 
26 Mar 1948 -  6 Apr 1952  Vasiliy Barnabovich Gogua          (b. 1908 - d. 1967)  KPS-B
                             (Vasil Barnabis dze Gogua)
 6 Apr 1952 - 15 Apr 1953  Zakhariy Nikolayevich              (b. 1903 - d. 1980) KPS-B;1952 KPS
                             Chkhubianishvili 
                             (Zakaria Nikolozis dze Chkhubianishvili)                

15 Apr 1953 - 29 Oct 1953  Vladimir Gedevanovich              (b. 1905 - d. 1976)  KPS
                             Tskhovrebashvili
                             (Vladimer Gedevanis dze Tskhovrebashvili) 
29 Oct 1953 - 18 Apr 1959  Miron Dmitriyevich Chubinidze      (b. 1905 - d. 1980)  KPS
                            
(Miron Dimitris dze Chubinidze)
18 Apr 1959 -  9 Jan 1976  Georgiy Samsonovich Dzotsenidze    (b. 1910 - d. 1976)  KPS
                            
(Giorgi Samsonis dze Dzotsenidze)
 9 Jan 1976 - 29 Mar 1989  Pavel Georgiyevich Gilashvili      (b. 1918 - d. 1994)  KPS
                            
(Pavle Giorgis dze Gilashvili)
                             (acting to 26 Jan 1976)
29 Mar 1989 - 17 Nov 1989  Otar Yevtikhiyevich Cherkeziya     (b. 1933)            KPS
                            
(Otar Evtikhis dze Cherkezia)
17 Nov 1989 - 14 Nov 1990  Givi Grigoryevich Gumbaridze       (s.a.)               KPS
                             (
Givi Grigolis dze Gumbaridze)
Chairman of the Supreme Council

14 Nov 1990 - 14 Apr 1991  Zviad Konstantinovich Gamsakhurdiya(b. 1939 - d. 1993)  MM-TS
                             (
Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia)

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
25 Feb 1922 - Apr 1922     Polikarp "Budu" Gurgenovich Mdivani(s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (Polikarpe "Budu" Gurgenis dze Mdivani)
Apr 1922 - Jan 1924        Sergey Ivanovich Kavtaradze        (b. 1885 - d. 1971)  KPS-B
                             (Sergo Levantis dze Kavtaradze)
 
5 Jan 1924 - Jun 1927     Shalva Zurabovich Eliava           (b. 1883 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                             (Shalva Zurabis dze Eliava)
Jun 1927 - Jun 1929        L
avrentiy Iosipovich Kartvelishvili(s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (Lavrenti Iosibis dze Kartvelishvili)
Jun 1929 - Jan 1931        Filipp Yeseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (Pilipe Eses dze Makharadze)
Jan 1931 - 22 Sep 1931     Vladimir (Levan) Pavlovich         (b. 1904 - d. 1937)  KPS-B

                             Sukhishvili
                             (Vladimer [Levanti] Pavelis dze Sukhishvili)
22 Sep 1931 - Jun 1937     German Andreyevich Mgaloblishvili  (b. 1884 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                            
(German Andreis dze Mgaloblishvili)
 9 Jul 1937 - 15 Apr 1946  Valerian Minayevich Bakradze       (b. 1901 - d. 1971)  KPS-B
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
15 Apr 1946 - Dec 1946     Valerian Minayevich Bakradze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (1st time)
Dec 1946 -  6 Apr 1952     Zakhariy Nikolayevich              (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             Chkhubianishvili
                             (Zakaria Nikolozis dze Chkhubianishvili)   
 6 Apr 1952 -  7 May 1953  Zakhariy Nikolayevich Ketskhoveli  (b. 1902 - d. 1970) KPS-B;1952 KPS
                            
(Zakaria Nikolozis dze Kechkhoveli)
 9 May 1953 - 21 Sep 1953  Valerian Minayevich Bakradze       (s.a.)               KPS
                             (2nd time)
21 Sep 1953 - 17 Dec 1975  Givi Dmitriyevich Dzhavakhishvili  (b. 1912 - d. 1985)  KPS
                            
(Givi Dmitris dze Dzhavakhishvili)
17 Dec 1975 -  5 Jun 1982  Zurab Aleksandrovich Pataridze     (b. 1928 - d. 1982)  KPS
                            
(Zurab Aleksandris dze Pataridze)
 2 Jul 1982 - 12 Apr 1986  Dmitriy Levanovich Kartvelishvili  (b. 1927 - d. 2009)  KPS
                            
(Dimitri Levantis dze Kartvelishvili)
12 Apr 1986 - 29 Mar 1989  Otar Yevtikhiyevich Cherkeziya     (s.a.)               KPS
                            
(Otar Evtikhis dze Cherkezia)
29 Mar 1989 - 14 Apr 1989  Zurab Amvrosiyevich Chkheidze      (b. 1930 - d. 2007)  KPS
                            
(Zurab Amvrosis dze Chkheidze)
14 Apr 1989 - 15 Nov 1990  Nodari Amvrosiyevich Chitanava     (b. 1935)            KPS
                            
(Nodari Amvorsis Chitanava)
15 Nov 1990 - 18 Aug 1991  Tengiz Ippolitovich Sigua          (b. 1934 - d. 2020)  MM-TS
                             (Tengiz Ippolitis dze Sigua)

Party abbreviations: MM-TS = Mrgvali Magida - Tavisupali Sak'art'velo (Round Table-Free Georgia, Georgian nationalist bloc, May 1990-1993);
- Former parties:
KPS-B = Komunisturi Partiis (Bolshevikebis) Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Gruzii (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Georgia, communist, from 1921 state party, May 1920-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPS); KPS = Komunisturi Partiis Sak'art'velos/ Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Gruzii (Communist Party of Georgia, communist, state party former KPS-B, 13 Oct 1952 - 12 Aug 1990, splits from CPSU and is renamed Independent Communist Party of Georgia on 12 Aug 1990, banned 26 Aug 1991)


Kutaisi

 3 Nov 1951 - 23 Apr 1953  Kutaisi oblast (within Georgian S.S.R.).

First Secretaries of the Kutaisi Regional Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
of Georgia (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Georgia) Committee of the

Nov 1951 - 26 Apr 1952     Akakiy Ivanovich Mgeladze          (b. 1910 - d. 1980)  KPS-B
                             (Akaki Ivanis dze Mgeladze)
27 Apr 1952 - Apr 1953     Maksim Konstantinovich Balavadze   (b. 1910 - d. 19..)
KPS-B; 1952 KPS

Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the Regional Council of Kutaisi
25 Dec 1951 - 1952         Boris Yermolayevich Lomidze        (b. 1909 - d. 19..)  KPS-B
1952 - Apr 1953            Sergey Viktorovich Sakvarelidze    (b. 1911 - d.bf.1979)KPS-B; 1952 KPS


Tbilisi

 3 Nov 1951 - 23 Apr 1953  Tbilisi oblast (within Georgian S.S.R.).

First Secretaries of the Tbilisi Regional Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
of Georgia (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Georgia)

Nov 1951 - 26 Apr 1952     Mikhail Mikhaylovich Lelashvili    (b. 1910 - d. 19..)  KPS-B
27 Apr 1952 - Apr 1953     Konstantin Dmitriyevich            (b. 1904 - d. 19..) KPS-B;1952 KPS
                             Budzhiashvili

Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Regional Council of Tbilisi
 4 Dec 1951 - Apr 1953     Ivan Petrovich Kudzhiashvili       (b. 1906 - d. 19..) KPS-B;1952 KPS



Transcaucasia

 
[Russian flag]
28 Feb 1801 - 22 Apr 1918
[mistaken
                          Transcaucasian Federation flag, 1918 (No Flag
                          Was Adopted)]
22 Apr - 26 May 1918 Wrong Report, No Flag Adopted
[Flag of Federative Union of
                          Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia,
                          1922-1936]
13 Dec 1922 - 5 Dec 1936
Map of Transcaucasia
 and the T.S.F.S.R.
Capital: Tiflis
(from 1936, T'bilisi)
National Anthem
"Internatsional"
(The Internationale)
(1922-1936, de facto possibly)
Constitutions (Basic Law)
(13 Dec 1922-10 Apr 1925;
10 Apr 1925-5 Dec 1936)
Currency: Transcaucasian
 Ruble (ZKRR/ZKSR)
(18 Feb 1918-Jul 1919;
10 Jan 1923-10 Apr 1924)
Population: 5,850,700 (1926)
6,500,000 (1915, including Kars Oblast)
Ethnic groups: Georgian
30.5%, Azerbaijani 28.2%,
Armenian 22.7%, Russian
5.8%, Ossetian 2%, Talysh
1.3%, Kurds 1.1%,
Abkhazian 1%, Greek 1%,
other 6.4% (1926)
Religious groups: Eastern Orthodox 34%, Shia Muslim 25%, Armenian Apostolic 22%, Sunni Muslim 17%, other 2% (1915,
including Kars Oblast)

 8 May 1802                Russian regional administration in the Caucasus (with rights of
                             governor-general) established in Tiflis.

 8 Jan 1845                Viceroyalty of the Caucasus (Kavkazskoye namestnichestvo)(Armenia,
                             Azerbaijan,
Georgia, Dagestan and North Caucasus), referred to as
                             Caucasus Kray.
 3 Mar 1878                Kars, Ardahan, and Batumi ceded to Russia by Ottoman Empire.
13 Jan 1882 - 13 Jan 1905  Chief Administration of the Caucasus (with rights of governor-
                             general).
13 Jan 1905                Viceroyalty of the Caucasus (restored).
22 Mar 1917                Viceroyalty replaced by the Special Transcaucasian Committee for
                             Administration (Osobyy Zakavkazskiy Komitet po Administratsiya)
                             (OZAKOM)(in charge of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Dagestan and
                             Western Armenia), appointed by the Russian Provisional Government.

28 Nov 1917                Transcaucasian Commissariat (Zakavkazskiy komissariat) assumed
                             "provisional executive authority" in Transcaucasia (Zakavkaz'e)
                             (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, including Kars region) and in
                             Russian -occupied part of Turkey in accordance with a declaration
                             issued in Tiflis (modern T'bilisi) (O.S. date 15 Nov 1917), part of
                             federal Russian republic.

23 Feb 1918                Transcaucasian Diet (Seym) is convoked by Transcaucasian Commissariat

                             in Tiflis (modern T'bilisi), it included members of the All-Russian
                             Constituent Assembly (from Petrograd, Jan 1918)
elected from
                             Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, including Kars region (O.S. date
                             10 Feb 1918).

 
9 Apr 1918                Transcaucasian Commissariat abolished by the Diet.
22 Apr 1918                Transcaucasia (Zakavkaz'e) is proclaimed an "independent democratic
                             federal republic" by resolution of the Transcaucasian Diet (name of
                             the state not formally approved)(consisting of Armenia, Azerbaijan,
                             and Georgia, including Kars region)(O.S. date 9 Apr 1918).

26 May 1918                Disintegration of Transcaucasia is acknowledged. Transcaucasian Diet
                             is dissolved by resolution of the Diet.

12 Mar 1922                Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia
                             (Sovetskiye Sotsialisticheskiye Respubliki Zakavkaz'ya), consisting
                             of Armenian S.S.R., Azerbaijan S.S.R. and Georgian S.S.R.

13 Dec 1922                Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (T.S.F.S.R.)
                            (Zakavkazskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Federativnaya Sovetskaya
                             Respublika/Andrkovkasi Soc'ialistakan Federativ Xorhrdayin
                            
Hanrapetout'youn/Zaqafqaziya İctimai Federativ Şura Cümhuriyyəti/
                            
Amierk'avk'asiis sotsialist'uri pederatsiuli sabch'ota
                             resp'ublik'a
).

30 Dec 1922                Constituent republic of the Soviet Union.
 5 Dec 1936                T.S.F.S.R. dissolved.

Executive Secretaries of the Transcaucasian Regional Committee of the
Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
23 Feb 1922 –  3 Nov 1922  Ivan (Mamia) Dmitriyevich          (b. 1881 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                             Orakhelashvili (Georgian SSR) 
                             (Mamia Dimitris dze Orakhelashvili)
 3 Nov 1922 - 24 Mar 1923  Aleksandr Fyodorovich
Myasnikov    (b. 1886 - d. 1925)  HKK
                             (Aleksandr Teodorosi Myasnikyan)
                             (
Armenian SSR)

First Secretaries of the Transcaucasian Regional Committee of the Russian
Communist Party (Bolsheviks)(from 31 Dec 1925, All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks])
24 Mar 1923 - 11 Dec 1924  Aleksandr Fyodorovich Myasnikov    (s.a.)               HKK
                             (Armenian SSR)
11 Dec 1924 -  8 Dec 1926  Sergey "Sergo" Grigoriy            (b. 1886 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                             Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze
                             (Sergo Konstantinlis dze Ordzhonikidze)
                             (Georgian SSR)

 8 Dec 1926 - 27 Nov 1929  Mamia (Ivan) Dmitriyevich          (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             Orakhelashvili (1st time)
                            
(Mamia Dimitris dze Orakhelashvili)
                            
(
Georgian SSR)

27 Nov 1929 –  8 May 1930  Aleksandr Ivanovich Krinitskiy     (b. 1894 – d. 1937)  KPS-B
                             (Georgian SSR)
 8 May 1930 - 19 Nov 1930  Vissarion Vissarionovich Lominadze (b. 1897 - d. 1935)  KPS-B
                             (Besarion Besarionis dze Lominadse)
                             (Georgian SSR)

19 Nov 1930 – 31 Oct 1931  Lavrentiy Iosifovich Kartvelishvili(b. 1890 – d. 1938)  KPS-B
                             (Laventi Iosifis Kartvelishvili)
                             (Georgian SSR)

31 Oct 1931 - 17 Oct 1932  Mamia (Ivan) Dmitriyevich          (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             Orakhelashvili (2nd time)
                             (Georgian SSR)

17 Oct 1932 -  5 Dec 1936  Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beriya         (b. 1899 - d. 1953)  KPS-B
                             (Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria)
                             (Georgian SSR)

Russian Commanders-in-chief and Chief Administrators of Civil Affairs in the Caucasus
(until 1840 officially "in Georgia")
(in Tiflis [now T'bilisi, Georgia])
 9 Apr 1802 - 23 Sep 1802  Baron Karl Fyodorovich fon         (b. 1746 - d. 1820)
                             Knorring
23 Sep 1802 - 20 Feb 1806  Knyaz' Pavel Dmitriyevich          (b. 1754 - d. 1806)
                             Tsitsianov
                             (Pavle Dimitris dze Tsitsishvili)
Jun 1806 - Feb 1809        Graf Ivan Vasilyevich Gudovich     (b. 1741 - d. 1820)
Feb 1809 - 1811            Aleksandr Petrovich Tormasov       (b. 1752 - d. 1819)
18 Jul 1811 - 28 Feb 1812  Markiz Filipp Osipovich Pauluchchi (b. 1779 - d. 1849)
                             (= Filippo Paulucci, marchese delle Roncole)
28 Feb 1812 -  9 Apr 1816  Nikolay Fyodorovich Rtishchev      (b. 1754 - d. 1835)
Oct 1816 - 27 Mar 1827     Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov         (b. 1777 - d. 1861) 
28 Mar 1827 - 1830         Graf Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich-   (b. 1782 - d. 1856)
                             Yerivanskiy 
1830 - Aug 1831            Nikita Petrovich Pankratyev        (b. 1788 - d. 1836)
                             (acting)
13 Sep 1831 - 30 Nov 1837  Baron Grigoriy Vladimirovich fon   (b. 1782 - d. 1841)
                             Rozen
30 Nov 1837 - 25 Oct 1842  Yevgeniy Aleksandrovich Golovin    (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
Oct 1842 -  8 Jan 1845     Aleksandr Ivanovich Neidgardt      (b. 1784 - d. 1845)
Viceroys of the Caucasus (title Namestnik)(in Tiflis [now T'bilisi, Georgia])
 
8 Jan 1845 - 13 Mar 1854  Knyaz' Mikhail Semyonovich         (b. 1782 - d. 1856)
                             Vorontsov
13 Mar 1854 - 11 Dec 1854  Nikolay Andreyevich Read (acting)  (b. 1793 - d. 1855)
11 Dec 1854 -  3 Aug 1856  Nikolay Nikolayevich Muravyov-     (b. 1794 - d. 1866) 
                             Karsskiy
 3 Aug 1856 - 18 Dec 1862
  Knyaz' Aleksandr Ivanovich         (b. 1815 - d. 1879)
                             Baryatinskiy
1860 - 1862                Knyaz' Grigoriy Dmitriyevich       (b. 1804 - d. 1883)
                             Orbeliani (acting for absent Baryatinskiy)
18 Dec 1862 -  4 Aug 1881  Velikiy
Knyaz' Mikhail Nikolayevich(b. 1832 - d. 1909)
                             Romanov
Commanders-in-chief and Chief Administrators of the Civil Administration of the Caucasus
13 Jan 1882 - 15 Jun 1890  Knyaz' Aleksandr Mikhaylovich      (b. 1820 - d. 1893)
                             Dondukov-Korsakov 
15 Jun 1890 - 18 Dec 1896  Sergey Aleksandrovich Sheremetyev  (b. 1836 - d. 1896)
24 Dec 1896 - 13 Jan 1905  Knyaz' Grigoriy Sergeyevich        (b. 1838 - d. 1907)
                             Golitsyn
Viceroys of the Caucasus (title Namestnik)
11 Mar 1905 -  5 Sep 1915  Graf Illarion Ivanovich Vorontsov  (b. 1837 - d. 1916)
                             -Dashkov 
 
5 Sep 1915 - 22 Mar 1917  Velikiy Knyaz' Nikolay Nikolayevich(b. 1856 - d. 1929)
                             Romanov
Chairman of the Special Transcaucasian Committee for Administration of the
Russian Provisional
Government
22 Mar 1917 - 28 Nov 1917  Vasiliy Akimovich Kharlamov        (b. 1875 - d. 1957)  KDP
Chairman of the Transcaucasian Commissariat
28 Nov 1917 - 26 Mar 1918  Yevgeniy Petrovich Gegechkori      (b. 1881 - d. 1954)  RSDRP-M
                            
(Eevgeni Petres dze Gegechkori)
Chairman of the
Transcaucasian Diet
23 Feb 1918 - 26 May 1918  Nikolay Semyonovich Chkheidze      (b. 1865 - d. 1926RSDRP-M
                            
(Nikolozis "Karlo" Simonis dze Chkheidze)
                             (presiding officer to 26 Feb 1918)
Chairmen of the Union Council of the Socialist Soviet Republics of
Transcaucasia
(serving jointly)
12 Mar 1922 - 15 Jan 1923  Nariman Kerbalay Nadzhaf ogly      (b. 1870 - d. 1925)  AKP
                             Narimanov (Azerbaijani SSR)
                             (chaired meetings 6 Jul 1922-4 Dec 1922)
                           + Polikarp "Budu" Gurgernovich     (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                               Mdivani (to 4 Dec 1922)
                              (Polikarpe "Budu" Gurgenis dze Mdivani)
                              (Georgian SSR)

                           + Aleksandr Fyodorovich Myasnikov  (s.a.)               HKK
                              (Aleksandr Teodorosi Myasnikyan)
                              (
Armenian SSR)

                              (chaired meetings to 6 Jul 1922)
                           + Shalva Zurabovich Eliava         (b. 1883 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                              (Shalva Zurabis dze Eliava)
                              (Georgian SSR)
(from 4 Dec 1922)
                             
(chaired meetings from 4 Dec 1922)
Chairmen of the Transcaucasian Central Executive Committee
(serving jointly)
- Line 1 (Armenian SSR) -
16 Jan 1923 - 15 Apr 1925  Sarkis Saakovich Ambartsumyan      (b. 1870 - d. 1944)  HKK
                            
(Sargis Sahaki Hambarjoumyan)
15 Apr 1925
-  9 Apr 1927  Sarkis Meliksetovich Khanoyan      (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  HKK
                            
(Sargis Melikseti Xanoyan)
 9 Apr 1927 - 27 Feb 1931  Sergey (Sarkis) Ivanovich Kasyan   (b. 1876 - d. 1937)
  HKK
                            
(Sargis Hovhannesi Kasyan)
27 Feb 1931 - 18 Jan 1935  Armen
Artyomovich Ananyan          (b. 1893 - d. 1958)  HKK
                            
(Armen Artemi Ananyan)
18 Jan 1935 -  5 Dec 1936  Sergey Nikolayevich
Martikyan      (b. 1874 - d. 1957)  HKK
                             (Sergo Nikolayi Martikyan)
 - Line 2 (Azerbaijani SSR) -
16 Jan 1923 - 26 Jan 1930  Samed Aga Agamali ogly Aliyev      (b. 1867 - d. 1930)  AKP
26 Jan 1930 - 18 Jan 1931  Vacant
18 Jan 1931 - 28 Jan 1932  Gazanfar Makhmud ogly Musabekov    (b. 1888 - d. 1938)
  AKP
                            
(Musabayov)
28 Jan 1932
 -  5 Dec 1936  Sultan-Medzhid Medzhid ogly        (b. 1887 - d. 1938)  AKP
                             Efendiyev
- Line 3 (Georgian SSR) -
16 Jan 1923 - 27 Feb 1931  Mikhail Grigoryevich Tskhakaya     (b. 1865 - d. 1950)  KPS-B
                             (Mikheil Grigolis dze Tskhakaia)
27 Feb 1931 -  5 Mar 1935  Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (b. 1868 - d. 1941)  KPS-B
                             (Pilipe Eses dze Makharadze)
                             (1st time)
 5 Mar 1935 - 27 May 1935  Aveli Safronovich Enukidze         (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                            
(Abel Sopronis dze Enukidze)
27 May 1935 -  5 Dec 1936  Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze
       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (2nd time)

Chiefs of the Civil Administration with the Viceroy in the Caucasus
 
8 Nov 1847 - 10 Mar 1858  Knyaz' Vasiliy Osipovich Bebutov   (b. 1791 - d. 1858)
                             (Barsegh Behbutyan)
1858 - 1863                Aleksey Fyodorovich fon            (b. 1813 - d. 1887)
                             Kruzenshtern
                            (Peter Magnus Alexis von Krusenstiern) 

1863 - 1875                Baron Aleksandr Pavlovich fon      (b. 1821 - d. 1899)
                            
Nikolay
24 Dec 1875 - Jan 1877     Pavel Nikolayevich Klushin         (b. 1814 - d. 1886)
23 Aug
1878 - 11 Mar 1884  Dmitriy Semyonovich Starosel'skiy  (b. 1832 - d. 1884)
1884 - 1905                Post abolished
Assistants to the Viceroy for Civil Affairs in the Caucasus
26 Feb 1905 -  2 Apr 1906  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Sultan-     (b. 1836 - d. 1920)
                             Krym-Girey
Apr 1906 -  6 Sep 1909     Iustin Vasilyevich Mitskevich      (b. 1841 - d. 1918)
1909 - 1913                Emmanuil Aleksandrovich Vatatsi    (b. 1856 - d. 1920)
Dec 1913 - 22 Mar 1915     Nikolay Leonidovich Peterson       (b. 1866 - d. 1920)
16 Nov 1915 - 31 Mar 1917  Knyaz' Vladimir Nikolayevich Orlov (b. 1868 - d. 1927) 
Chairmen of the Provisional Transcaucasian Government (heads of government)
26 Mar 1918 - 22 Apr 1918  Yevgeniy Petrovich Gegechkori      (s.a.)               RSDRP-M
                             (Eevgeni Petres dze Gegechkori)
26 Apr 1918 - 26 May 1918  Akakiy Ivanovich Chkhenkeli        (b. 1874 - d. 1959)  RSDRP-M
                             (Akaki Chkhenkeli)
Chairman of the Supreme Economic Council of Transcaucasia
 4 Jul 1922 - 16 Jan 1923  Aleksandr Fyodorovich Myasnikov    (s.a.)               HKK
                             (Aleksandr Teodorosi Myasnikyan)
                             (Armenian SSR)

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Transcaucasian S.F.S.R.

16 Jan 1923 -  9 Jun 1927  Ivan (Mamia) Dmitriyevich          (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             Orakhelashvili (1st time)
                             (Mamia Dimitris dze Orakhelashvili)
                            
(Georgian SSR)
 9 Jun 1927 - 29 Jan 1931  Shalva Zurabovich Eliava           (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (Shalva Zurabis dze Eliava)
                             (Georgian SSR)

29 Jan 1931 - 12 Nov 1931  Mamia (Ivan) Dmitriyevich          (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             Orakhelashvili (2nd time)
                             (Georgian SSR)
12 Nov 1931 -  5 Dec 1936  Gazanfar Makhmud ogly Musabekov    (s.a.)               AKP
                             (Musabayov)(Azerbaijani SSR)

Party abbreviations: AKP = Azerbaycan Kommunist (Bolsevik) Partiyasi (Azerbaijani Communist [Bolshevik] Party, 1920-1952, renamed Azerbaijani Communist Party); HKK = Hayastani Komunistakan (Bolshevikner) Kusaktsutyun (Armenian Communist [Bolshevik] Party, 1920-1952, renamed Armenian Communist Party); KPS-B = Komunisturi Partiis (Bolshevikebis) Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Gruzii (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Georgia, Marxist-Leninist communist, from 1921 Georgian SSR state party, May 1920-13 Oct 1952, renamed Communist Party of Georgia);
-
Former parties:
KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, 12 Oct 1905-1920, banned by Bolsheviks from 12 Dec 1917);  SDLP-G = Sak'art'velos Sotsial-Demok'rat'iuli Partia (Georgian Social Democratic Party, Marxist, democratic-socialist, split from RSDRP-M, 1918-1926, in underground from 1921); RSDRP-M = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Men'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Mensheviks], split from RSDRP, democratic socialist, Orthodox Marxist, 1 Jan 1912-1922)


Kutais governorate (1810-1840 Imeretia oblast)

1810                       Imeretia oblast (Imeretiya oblast').
10 Apr 1840 - 1847         Part of the Georgia-Imeretia governorate.
1847                       Kutais governorate (
Kutaisskaya guberniya).

Administrators (title Upravlyayushchiy)
1810 - 1813                Fyodor Filippovich Simonovich        (b. 1760 - d. 1815)
1813 - 1815                ....
1815 - 1818                Nikolay Mikhailovich Khotuntsov      (b. 1775 - d. 1818)
1818 - 1819                Ivan Danilovich Kurnatovskiy         (b. c.1760 - d. 18..)
1819 - 1820                Ivan Onufriyevich Puzyrevskiy        (d. 1820)
1820 - 1825                Knyaz' Pyotr Dmitriyevch Gorchakov   (b. 1789 - d. 1868)
1825 - 1827                Knyaz' Vasiliy Osipovich Bebutov     (b. 1791 - d. 1858)
                            (Barsegh Behbutyan)
1827 - 1830                Karl Fyodorovich Gesse               (b. 1788 - d. 1842)
1830? - 1834               Pyotr Pavlovich Vakul'skiy           (d. af.1836)
1834 - 1836                Dmitriy Dmitriyevich Akhlestyshev    (b. 1796 - d. 1875)
1836 - 1837                Andrey Grigoryevich Patsovskiy       (b. 1788 - d. 1839)
1837 - 1840                Yakim Mikhailovich Espekho           (b. 1792 - d. 1847)
                             (= Joaquín de Espejo)
1840 - 1847                part of Georgia-Imeretia governorate
Military Governors and Administrators of Civil Affairs

17 Apr 1847 - 1851         Konstantin Yakovlevich
Belyavskiy    (b. 1802 - d. 1857)
1851 - 1853               
Knyaz' Aleksandr Ivanovich Gagarin   (b. 1801 - d. 1857)
                             (1st time)
1853 - 1856                Knyaz' Ivan Konstantinovich          (b. 1812 - d. 1895)
                            
Bagration-Mukhranskiy
1856 -  8 Nov 1857         Knyaz Aleksandr
Ivanovich Gagarin    (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)(governor-general)
1857 - 1860                Nikolay Agafonovich Ivanov           (b. 1813 - d. 1873)
                             (civil governor)
Feb 1858 - 1860           
Knyaz' Georgiy Romanovich Eristov    (b. 1812 - d. 1891)
                             (governor-general)
1860 - 1863                Nikolay Petrovich Kolyubakin         (b. 1810 - d. 1868)
1863 - 1866               
Knyaz' Dmitriy Ivanovich Svyatopolk  (b. 1824 - d. 1899)
                             -Mirskiy
(governor-general) 
1865 - 1867                Aleksandr Stepanovich Ogolin         (b. 1821 - d. 1911)
                             (civil governor)
1867 - 28 Sep 1874         Graf Vladimir Vasilyevich
Levashov   (b. 1834 - d. 1898)  
Governors of Kutais governorate
1874 - 1878                Georgiy Konstantinovich Vlastov      (b. 1827 - d. 1899)
1878 - 1883                Nikolay Yasonovich Malafeyev         (b. 18.. - d. 1911)
Military Governors and Administrators of Civil Affairs
13 Jul 1883 - 23 Feb 1887  Aleksey Mikhaylovich Smekalov        (b. 1838 - d. 1890)
23 Mar 1887 - 13 Dec 1890  Aleksandr Ignatyevich Grosman        (b. 1836 - d. 1890)   
 3 Jan 1891 - 11 Jun 1898  Mikhail Yakovlevich Shalikov         (b. 1831 - d. 1909)
31 Jul 1898 -  4 May 1901  Fyodor Konstantinovich Gershel'man   (b. 1853 - d.af.1927)
 2 Nov 1901 -  8 Jul 1903  Aleksey Alekseyevich Smagin          (b. 1857 - d. 1928)  
Governors of Kutais governorate
 8 Jul 1903 -  1 May 1905  Aleksey Alekseyevich Smagin          (s.a.)  
1905 - 1906                Vladimir Aleksandrovich              (b. 1860 - d. 1916)
                             Starosel'skiy (acting)
1906 - 1907                Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Yazikov     (b. 1874 - d. 1937)
                             (acting)
11 Dec 1907 - 1914         Adam Ivanovich Slavachinskiy         (b. 1855 - d. 1925)   
1914 - 1916                Lev Vladimirovich Potulov            (b. 1877 - d.af.1931)
1916 - Mar 1917            Graf Aleksandr Vasilyevich           (b. 1869 - d. 1919)
                             Gudovich
Commissar of Kutais governorate
1917                       Yevgeniy Petrovich Gegechkori        (b. 1881 - d. 1954)  RSDRP-M
                             ( = Eevgeni Petres dze Gegechkori)


Georgia (from 1840, Georgia-Imereti; from 1847, Tiflis) governorate

1802                       Governorate of Georgia (Gruzinskaya guberniya).
10 Apr 1840                Georgia-Imeretia Governorate (Gruzino-Imeretinskaya guberniya).
14 Dec 1846                Tiflis Governorate (Tiflisskaya guberniya). 

Governors (to 1811 with title Pravitel’)
22 Feb 1802 - 1804         Pyotr Ivanovich Kovalevskiy          (b. 1766 - d. 1827)
1804 - 1805                Knyaz' Dmitriy Volkonskiy            (b. 1770 - d. 1835)
21 Jan 1806 - 1807         Pyotr Maksimovich Litvinov           (b. 1760 - d. 1834)
 3 Nov 1807 - 17 Aug 1811  Fyodor Isayevich Akhverdov           (b. 1773 - d. 1820)
                             (= Tevdore Akhverdashvili)

17 Aug 1811 - 1813         Mark Leontyevich Malinskiy           (d. af.1820)
20 Jul 1813 - 1815         Fyodor Filippovich Simonovich        (b. 1760 - d. 1815)
18 Nov 1815 - 1818         Karl Fyodorovich fon Stal'           (b. 1774 - d. 1824)
1818 - 1829                Roman Ivanovich fon der Khoven       (b. 1775 - d. 1861)
31 Jul 1829 - 1832         Pyotr Demyanovich Zaveleyskiy        (b. 1800 - d. 1843)
14 Feb 1832 - 1837        
Knyaz' Nikolay Iosifovich Palavandov (d. 1850)
                             (= Nikoloz Palavandishvili)
25 Dec 1837 - 1838         Mikhail
Grigoryevich Brayko          (b. 1784 - d. 1848)
21 May 1838 -  6 Mar 1840  Dmitriy
Dmitriyevich Akhlestyshev    (b. 1796 - d. 1875)
22 Jul 1841 - Mar 1843     Aleksandr Antonovich Skalon          (b. 1796 - d. 1851)
20 Oct 1843 - 1845         Vasiliy Semyonovich Sotnikov         (b. 1788 - d. 1853)
24 Jun 1845 - 1846         Mikhail
Ivanovich Zherebtsov         (b. 1792 - d. 1870)
20 Jun 1846 - 1849         Sergey Nikolayevich Yermolov         (b. 1798 - d. 1856)
Military Governors and Administrators of Civil Affairs
18 Oct 1849 - 1855         Knyaz' Ivan Malkhazovich Andronnikov (b. 1798 - d. 1868)
                             (= Ivane Andronikashvili)
31 Dec 1855 - 1857         Nikolay Yevgenyevich Lukash          (b. 1796 - d. 1868)
13 Jan 1858 - 1860         Aleksandr Khristianovich Kapger      (b. 1809 - d. 1876)
Governors o
f Baku Governorate
 6 Apr 1860 - 20 Mar 1876  Konstantin Ivanovich Orlovskiy       (b. 1810 - d. 1876)
 5 Jun 1876 - 1878         Baron Maksimilian
Aleksandrovich fon (b. 1833 - d. 1884)
                            der Osten-Zaken
20 Jan 1878 - 1883      
   Knyaz' Konstantin Dmitriyevich       (b. 1841 - d. 1916)
                             Gagarin 
23 Sep 1883 - 1887         Aleksandr Ignatyevich Grosman        (b. 1836 - d. 1890)
24 Mar 1887 - 1888         Karl L'vovich Zisserman (Sissermann) (b. 1836 - d. 1888)
20 Dec 1888 - 1897         Knyaz' Georgiy Dmitriyevich          (b. 1847 - d. 1918)
                            
Shervashidze (Giorgi Shervashidze)
24 Jul 1897 - 27 Feb 1899  Fyodor Aleksandrovich Bykov          (b. 18.. - d. 1915)
31 Mar 1899 - 17 Aug 1905  Ivan Nikolayevich Svechin            (b. 1863 - d. 1930)
17 Aug 1905 -  5 Oct 1907  Baron Pavel
Aleksandrovich Raush fon (b. 1858 - d. 1923)
                             Traubenberg
 5 Oct 1907 - 23 May 1911  Mikhail Aleksandrovich Lyubich-      (b. 1865 - d. 19..)
                             Yarmolovich-Lozina-Lozinskiy
23 May 1911 - 23 Jun 1914  Andrey Gavrilovich Chernyavskiy      (b. 1867 - d. 1937)
1914 - 1916                Ivan Mikhaylovich Strakhovskiy       (b. 1866 - d. 1918)
1916 - Mar 1917            Aleksandr Nikolayevich Mandrika      (b. 1876 - d. 1928)
Commissar of Baku Governorate
c.Jan 1918                 Konstantine Japaridze                (b. 1884 - d. 1940)  RSDRP-M



Autonomous Regions

Abkhazia 
 
[Flag of Principality of Abkhazia
                          c.1810 (Georgia)]
Abkhazia Flag c.1810
 
[Flag of Abkhazia in rebellion
                          1866 (Georgia)]
Abkhazia in Rebellion Flag 1866
 
[Flag of
                          Abkhazian SSR 1925-1935 (Georgian SSR]
1 Apr 1925 - 7 Jan 1935
   
[Flag of
                          Abkhazian ASSR 1935-1937 (Georgian SSR)]
7 Jan 1935 - 2 Aug 1937
 
[Flag of
                          Abkhazian ASSR 1937-1938 (Georgian SSR)]
2 Aug 1937 - 1938
 
[Flag of
                          Abkhazian ASSR 1938-1951 (Georgian SSR)]
1938 - 26 Apr 1951
 
[Flag of Georgian
                          SSR 1951-1978]
26 Apr 1951 -  3 Nov 1978
 
[Flag of Abkhazian ASSR 1978-1981
                          (Georgian SSR)]
3 Nov 1978 - 21 Jul 1981
 
[Flag of
                          Abkhazian ASSR 1981-1991 (Georgian SSR)]
21 Jul 1981 - 25 Dec 1991
 
[Flag of
                          Abkhazia (Georgia)]
Adopted 23 Jul 1992

Map of Abkhazia
Hear National Anthem
"Aiaaira" (Victory)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 23 Jul 1992
(formally adopted 24 Oct 2007)
Constitution
 (26 Nov 1994)
(1 Apr 1925, 7 Jan 1935,
2 Aug 1937, 6 Jun 1978)
Capital: Sukhum
(Sukhum to 16 Aug 1936;
Sukhumi 16 Aug 1936 -
4 Dec 1992)
Gudauta Aug 1992-27 Sep 1993)

Currency: Russian Ruble
(RUR) and Abkhazian Apsar
(from 2008)

National Holidays: 30 Sep (1993)
Den' nezavisimosti Abkhazii
(Independence Day of Abkhazia)
------------------------------------
26 Nov (1994)
Den' Konstitutsii
(Constitution Day)

Population: 243,206 (2015)
526,800 (1989)
GDP: $0.5 billion (2010)
Exports: $22 million (2006)
Imports: $117 million (2006)
Ethnic groups: Abkhazian 51.1%, Georgian (including
Megrelians) 19.2%, Armenian 17.2%, Russian 9.16%,
Greeks 0.55%, Ukrainian 0.72%, others 2.1% (2016)

1989: Georgian 45.68%, Abkhazian 17.76%, Armenian 14.58%,
Russian 14.27%, Greeks 2.79%, others 4.92% (1989)
Total Active Armed Forces: 2,100 (2009)
Russian Forces: 3,500 (2009)
Merchant marine: 5 ships (2013)
Religions: Christian (mainly Orthodox) 60%, Muslim
(mainly Sunni) 16%, animist 5%, Abkhazian
traditional religion 3%,
 atheist and non-religious 8%, undeclared 6%, other 2% (2003)
International Organizations/Treaties: CDRN, UNPO
Abkhazian Orthodox Church



1451                       Principality of Abkhazia (split from Mingrelia), secession from
                             Georgia in 1463.
1578                       Sukhumi (Sohumkale) part of the Ottoman Empire. Abkhazia under
                             Ottoman suzerainty (nominally from 1767).
10 Jul 1810                Russia occupies Sukhum (Sukhumi), Abkhazia a Russian protectorate.
21 Sep 1855 - 10 Jul 1856  Sukhum (Sukhumi) occupied by Ottoman Empire.
24 Jun 1864                Incorporated into Russian Empire, part of Kutais governorate (Sukhum
                             military sector to 1883, then Sukhum
district).
18 May 1877 -  2 Sep 1877  Sukhum (Sukhumi) occupied by Ottoman Empire.
1903                       Sukhum district separated from Kutais governorate, directly under the
                             Commanders-in-chief (later Viceroys) of the Caucasus.
 8 Nov 1917                Abkhazian People's Council adopts a constitution (from Dec 1917
                             informally recognized authority of Transcaucasian Commissariat).
17 Feb 1918 - 21 Feb 1918  Sukhumi briefly occupied by Bolsheviks.

 
8 Apr 1918 - 17 May 1918  Soviet Bolshevik power established in Sukhumi, and then throughout
                             the territory of Abkhazia (with the exception of the Kodori Gorge).

11 May 1918                Claimed by the Republic of the Union of Mountain Peoples of the North
                             Caucasus (see under Dagestan), supported by the Abkhazian People's
                             Council.
17 May 1918                Georgian troops occupied Sukhumi to pursue the Bolsheviks.
 2 Jun 1918                Abkhazian People's Council assumed the "entire authority"
                             (declaration set aside by the agreement with Georgia on 11 Jun
                             1918).
23 Jun 1918                Incorporated into Democratic Republic of Georgia
.
20 Mar 1919                Act of Autonomy of Abkhazia adopted by the People's Council,
                             recognized by Georgia.
21 Feb 1921                Republic of Georgia by its constitution approves autonomy for
                             Abkhazia.
 4 Mar 1921               
Soviet Russian army occupies Sukhumi.
28 Mar 1921                Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia (Sotsialisticheskaya Sovetskaya
                            
Respublika Abkhaziya), proclaimed itself a part of Russian S.F.S.R.
16 Dec 1921                Union treaty between
the Abkhazian S.S.R. and the Georgian S.S.R.
                             signed.
19 Feb 1931                Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia (Avtonomnaya
                             Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika Abkhaziya),
within
                             Georgian S.S.R.

 5 Dec 1936                Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Abkhazskaya Avtonomnaya
                             Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), within Georgian S.S.R.

25 Aug 1990                Abkhazian Soviet Socialist Republic (Abkhazskaya Sovetskaya
                            
Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), s
tate sovereignty (rescinded on
                             31 Aug 1990) declared
.
23 Jul 1992                Republic of Abkhazia (Respublika Abkhaziya); Abkhazia declares
                             independence
(recognized only by Russia [26 Aug 2008], Nicaragua
                             [4 Sep 2008], Venezuela
[10 Sep 2009], Nauru [15 Dec 2009], Vanuatu
                             [23 May 2011;
subsequently contradicted 20 May 2013], Tuvalu 
                             [18 Sep 2011, revoked 31 Mar 2014] and Syria [29 May 2018]).

14 Aug 1992 - 26 Sep 1993  Georgian occupation of Sukhumi and part of Abkhazia (Georgia retained
                             control of the Kodori Gorge until Aug 2008).

24 Nov 1992                Georgian government organizes
Abkhazian Autonomous Republic
                             (Apkhazetis avt'onomiuri resp'ublik'a)
government in Sukhumi, from
                             Sep 1993 in exile in T'bilisi.

10 Oct 2002                Georgia designates Abkhazia as an Autonomous Republic in its
                             constitution (in the Georgian constitution of 17 Oct 1995 it was
                             mentioned simply as "Abkhazia").

10 Aug 2008 -              Pro-Abkhaz intervention by Russian military forces.

24 Nov 2014                Treaty on Alliance and Strategic Partnership with Russia signed
                             (ratified 23 Dec 2014).

Executive Secretaries of the Organizational Bureau of the Russian Communist Party
(Bolsheviks)
in Abkhazia
29 Mar 1921 - 1921         Georgiy Ivanovich Krishtof (Petrov)(b. 1900 - d. 1934)

1921                       Pyotr Semyonovich Agniashvili
     (b. 1898 - d. 1937)
1921 - Aug 1921            Larionov (acting)
Sep 1921 - Jan 1922        Nikolay Samsonovich Svanidze       (b. 1895 - d. 1937)
                             (acting)

Executive Secretaries of the Abkhaz Regional Committee of the Communist
Party (Bolsheviks) of Georgia

Jan 1922 - 1922            Serapion Aleksandrovich Gubeli-
   (b. 1892 - d. 1926)
                             Medzmariashvili
1922 - 1923                Nikolay Nikolayevich Akirtava      (b. 1894 - d. 1937)
1923 - Apr 1924            Gerasim Melkoyevich Markarov       (d. 1937)
Apr 1924 - Jan 1925        Yervand Mikhaylovich Asribekov     (b. 1898 - d. 1937)
Jan 1925 - Feb 1928        Georgiy Fyodorovich Sturua         (b. 1884 - d. 1956)
Feb 1928 - May 1929        Aleksand Semyonovich Amas          (b. 1904 - d. 1938)
                             (Amirbekov)
May 1929 - 1930            Pavel Grigoryevich Meladze         (b. 1898 - d. 1937)
1930 - May 1932            Vladimir Konstantinovich Ladariya  (b. 1900 - d. 1937)

First Secretaries of the Abkhaz Regional Committee of the Communist Party
(Bolsheviks) of Georgia (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Georgia)
May 1932 - 17 Jan 1936     Vladimir Konstantinovich Ladariya  (s.a.)
17 Jan 1936 - 18 Feb 1937  Aleksey Sergeyevich Agrba          (b. 1897 - d. 1938)

1937                       Mikhail Alekseyevich Gobechiya     (b. 1902 - d. 1937)
Nov 1937 - Mar 1940        Kirill Georgiyevich Bechvaya       (b. 1903 - d. 1974)
                             (acting to Jun 1938)

Mar 1940 - 20 Feb 1943     Mikhail Ivanovich Baramiya         (b. 1905 - d. 1959)
20 Feb 1943 -  2 Jan 1951  Akakiy Ivanovich Mgeladze          (b. 1910 - d. 1980)
 
2 Jan 1951 - 21 Apr 1953  Shota Dmitriyevich Getiya          (b. 1904 - d. 19..)
21 Apr 1953 -  2 Oct 1953  Grigoriy Zosimovich Karchava       (b. 1907 - d. 19..)
 
2 Oct 1953 - Dec 1955     Georgiy Andreyevich Gegeshidze     (b. 1924 - d. 1971)
Dec 1955 - Jan 1958        Otar Davidovich Gotsiridze         (b. 1919 - d. 2010)
Jan 1958 - Sep 1965        Mikhail Timurovich Bgazhba         (b. 1915 - d. 1993)
Sep 1965 - 1975            Valerian Osmanovich Kobakhiya      (b. 1929 - d. 1992)
1975 - 19 Apr 1978         Valeriy Mikhaylovich Khintba       (b. 1940)
19 Apr 1978 -  6 Apr 1989  Boris Viktorovich Adleyba          (b. 1931 - d. 1990)
 6
Apr 1989 - 1991         Vladimir Filippovich Khishba       (b. 1936)

Princes (Georgian title Mtavari, Abkhaz title Akh)
c.1665 - c.1700            Zegnak                             (d. c.1700)
c.1700 - c.1730            Rostom
c.1730 - 1757              Manucha                            (d. af.1757)
1757 - 1779                Zurab
1779 - 14 May 1808         Kelesh (Ahmad Bey)                 (b. 1747 - d. 1808)
14 May 1808 - 10 Jul 1810  Aslan Bey (1st time)               (d. af.1830)
10 Jul 1810 - 13 Nov 1821  Safar Ali Bey (from 1810, Giorgi I)(b. 17.. - d. 1821)
                             (in rebellion from 17 Feb 1810)
13 Nov 1821 - 16 Oct 1822  Dimitri                            (b. 1801 - d. 1822)
13 Nov 1821 - 16 Oct 1822  Tamar Dadiani (f) -Regent          (b. 1778 - d. 1838?)
                             (1st time)
1821 - 1822                Aslan Bey (2nd time)               (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion)
16 Oct 1822 - 24 Jun 1864  Mikheil                            (b. 1806 - d. 1866)
16 Oct 1822 - 1824         Tamar Dadiani (f) -Regent          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
29 Jul 1866 - Aug 1866    
Giorgi II (in rebellion)           (b. 1846 - d. 1918)
Administrators (title Nachal’nik) of the Sukhum district

1900 - 1905                Vladimir Konstantinovich           (b. 1857 – d. af.1916)
                             Progul'bitskiy 
1905                       Knyaz' Levan Georgiyevich          (b. 1845 – d. 1922)
                             Dzhandieri
1905 - 1908                Fyodor Andreyevich Zasypkin        (b. 1867 – d. 19..)
                             (1st time)
1909 - 1912                Mikhail Nikolayevich Kropachev     (b. 1870 - d. 19..)
1912 - 1914                Nikolay Eduardovich Venttsel'      (b. 1872 - d. 1926)
1914 - 1916                Fyodor Andreyevich Zasypkin        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1916 - Mar 1917            Nikolay Viktorovich Polivanov      (b. 1869 - d. 1938)
Chairman of the Committee of Public Safety of the Sukhumi district 

10 Mar 1917 - Nov 1917     Knyaz' Aleksandr Georgiyevich      (b. 1854 - d. 1932)
                            
Shervashidze (Chachba)
Chairman of the
Abkhazian People's Council
 8 Nov 1917 - May 1918     Simon Petrovich Basariya           (b. 1884 - d. 1942)  SGSK
                             (from Apr 1918, in exile at Batumi)
Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee of Sukhumi district

16 Feb 1918 - Jun 1918     Yefrem Alekseyevich Eshba          (b. 1893 - d. 1939)  RSDRP-B
                             (
in dissidence at Gagra Feb – 8 Apr 1918 and from 17 May 1918)
Chairman of the Abkhazian People's Council
20 May 1918 -  9 Oct 1918  Varlam Aleksandrovich Shervashidze (b. 1889 - d. 1957)  SDLP-G
                             (Chachba) (1st time)
Georgian Governor-general of Sukhumi district
23 Jun 1918 –  9 Oct 1918  Giorgi Mazniashvili (
Mazniev)      (b. 1873 - d. 1937)  Mil
Georgian Special Commissar of Sukhumi district
10 Oct 1918 – Mar 1919     Veniamin "Benia" Chkhikvishvili    (b. 1881 - d. 1924)  SDLP-G
Chairmen of the Abkhazian People's Council

18 Mar 1919 - May 1919     Dmitriy (Arzakan) Konstantinovich  (b. 1880 - d. 1939)  SDLP-G
                             Emukhvari
May 1919 -  4 Mar 1921
    Varlam Aleksandrovich Shervashidze (s.a.)               SDLP-G
                             (Chachba) (2nd time)
Chairman of the Abkhaz Revolutionary Committee
17 Feb 1921 -
Feb 1922     Yefrem Alekseyevich Eshba          (s.a.)               RKP
                             (in rebellion at Gagra to 4 Mar 1921)
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
Feb 1922 - Oct 1922        Yefrem Alekseyevich Eshba          (s.a.)               KPS-B
Oct 1922 - 1923            Samson Alekseyevich Kartoziya      (b. 1893 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
1923 - 1925                ....
1925 - 17 Apr 1930         Samson Yakovlevich Chanba          (b. 1886 - d. 1937)
  KPS-B
17 Apr 1930 - 28 Dec 1936  Nestor Apollonovich Lakoba         (b. 1893 - d. 1936)  KPS-B
28 Dec 1936 - Sep 1937     Aleksey Sergeyevich Agrba          (s.a.)               KPS-B
                            
(acting to 17 Feb 1937)
 2 Nov 1937 - 12 Jul 1938  Avksentiy Narikiyevich Rapava      (b. 1899 - d. 1955)  KPS-B
                             (acting)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

13 Jul 1938 -  7 Apr 1948  Mikhail Konstantinovich Delba      (b. 1905 - d. 1992)  KPS-B
                             (Mikheil Konstantines dze Delba)
 7 Apr 1948 - Jan 1958     Andrey Maksimovich Chochua         (b. 1879 - d. 1965) KPS-B;1952 KPS
Jan 1958 - Oct 1978        Bagrat Vasilyevich Shinkuba        (b. 1917 - d. 2004)  KPS   
Oct 1978 - 24 Dec 1990     Valerian Osmanovich Kobakhiya      (s.a.)               KPS
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (Council)
24 Dec 1990 -
26 Nov 1994  Vladislav Grigoryevich Ardzinba    (b. 1945 - d. 2010)  Non-party?
                             (at Gudauta Aug 1992 - 27 Sep 1993)
Presidents
26 Nov 1994 - 12 Feb 2005  Vladislav Grigoryevich Ardzinba    (s.a.)               Non-party
12 Feb 2005 - 29 May 2011  Sergey Vasilyevich Bagapsh         (b. 1949 - d. 2011)  YA
29 May 2011 -  1 Jun 2014  Aleksandr Zolotinskovich Ankvab    (b. 1952)            Ait
                             (acting to 26 Sep 2011; interrupted 26 Jul – 28 Aug 2011)
26 Jul 2011 - 28 Aug 2011  Nugzar Nuriyevich Ashuba (acting)  (b. 1952)            Non-party
31 May 2014 - 25 Sep 2014  Valeriy Ramshukhovich Bganba       (b. 1953)            Non-party

                             (acting [for Ankvab to 1 Jun 2014])
                             (1st time)
25 Sep 2014 - 13 Jan 2020  Raul Dzhumkovich Khadzhimba        (b. 1958)            FUNA
13 Jan 2020 -
23 Apr 2020  Valeriy Ramshukhovich Bganba       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time) (acting)
23 Apr 2020 -              Aslan Georgiyevich Bzhania         (b. 1963)            Non-party


Chairman of the Abkhazian Commissariat
May 1919 -  4 Mar 1921     Dmitriy (Arzakan) Konstantinovich  (s.a.)               SDLP-G

                             Emukhvari
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

Feb 1922 - 17 Apr 1930     Nestor Apollonovich Lakoba         (s.a.)               KPS-B
17 Apr 1930 - 14 Jul 1938  authority of the Council transferred to
                           Presidium
of the Central Executive Committee
14 Jul 1938 - 23 Nov 1938  
Avksentiy Narikiyevich Rapava      (s.a.)               KPS-B
23 Nov 1938 -  7 Apr 1943  Konstantin Georgiyevich            (b. 1902 - d. 1960)  KPS-B
                             Chichinadze
May 1943 - 27 Mar 1946     Aleksandr Iordanovich Mirtskhulava (b. 1911 - d. 2009) 
KPS-B
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
27 Mar 1946 -  7 Apr 1948  Aleksandr Iordanovich Mirtskhulava (s.a.)               KPS-B
 7 Apr 1948 - Oct 1953     Mikhail Konstantinovich Delba      (s.a.)             KPS-B;1952 KPS
                             (Mikheil Konstantines dze Delba)
Oct 1953 - 1957            Arkhip Mironovich Labakhua         (b. 1910 - d. 1992)  KPS
1957 - Jan 1958            Mikhail Timurovich Bgazhba         (s.a.)               KPS
Jan 1958 - 25 May 1967     Mikhail Gerasimovich Chikovani     (b. 1911 - d. 19..)  KPS
May 1967 - 1972            Pavel Georgiyevich Gilashvili      (b. 1918 - d. 1994)  KPS
1972 - Feb 1973            Boris Gerasimovich Gigiberiya      (b. 1917 - d. 1974)  KPS
Feb 1973 -  5 Aug 1975     Shota Mikhaylovich Tatarashvili    (b. 1922 - d. 1975)  KPS
Oct 1975 - 21 Sep 1978     A
vtandil Petrovich Sakvarelidze                         KPS
21 Sep 1978 -  7 Apr 1987  Yuza Dzhakhoyevich Ubilava         (b. 1941)            KPS
 
7 Apr 1987 - 22 Jul 1989  Otar Georgiyevich Zukhbaya         (b. 1940)            KPS
22 Jul 1989 - May 1990     Givi Alekseyevich Anchabadze       (b. 1933)            KPS
May 1990 -  5 May 1992     Vladimir Tachevich Mikanba (acting)(b. 1931 - d. 2010)  KPS to 1990
 5 May 1992 - 12 Dec 1993  Vazha Illarionovich Zarandia       (b. 1932)            Non-party
                             (at Gudauta Aug 1992 - 27 Sep 1993)
Jan 1993 - 12 Dec 1993     Leonid Ivanovich Lakerbaya         (b. 1947)            Non-party      
                             (acting for Zarandia most of the time during this period)
12 Dec 1993 - 26 Nov 1994  Sokrat Rachevich Dzhindzholia     
(b. 1937)            Non-party
Prime ministers
26 Nov 1994 - 29 Apr 1997  Gennadiy Leonidovich Gagulia       (b. 1948
- d. 2018)  Non-party
                             (1st time)
29 Apr 1997 - 20 Dec 1999  Sergey Vasilyevich Bagapsh         (s.a.)               Non-party
20 Dec 1999 - 30 May 2001  Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Tsugba     (b. 1944)            Non-party
 7 Jun 2001 - 29 Nov 2002  Anri Mikhaylovich Dzhergenia       (b. 1941 - d. 2020)  Non-party
29 Nov 2002 - 22 Apr 2003  Gennadiy Leonidovich Gagulia       (s.a.
)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
22 Apr 2003 -  6 Oct 2004  Raul Dzhumkovich Khadzhimba        (s.a.)               Non-party  
30 Aug 2004 -  6 Oct 2004  Astamur Borisovich Tarba           (b. 1961)            Non-party
                             (acting for Khadzhimba)
 6 Oct 2004 - 14 Feb 2005  Nodar Vladimirovich Khashba        (b. 1951)            YA
14 Feb 2005 - 13 Feb 2010  Aleksandr Zolotinskovich Ankvab    (s.a.)               Ait
                             (1st time)
13 Feb 2010 - 27 Sep 2011  Sergey Mironovich Shamba           (b. 1951)            SDP
27 Sep 2011 -  2 Jun 2014  Leonid Ivanovich Lakerbaya         (s.a.)               Ait
 2 Jun 2014 - 29 Sep 2014  Vladimir Valeryevich Delba (acting)(b. 1974)            Non-party
29 Sep 2014 - 16 Mar 2015  Beslan
Tikovich Butba              (b. 1960)            PERA
16 Mar 2015 - 20 Mar 2015  Shamil Omarovich Adzynba (1st time)(b. 1970)            Non-party
                             (acting)
20 Mar 2015 - 26 Jul 2016  Artur Artyomovich Mikvabia         (b. 1949)            YA
26 Jul 2016 -  5 Aug 2016  Shamil Omarovich Adzynba (2nd time)(s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting)
 5 Aug 2016 -
24 Apr 2018  Beslan Konstantinovich Bartsits    (b. 1978)            Non-party
24 Apr 2018 -  8 Sep 2018  Gennadiy Leonidovich Gagulia       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (3rd time)
 8 Sep 2018 -
18 Sep 2018  Daur Dzhumkovich Arshba (acting)   (b. 1962)            FUNA
18 Sep 2018 - 24 Apr 2020  Valeriy Ramshukhovich Bganba       (s.a.)               Non-party
24 Apr 2020 -             
Aleksandr Zolotinskovich Ankvab    (s.a.)               Ait
                             (2nd time)

(Pro-Georgian) Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia (in Sukhumi
 to 26 Sep 1993, then in T'bilisi; 27 Sep 2006 - 12 Aug 2008 in Chkhalta, Abkhazia
)

[Pro-Georgian Abkhazian
                      Autonomous Republic draft flag 2004?-2013]
 
Designed (not adopted or used)
2004? - 2013

[Pro-Georgian Abkhazian
                      Autonomous draft unofficial flag]
Designed (not adopted or used)
 From 2013

Chairmen of the Supreme Council
24 Nov 1992 - 16 Mar 2004  Tamaz Vladimirovich Nadareishvili  (b. 1954 - d. 2004)  ALP
16 Mar 2004 - 20 Mar 2009  Temur Mzhavia                      (b. 1952)
20 Mar 2009 -  8 Apr 2019  Elguja "Gia" Gvazava               (b. 1952)            AGM 
 8 Apr 2019 -              Jemal Gamakharia                   (b. 1949)    
 

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
24 Nov 1992 - 18 Jul 1993  Tamaz Vladimirovich Nadareishvili  (s.a.)               ALP
18 Jul 1993 - 27 Sep 1993  Zhiuli Kalistratovich Shartava     (b. 1944 - d. 1993) 
Nov 1993 - Jul 1998        Zurab Erkvania                     (b. 1951)
Jul 1998 - 30 Sep 2004     Londer Tsaava
Chairmen of the Government (Prime ministers)
30 Sep 2004 - 21 Mar 2006  Irakli Alasania                    (b. 1973)

21 Mar 2006 - 15 Jun 2009  Malkhaz Akishbaya                  (b. 1972)
15 Jun 2009 -  8 Apr 2013  Giorgi Baramia                     (b. 1966)
 8 Apr 2013 -  1 May 2019  Vakhtang Kolbaya (acting)          (b. 1952)            DM-ES
 1 May 2019 -              Ruslan Abashidze                   (b. 1971)
                             (acting to 11 Dec 2019)
       

[United Nations
                    Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) 1993-2009]

Special Representatives of the Secretary-General and Heads of
the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)      
 
May 1993 –  1 Jul 1997     Eduard Brunner (Switzerland)       (b. 1932 - d. 2007)
 1 Jul 1997 - 18 Oct 1999  Liviu Aurelian Bota (Romania)      (b. 1936)
18 Oct 1999 – 23 May 2002  Dieter Boden (Germany)             (b. 1940)
23 May 2002 – 16 Jul 2006  Heidi Tagliavini (f) (Switzerland) (b. 1950)
Jul 2006 – Sep 2008        Jean Arnault (France)              (b. 1951)
30 Sep 2008 — 15 Jun 2009  Johan C. Verbeke (Belgium)         (b. 1951)


Party abbreviations:
AGM = Abkhazian Greens' Movement; Ait = Aitaira (Revival, anti-Ardzinba opposition to 2005, est.2000); ALP = Abkhazia Liberation Party (pro-autonomy with in Georgia, successor to "My Home Abkhazia", est.Oct 1999); CPA = Apsny Akomunistta Apart (Communist Party of Abkhazia, Marxist-Leninist communist, est.4 Mar 1995); DM-ES = Demokratiuli Modzraoba — Ert'iani Sak'art'velo (Democratic Movement – United Georgia, conservative, M. Saakashvili opposition, est.2008); FUNA = Forum dlya Narodnogo Yedinstva Abkhazii (Forum for the National Unity of Abkhazia, nationalist, merger of 12 opposition parties, est.8 Feb 2005); PERA = Partiya Ekonomicheskogo Razvitiya Abkhazii (Party for the Economic Development of Abkhazia, centrist, est.26 Sep 2007); SDP = Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Partiya Abkhazia (Social-Democratic Party of Abkhazia, social-democratic, anti-Ardzinba, est.15 Oct 2004); YA = Yedinaya Abkhazia/Apsny Akzaara (United Abkhazia, anti-Ardzinba opposition to 2011, est.25 Mar 2004);
- Former parties:
KPS-B = Komunisturi Partiis (Bolshevikebis) Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Gruzii (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Georgia, communist, from 1922 state party, May 1920-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPS); KPS = Komunisturi Partiis Sak'art'velos/ Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Gruzii (Communist Party of Georgia, Marxist-Leninist communist, state party former KPS-B, 13 Oct 1952 - 12 Aug 1990, splits from CPSU and is renamed Independent Communist Party of Georgia on 12 Aug 1990, banned 26 Aug 1991); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks]); SDLP-G = Sak'art'velos Sotsial-Demok'rat'iuli Partia (Georgian Social Democratic Party, Marxist, democratic socialist, split from Russian Social Democratic Worker's Party "Mensheviks", 1918-1926, from 1921 in undeground, continued to 1950's in exile); SGSK = Soyuz Gortsov Severnogo Kavkaza (Union of Mountain Peoples of North Caucasus, Mountain peoples nationalist, republican, 1917-1919)



Adjaria (Adjara) 
[Flag of the United
                            Kingdom]
16 Dec 1918 - 20 Jul 1920 Batum U.K. Force
   
[Flag of Russia]
21  Dec 1918 - 28 Apr 1919 Batum Region Council
 
[Flag of Georgian SSR
                            1921-1937]
16 Jul 1921 - 13 Feb 1937
[Flag of
                            Adzhar ASSR 1937 - 1951 (Georgian SSR)]
25 Oct 1937 - 22 May 1951
 
[Flag of
                            Georgian SSR 1951-1981]
22 May 1951 - 9 Jun 1981
 
[Flag of
                            Adzhar ASSR 1981-1991 (Georgian SSR)]
9 Jun 1981 - 25 Dec 1991
 
[Flag of
                            Repblic of Georgia 1990-2004]
25 Dec 1991 - 26 Jun 2000
   
[Flag of
                            Ajaria, 2000-2004 (Georgia)]
26 Jun 2000 - 20 Jul 2004
   
[Flag of Ajaria (Georgia)]
Adopted 20 Jul 2004

Map of Adjaria
Hear Local Anthem
26 Jun 2000 - May 2004
Capital: Batumi
(Batum to 1936)
Constitution
(20 Feb 2008)
(14 Jan 1922, 25 Oct 1937,
26 May 1978)
Currency: Georgian Lari
(GEL)
(Dec 1918-Jan 1920 Don Ruble)
Ethnic groups: Georgian
96%, Armenian 1.6%,
 Russian 1.1%, others 1.3%
(2014)
Religions: Georgian
Orthodox 55%, Sunni
Muslim 40%, Armenian
 Christian 0.3% others 4.7%
  (2014)
Population: 336,077 (2014)
1352                       Batumi part of Guria principality.
15.. - 1535                Ottoman occupation of Batumi.
1547 - 1564                Ottoman occupation of
Batumi.
1582 - 1609                Ottoman annexation of Batumi, part of Elayet of Trabzon.
1614                       Re-annexed by Ottoman Empire (named Acara).
 
3 Mar 1878                Batum oblast (including Artvin) area ceded to Russia by Ottoman
                             Empire in the Treaty of San Stefano (confirmed 13 Jul 1878 
                             by the Treaty of Berlin, ratified 3 Aug 1878).

1883                       Incorporated in Kutais Governorate.
14 Jul 1903                Batum oblast (Batumskaya oblast') re-established.
28 Nov 1917 – 15 Apr 1918  Under the Transcaucasian Commissariat.
 3 Mar 1918                Soviet Russia cedes the Batum region to the Ottoman Empire
by the
                             Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (ratified 29 Mar 1918, annulled
                             by the armistice of Moudros 30 Nov 1918).

15 Apr 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Ottoman occupation of Batum (departed 30 Dec 1918), on 14 Sep 1918
                             the Vilayet of Batum is established.
 4 Jun 1918                Cession to the Ottoman Empire is recognized by Georgia in the
                             Treaty of Batum.

16 Dec 1918 - 20 Jul 1920  Allied (British) occupation of Batum, claims by Georgia are not
                             recognized.

 8 Apr 1920                Council of the Entente proclaims Batum a free port with it and
                             a coastal area a protectorate of the League of Nations
                             (guaranteed by U.K., France, and Italy).

20 Jul 1920                British administration turns Batum region over to Georgia.
21 Feb 1921                Republic of Georgia by its constitution granted autonomy for "Muslim
                             Georgia" (not effected).
11
Mar 1921 - 17 Mar 1921  Turkish occupation of Batum (on 16 Mar 1921 Turkey admits that Batum
                             region is part of Georgia, with "local autonomy," in the Treaty of
                             Moscow, but it retains Artvin and Ardahan
).
17 Mar 1921               
Georgian forces at Batum force Turkey out of the city as they
                             allow Soviet Russian forces in and as the (non-Communist) Georgian
                             government flees into exile.
18 Mar 1921                Soviet Russian forces occupy Batum.
16 Jul 1921                Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of Adzharistan (Adzharistanskaya
                             Avtonomnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika), within
                             Georgian S.S.R.

13 Oct 1921                Soviet-Turkish Treaty of Kars recognizes Batumi as part of the
                             Georgian S.S.R., but Turkey retains Ardahan and Artvin
                             (ratified 11 Sep 1922).
15 Dec 1936                Adzhar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
(Ach'aris Avt'onomiuri
                            
Aabch'ota Sotsialist'uri Resp'ublik'a/Adzharskaya Avtonomnaya
                            
Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), within
Georgian S.S.R.
Dec 1990                   Adzhar (Ajar) Autonomous Republic
(Ach'aris Avt'onomiuri
                             Resp'ublik'a
) confirmed
by Georgia in its constitutions 17 Oct
                             1995 and 20 Apr 2000).

Executive Secretaries of the Adzhar Regional Committee of the Communist
Party (Bolsheviks) of Georgia
Jul 1921 - 1921            Aleksandr Grigoryevich Gambarov    (b. 1890 - d. 1937)
                             (Gambaryan)   
1921 - 1922                Kirill Berdzenishvili
1922 - Jun 1922            Simon Aliyevich Takoyev            (b. 1876 - d. 1938)

Jun 1922 - 1924            Nikolay Samsonovich Svanidze       (b. 1895 - d. 1937)
1924 - 1925                Levan Davidovich Gogoberidze       (b. 1896 - d. 1937)
Apr 1926 - Dec 1926
       Nikolay Nikolayevich Akirtava      (b. 1894 - d. 1937)
Dec 1926 - Oct 1929        Nikolay Yevseyevich Pantskhava     (b. 1898 - d. 1937)

1929 - 1930                Samson Andreyevich Mamulia         (b. 1892 - d. 1937)
1931 - 13 Jan 1932         Mikhail Alekseyevich Gobechiya     (b. 1902 - d. 1937)
13 Jan 1932 - May 1932     Artemiy Grigoryevich Geurkov       (b. 1901 - d. 1937)
First Secretaries of the Adzhar Regional Committee
of the Communist
Party (Bolsheviks) of Georgia
(from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Georgia)

May 1932 - 13 Apr 1937    
Artemiy Grigoryevich Geurkov       (s.a.)
13 Apr 1937 - 23 Feb 1938  Iosif Dmitriyevich Kochlamazashvili(b. 1906 - d. 1969)
                            
(acting to ... 1937)
23 Feb 1938 - 29 Nov 1938  Aleksey Nikolayevich Sadzhaya      (b. 1898 - d. 1942)
1938                       Aron Iosifovich Taplashvili        (b. 1907 - d. 1942)
                            
(acting)
Nov 1938 - Mar 1940        Mikhail Ivanovich Baramiya         (b. 1905 - d. 1959)
1940 - 1944                Georgiy Grigoryevich Tvalchrelidze (b. 1896 - d. 1968)
Mar 1944 - May 1952        Kirill Georgiyevich Bechvaya       (b. 1903 - d. 1974)
May 1952 - 12 Jul 1952     David Georgiyevich Khantadze       (b. 1905 - d. 19..)
12 Jul 1952 - May 1953     Grigoriy Nayevich Tsintsabadze
May 1953 - Jan 1954        Makariy Ivanovich Dzhashi          (b. 1902 - d. 19..)
Jan 1954 - Mar 1961        David Mikhaylovich Mamuladze       (b. 1910 - d. 1981) 
Mar 1961 -  7 Jan 1975     Aleksandr Dursunovich              (b. 1914 - d. ....)
                             Tkhilayshvili
 
7 Jan 1975 - 31 Aug 1986  Vakhtang Rafaelovich Papunidze     (b. 1925 - d. 1987)
31 Aug 1986 -  8 Mar 1990  Guram Khuseynovich Emiridze        (b. 1937)
 
8 Mar 1990 - Mar 1991     Tengiz Suleymanovich Khakhva       (b. 1952)
Mar 1991 - 26 Aug 1991     Ilya Vladimirovich Tsulukidze      (b. 1950)

Military Governors of Batum Oblast
1878 - 1881                Konstantin Vissarionovich Komarov  (b. 1832 - d. 1912)
16 Apr 1881 - 1883         Aleksey
Mikhaylovich Smekalov      (b. 1838 - d. 1890)
1883 - 1903                part of Kutais Governorate
14 Jul 1903 - 14 May 1905  Mikhail Nikolayevich Dryagin       (b. 1852 - d. af.1917)
15 Jul 1905 - 14 Jan 1908  Pyotr-Emmanuil Fridrikhovich fon   (b. 1851 - d. af.1912)
                             Parkau
 6 Apr 1909 - Mar 1917     Boris Stepanovich Romanovskiy-     (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
                             Roman'ko
Commissar of Batum Oblast
1917                       Yevgeniy M. Krinitskiy
Ottoman Commander of the 1st Caucasus Corps
15 Apr 1918 – Dec 1918     Musa Kazim Karabekir Pasha         (b. 1882 - d. 1948)  Mil
Allied (British) Military Governor at Batum (Batoum) in Transcaucasia
(from 4 Mar 1920, Commander of the Inter-Allied Force at Batum)

16 Dec 1918 - 20 Jul 1920  William James Norman Cooke-Collis  (b. 1876 - d. 1941)  Mil
                            
(commander, 80th Infantry Brigade)
Georgian Governor-general of Batum Rayon
Jul 1920 - Feb 1921        Veniamin "Benia" Chkhikvishvili    (b. 1881 - d. 1924)  SDLP-G
Turkish Commander of the 15th Corps

11 Mar 1921 – 17 Mar 1921  Musa Kazim Karabekir Pasha         (s.a.)
Chairman
of the Revolutionary Committee of Batumi and the Batumi oblast
17 Mar 1921 - 20 Mar 1921  Sergey Ivanovich Kavtaradze        (b. 1885 - d. 1971)  KPS-B
Chairmen of the Batumi oblast Revolutionary Committee
(from 8 Sep 1921, Adzharistan Revolutionary Committee)
20 Mar 1921 - 23 Jul 1921  Sergey Ivanovich Kavtaradze        (s.a.)               KPS-B
23 Jul 1921 - 10 Jan 1922  Aleksandr Grigoryevich Gambarov    (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (Gambaryan)
15 Nov 1921 - 10 Jan 1922  Tengiz Gigoyevich Zhgenti          (b. 1887 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                             (acting for Gambarov)
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee

10 Jan 1922 - Dec 1922     .... (acting)
Dec 1922 - Oct 1925        Osman Khulusovich Motskobili       (b. 1898 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
bf.1927 - 1930             Muyedin Ferkhatovich Surmanidze    (b. 1875 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
1930 - 1937                Zekeriya Dursunovich Lordkipanidze (b. 1892 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
1937 - Jul 1938            Ismail Khasanovich Futkaradze      (b. 1902 - d. 19..)  KPS-B
                             (acting)

Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Jul 1938 - Jan 1954        Daud Aliyevich Davitadze           (b. 1901 - d. 19..) KPS-B;1952 KPS
                             (Daud Alis dze Davitadze)
Jan 1954 - 1955            Archil Mikhaylovich Beridze        (b. 1922)            KPS
                             (acting)

Apr 1955 - Nov 1968        Revaz Muradovich Komakhidze        (b. 1911 - d. 1968)  KPS
Nov 1968 - Mar 1969        .... (acting)
Mar 1969 - 1989            David Dursunovich Diasamidze       (b. 1925 - d. 1989)  KPS
1989 - 20 Mar 1990         .... (acting)
20 Mar 1990 - Mar 1991     Tengiz Suleymanovich Khakhva       (s.a.)              
KPS
15 Mar 1991 - Aug 1991     Aslan Ibrahimovich Abashidze       (b. 1938)            MM-TS
                             (acting to Jul 1991)
Chairman of the Supreme Council 

Aug 1991 -  4 Nov 2001     Aslan Ibraimis dze Abashidze       (s.a.)             MM-TS;1992 UDR
                             (= Aslan Ibrahimovich
Abashidze)
Head of the Republic

 4 Nov 2001 -  6 May 2004  Aslan Ibraimis dze Abashidze       (s.a.)               UDR
Chairman of the Interim Council

 7 May 2004 - 20 Jul 2004  Levan Varshalomidze                (b. 1972)            ENM
Chairmen of the Supreme Council
20 Jul 2004 - 28 Oct 2012  Mikheil Makharadze                 (b. 1946)            TA
28 Oct 2012 - 28 Nov 2016  Avtandil Beridze                   (b. 1955)            KODS
28 Nov 2016 -              Davit Gabaidze                     (b. 1980)            KODS

Chairman of the Administrative Council for Batum oblast
21 Dec 1918 - 28 Apr 1919  Pyotr Nikolayevich Maslov          (d. af.1931)         KDP

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

Jan 1922 - Nov 1922        Aleksandr Grigoryevich Gambarov    (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (Gambaryan)
Dec 1922 - af.1925         Khasan Takhsin Khimshiashvili      (d. 1930)            KPS-B
bf.1927 - 1929             Mamed Kh. Gogiberidze                                   KPS-B
1929 - 1930                Zekeriya Dursunovich Lordkipanidze (s.a.)               KPS-B
1930 – Jul 1938            authority of the Council transferred to Presidium
                           of the Central Executive Committee
1938?                      Suleyman Diasamidze                (b. 1895 - d. 1962)  KPS-B
Jul 1938 -
27 Mar 1946     Ismail Khasanovich Futkaradze      (s.a.)               KPS-B
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

27 Mar 1946 - Oct 1947     Ismail Khasanovich Futkaradze      (s.a.)               KPS-B
Oct 1947 - 1953            Mamiya Alekseyevich Gogolishvili   (b. 1912 - d. ....) KPS-B;1952 KPS
1953 - Jan 1954            David Mikhaylovich Mamuladze       (s.a.)               KPS
Jan 1954 - Mar 1961        Aleksandr Dursunovich              (s.a.)               KPS
                             Tkhilayshvili
Mar 1961 - Jun 1975        Levan Mikhaylovich Davitadze       (b. 1916 - d. ....)  KPS
Jun 1975 - Aug 1977        Irakliy Azizovich Dzhashi                               KPS
Aug 1977 - 1986            Yuriy Gedevanovich Ungiadze        (b. 1928)            KPS
1986 - Aug 1991            Guram Yegorovich Chigogidze        (b. 1935)            KPS;1991 Ind
Aug 1991 - Oct 1993        Guram Varshalomidze                (b. 1939 - d. 2020)  MM-TS;1992 UDR
Oct 1993 - Nov 1993        Aslan Ibraimis dze Abashidze       (s.a.)               UDR
                             (1st time) (acting)
Nov 1993 - 16 Nov 1996     Jemal Nakashidze
16 Nov 1996 - May 1999     Avtandil Gorgiladze                (b. 1952)            UDR
May 1999 - 2002            Giorgi Tsintskiladze                                    UDR
2002 - 13 Jul 2003         Eduard Kakabadze                                        UDR
13 Jul 2003 - Aug 2003     Aslan Ibraimis dze Abashidze       (s.a.)               UDR
                             (2nd time) (acting)
Aug 2003 -  6 Apr 2004     Rezo Shamilishvili                                      UDR
 6 Apr 2004 -  6 May 2004  Rostom Japaridze                   (b. 1948)            UDR
 
6 May 2004 - 20 Jul 2004  Vacant
Chairmen of the Government (Prime ministers)

20 Jul 2004 - 30 Oct 2012  Levan Varshalomidze                (s.a.)               ENM

30 Oct 2012 - 15 Jul 2016  Archil Khabadze                    (b. 1981)            KODS
15 Jul 2016 -
21 Jul 2018  Zurab Pataradze                    (b. 1973)            KODS
21 Jul 2018 -              Tornike Rizhvadze                  (b. 1989)            KODS

Party abbreviations: ENM = Ertiani Nats'ionaluri Modzraoba (United National Movement, center-right, reformist, est.2001); KODS = K'art'uli ots'neba – demokratiuli Sak'art'velo (Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia, center-left, social liberal, populist, pro-European, est.21 Apr 2012); TA = Chveni Adjara ("Our Adjara", Ajaria regionalist bloc, anti-Abashidze, est.2003);
- Former parties:
KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, 12 Oct 1905-1920, declared abolished by Bolsheviks 12 Dec 1917, in exile to 1924); KPS = Komunisturi Partiis Sak'art'velos/ Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Gruzii (Communist Party of Georgia, communist, state party former KPS-B, 13 Oct 1952 - 12 Aug 1990, splits from CPSU and is renamed Independent Communist Party of Georgia on 12 Aug 1990, banned 26 Aug 1991); KPS-B = Komunisturi Partiis (Bolshevikebis) Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Gruzii (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Georgia, Marxist-Leninist communist, from 1921 state party, May 1920-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPS); MM-TS = Mrgvali Magida - Tavisupali Sak'art'velo (Round Table-Free Georgia, Georgian nationalist bloc, May 1990-1993);
RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks]); SDLP-G = Sak'art'velos Sotsial-Demok'rat'iuli Partia (Georgian Social Democratic Party, Marxist, democratic-socialist, split from RSDRP-M, 1918-1926, in underground from 1921); UDR = Demokratiuli Aghordzinebis Kavshir (Union of Democratic Revival, "Revival", named Revival of the Union 1992-98, Aslan Abashidze personalist, Ajaria autonomist, social-democratic, 1992-98 named Union of the Revival of the Adjara, 1992-2004)



South Ossetia (Alania)

[South Ossetia
                          (Alania) flag (Georgia)]
Adopted 26 Nov 1990

Map of South Ossetia
Hear National Anthem
"Respublikae Xussar Irystony
 Paddzaxadon Gimn"
 (Uarzon Iryston!)
(The National Anthem of the
Republic of South Ossetia
)
(Beloved Ossetia!)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 5 May 1995
Constitution
(8 Apr 2001)
-------------------------------
Former Constitution
(2 Nov 1993 - 8 Apr 2001
)

Capital: Tskhinvali
(Staliniri 1934-1961;
Shida Kartli - Gori)
Currency: Russian Ruble
(RUR)
National Holidays: 20 Sep (1990)
Den' nezavisimosti
Yuzhnaya Osetiya
(South Ossetia Independence Day)
------------------------------------
29 May (1992)
Den' Deklaratsii Nezavisimosti
(Day of the Declaration
of Independence)

Population: 53,532 (2015)
98,527 (1989)
GDP: $0.1 billion (2017)
Exports: $8 million (2015)
Imports: $46 million (2015)
Ethnic groups: Ossetian 89.9%, Georgian 7.4%, Russian 1.1%,
Armenian 0.7%, others 0.8% (2015)
1989: Ossetian 66.2%, Georgian 28.9%,
Russian 2.1%,
Armenian 1%, Jews 0.4%, others 1.4% (1989)

Total Active Armed Forces: 2,500 (2009)
Russian Forces: 5,500 (2009)
Merchant marine: None (2008)
Religions: Orthodox Christian, Muslim, neopagan, other/none
International Organizations/Treaties: CDRN

28 Feb 1801                South Ossetian lands (as part of Kingdom of Georgia) annexed
                             to
the Russia.
26 May 1918                Part of the Republic of Georgia.
 
1 Jun 1918 - May 1919     South Ossetian People's Council, within Georgia (in May 1919
                             abolished by Georgia).

 8 Jun 1920 - 20 Jun 1920  Bolshevik rebels briefly occupied Tskhinvali, declared South Ossetia
                             a part of the Russian S.F.S.R.
 5 Mar 1921                Soviet Russian occupation, part of the
Georgian S.S.R.
20 Apr 1922                Autonomous Oblast of
South Ossetia (Avtonomnaya oblast' Yuzhnaya
                             Osetiya), declared 31 Oct 1921, within Georgian S.S.R.
 5 Dec 1936                South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast
(Yugo-Osetinskaya avtonomnaya
                             oblast'/Samkhret osetis avt'onomiuri olki)
, within Georgian S.S.R.

10 Nov 1989                South Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Yugo-Osetinskaya
                            
Avtonomnaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) declared
                             (not effected), within Georgian S.S.R. (not recognized by Georgia).

20 Sep 1990               
South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic (Yugo-Osetinskaya
                             Sovetskaya Demokraticheskaya Respublika
)(South Ossetia declares
                             state sovereignty as
a constituent republic of the Soviet Union)
                             (not recognized by Georgia or the Soviet Union).

16 Oct 1990                Declaration of sovereignty confirmed.
28 Nov 1990                Renamed South Ossetian Soviet Republic (Yugo-Osetinskaya Sovetskaya
                            
Respublika).
11 Dec 1990                Georgia rescinds autonomy and abolishes the Autonomous Oblast, local
                             districts from 1995 divided between Georgian
regions, mostly Shida
                             Kartli
(see below).
 4 May 1991               
South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast (Yugo-Osetinskaya Avtonomnaya
                            
Oblast'/Samkhret osetis avt'onomiuri olki);
South Ossetian
                             authorities rescind sovereignty and Soviet Republic and declare
                             autonomy
(not recognized by Georgia).
 1 Sep 1991                Republic of South Ossetia (Respublikae Xussar Iryston/Respublika
                             Yuzhnaya Osetiya); s
tate sovereignty, within Soviet Union, is
                             re-declared
(not recognized by Georgia), requested to join Russia.
21 Dec 1991                Regional parliament adopts a declaration of independence
                           
(recognized only by Russia [26 Aug 2008], Nicaragua [4 Sep 2008],
                             Venezuela
[10 Sep 2009], Nauru [16 Dec 2009], Tuvalu [19 Sep 2011,
                            
revoked 31 Mar 2014] and Syria [29 May 2018]).
19 Jan 1992                South Ossetian population votes in favor of independence from Georgia
                             and integration with Russia by 99.1%.
29 May 1992                South Ossetia independence declared to be effective.
12 Nov 2006                Referendum supports independence from Georgia by 99%.
10 May 2007                Georgia forms the Provisional Administration of South Ossetia
                             (Samxret Osetis droebiti administ'racia)(at Kurta to Aug 2008, then
                             in exile at T'bilisi).
 
 8 Aug 2008 - 10 Aug 2008  Georgian occupation of Tskhinvali
.
 
8 Aug 2008 -              Pro-Ossetian intervention by Russian military forces, Georgia loses
                             the remaining areas it held in South Ossetia.
28 Jun 2012                Russian formally made one of the two state languages.
18 Mar 2015                Treaty of Alliance and Integration with Russia signed (ratified
                             30 Jun 2015).
13 Apr 2017               
State of Alania (Paddzaxad Allonston/Gosudarstvo Alaniya) adopted
                             as an
equivalent name.


Executive Secretaries of the South Ossetian Regional Committee
of the Communist Party
(Bolsheviks) of Georgia
Mar 1921 - Jan 1922        Sergey Grigoryevich Gagloyev       (b. 1896 - d. 1938)
Jan 1922 - Apr 1924        Vladimir Arzhevanovich Sanakoyev   (b. 1884 - d. 1937)
Apr 1924 - 1925            Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Dzhatiyev   (b. 1891 - d. 1937)
1925 - Jun 1928            Aleksandr Nafanailovich Abayev     (b. 1892 - d. 1937)
Feb 1929 - Aug 1930        Sergey Aleksandrovich Kudryavtsev  (b. 1903 - d. 1938)
Oct 1930 - Feb 1931        Luka Mikhaylovich Lomidze          (b. 1901 - d. 1938)
Feb 1931 - Dec 1931        Stepan Yegorovich Akopov           (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
Dec 1931 - Feb 1932        Kandid Gobedzhishvili (acting)     (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
First Secretaries of the
South Ossetian Regional Committee of the Communist
Party (Bolsheviks) of Georgia (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Georgia) 

Apr 1932 – Oct 1934        Isaak Yeftimovich Zhvaniya         (b. 1891 - d. 1937)
Oct 1934 – Sep 1937        Boris (Abdul-Begir) Gasanovich    
(b. 1902 - d. 1937)
                             Tautiyev 
Oct 1937 - Feb 1938        Georgiy Aleksandrovich Gochashvili (b. 1904 - d. 1988)

                             (acting)
Feb 1938 - Jan 1949        Vladimir Gedevanovich 
            (b. 1905 - d. 1977)
                             Tskhovrebashvili (Tskhovrebadze)
                             (acting to ... 1938)   
Jan 1949 - May 1953        Akakiy Gabrielovich Imnadze        (b. 1908 - d. 19..)
May 1953 - Dec 1954        Ivan Petrovich Kudzhiashvili       (b. 1906 - d. 19..)
Dec 1954 - Dec 1959        Grigoriy Georgiyevich Sanakoyev    (b. 1914 - d. ....)
Dec 1959 - Feb 1962        Vladimir Dmitriyevich Kozayev      (b. 1917 - d. bf.1985)
Feb 1962 - Feb 1965        Iosif Semyonovich Chiayev          (b. 1907 - d. 1999)
Feb 1965 -  5 Nov 1973     Georgiy Nikolayevich Dzhussoyev    (b. 1926)
 5 Nov 1973 - 22 Apr 1988  Feliks Sergeyevich Sanakoyev       (b. 1939)
22 Apr 1988 - Jan 1990     Anatoliy Georgiyevich Chekhoyev    (b. 1950)
23 Jan 1990 - Apr 1991     Valentin Vladimirovich
            (b. 1933)
                             Tskhovrebashvili
Apr 1991 - 26 Aug 1991     Znaur Nikolayevich Gassiyev        (b. 1925 - d. 2016)
 


Chairman of the South Ossetian People's Council
 1 Jun 1918 - May 1919     A
leksandr Arsenyevich Tibilov      (b. 1887 - d. 1937)  PSR
Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee

23 Mar 1920 - 23 Jun 1920
  Vladimir Davidovich Abayev         (b. 1886 - d. 1964)  RKP
                            (
underground to May 1920, in rebellion at Roka 8 May – 7 Jun 1920)
25 Feb 1921 - Apr 1921     Vladimir Arzhevanovich Sanakoyev   (s.a.)               KPS-B
                            (in exile at Vladikavkaz, Soviet Russia to Mar 1921)
Apr 1921 - 22 Apr 1922     Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Dzhatiyev   (s.a.)
              KPS-B
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
22 Apr 1922 - 1924         Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Dzhatiyev   (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (1st time)

1924 - 1928                Tasoltan (Vissarion) Bekuzarov                          KPS-B

1928 - Dec 1929            Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Dzhatiyev   (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (2nd time)
bf.1936 - 1937             Ivan Petrovich Dzhidzhoyev         (b. 1904 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
1937 - 1938                Vladimir Ivanovich Khubayev        (b. 1905 - d.af.1946)KPS-B
Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the Soviet of People's Deputies
1938 - 1943                Vladimir Ivanovich Khubayev        (s.a.)               KPS-B
Jul 1943 - 13 Apr 1948     Aleksandr Georgiyevich Galavanov   (b. 1902 - d. 1986)  KPS-B
13 Apr 1948 - 1953         Ilya Davidovich Kulukhov           (b. 1901 - d.af.1961)KPS-B;1952 KPS
1953 - 1954                Grigoriy Georgiyevich Sanakoyev    (s.a.)               KPS
1954 - 1956                Vladimir Dmitriyevich Kozayev      (s.a.)               KPS
1956 - 1957                Iosif Semyonovich Chiayev          (s.a.)               KPS
1957 - 1959                Semyon Grigoryevich Tibilov        (b. 1900 - d. 19..)
  KPS
Dec 1959 - 196.
           V.G. Sanakoyev                                          KPS
1961 - 1964                Vladimir Isaakovich Gazzayev       (b. 1918 - d. 2008)  KPS
1964 - Feb 1965            Georgiy Nikolayevich Dzhussoyev    (s.a.)               KPS
Feb 1965 - 1972            Kosta Kargoyevich Dzhioyev         (b. 1916 - d. 2005)  KPS
1972 - Nov 1973            Feliks Sergeyevich Sanakoyev       (s.a.)               KPS
Nov 1973 - Nov 1981        Genrikh Irakliyevich Mardanov      (b. 1933)            KPS
Nov 1981 - May 1986        Tamara Shalvovna Kabulova (f)      (b. 1938)            KPS
May 1986 - 20 Sep 1990     Anatoliy Abramovich Kachmazov                          
KPS
20 Sep 1990 – 16 Oct 1990  Feliks Mikhaylovich Zasseyev       (b. 1945)            KPS
Chairman of the (to 28 Nov 1990, Provisional) Executive Committee

16 Oct 1990 – 10 Dec 1990  Torez Georgiyevich Kulumbegov
     (b. 1938 – d. 2006)  Non-party    
Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet and the Executive Committee

10 Dec 1990 -  4 May 1991  Torez Georgiyevich Kulumbegov      (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (Georgian prisoner 29 Jan – 29 Dec 1991)
29 Jan 1991 -  4 May 1991  Alan Rezoyevich Chochiyev          (b. 1946)            AN
                             (acting for Kulumbegov as chairman of Supreme Soviet)
Feb 1991 -  4 May 1991     Znaur Nikolayevich Gassiyev        (s.a.)               KPS
                             (acting for Kulumbegov as chairman of Executive Committee)
Chairman of the Executive Committee
 
4 May 1991 -  1 Sep 1991
 Znaur Nikolayevich Gassiyev        (s.a.)               KPS
Chairmen of the Supreme Council
 1 Sep 1991 –  9 Jan 1992  Znaur Nikolayevich Gassiyev        (s.a.)
              Non-party
                             (also chairman of Executive Committee to 28 Nov 1991)
                             (acting)

 9 Jan 1992 – 23 Sep 1993  Torez Georgiyevich Kulumbegov      (s.a.)               Non-party
23 Sep 1993 - 27 Nov 1996  
Lyudvig Alekseyevich Chibirov      (b. 1932
)            Non-party
Presidents

27 Nov 1996 - 18 Dec 2001  Lyudvig Alekseyevich Chibirov      (s.a.
)               Non-party
18 Dec 2001 - 
10 Dec 2011  Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoyty        (b. 1964)        Non-party:2003 YP
                             (Kokoyev
)
11 Dec 2011 - 19 Apr 2012  
Vadim Vladimirovich Brovtsev       (b. 1969)            Non-party
                             (acting) 
19 Apr 2012 - 21 Apr 2017  Leonid Kharitonovich Tibilov 
     (b. 1952)            Non-party
21 Apr 2017 -              Anatoliy Ilyich Bibilov            (b. 1970)            YO

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
Apr 1922 - 1922            Razden Shamelovich 
Kozayev         (b. 1873 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                             (did not take office)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)

28 Nov 1991 - 23 Sep 1993  Oleg Dzherikhanovich Teziyev       (b. 1948)            Non-party
23 Sep 1993 - May 1994     Gerasim "Rezo" Georgiyevich        (b. 1945)            Non-party
                             Khugayev
May 1994 - 1995            Feliks Mikhaylovich Zasseyev       (s.a.)               Non-party
1995 - 25 Sep 1996         Vladislav Nikolayevich Gabarayev   (b. 1957)            Non-party
Chairmen of the Government (Prime ministers)
25 Sep 1996 -  2 Dec 1996  Valeriy Nikolayevich Khubulov
     (b. 1966 - d. 1998)  Non-party
                             (acting)
 2 Dec 1996 - Aug 1998     Aleksandr Apollonovich Shavlokhov  (b. 1940
)            Non-party
Aug 1998 -  6 Jun 2001     Merab Ilyich Chigoyev              (b. 1950 - d. 2016)  Non-party
 6 Jun 2001 - 14 Jun 2001  Leonid Kharitonovich Tibilov       (b. 1952)            Non-party
                             (acting)
14 Jun 2001 - 19 Dec 2001  Dmitriy Ivanovich Sanakoyev        (b. 1969
)            Non-party
19 Dec 2001 - 13 Aug 2003  Gerasim "Rezo" Georgiyevich        (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Khugayev (acting to 9 Jan 2002)
14 Aug 2003 - 17 Sep 2003  Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoyev        (s.a.)               Non-party  
                             (acting)
17 Sep 2003 - May 2005     Igor Viktorovich Sanakoyev         (b. 1947)
           YP
May 2005 -  5 Jul 2005     Zurab Revazovich Kokoyev (acting)  (b. 1960)            YP
 5 Jul 2005 - 17 Aug 2008  Yuriy Ionovich Morozov             (b. 1949)            YP
17 Aug 2008 - 22 Oct 2008  Boris Eliozovich Chochiyev         (b. 1957 - d. 2021)  YP
                             (acting)
22 Oct 2008 -  5 Aug 2009  Aslanbek Soltanovich Bulatsev      (b. 1963)            YP
 5 Aug 2009 - 26 Apr 2012  Vadim Vladimirovich Brovtsev       (s.a.)               YP
26 Apr 2012 - 20 Jan 2014  Rostislav Erastovich Khugayev      (b. 1951
)            Non-party
                             (acting to 15 May 2012)
20 Jan 2014 - 16 May 2017  Domenti Sardionovich Kulumbegov    (b. 1955)            Non-party
                             (acting to 2 Apr 2014)
16 May 2017 -
29 Aug 2020  Erik Georgiyevich Pukhayev         (b. 1957)            Non-party
29 Aug 2020 -              Gennadiy Borisovich Bekoyev        (b. 1981)            Non-party
                             (acting to 12 Mar 2021)

Provisional administrative entity in South Ossetia
 
(in Kurta, South Ossetia until 2008, then in T'bilisi exile)

[Pro-Georgian
                          South Ossetian draft flag (Georgia)]Designed (not adopted or used)

 1 Dec 2006                Pro-Georgian rival administration of Republic of South Ossetia
                             installed in Georgian-controlled part of South Ossetia.
10 May 2007                Georgia forms "provisional administrative entity" in
                             South Ossetia.

President
 1 Dec 2006 - 10 May 2007  
Dmitriy Ivanovich Sanakoyev        (s.a.)               PSOP
Head of the Provisional Administration

10 May 2007 -
             Dmitriy Ivanovich Sanakoyev        (s.a.)               PSOP

Chairman of the Government (Prime minister)
 7 Dec 2006 - Sep 2007     Uruzmag Karkusov                   (b. 1961)            PSOP


Georgia: Shida Kartli Region

[Flag of Georgia]

State Representatives-Governors (in Gori)
1998 - 2002                Irakli Bochoridze                  (b. 1970)
2002 - Nov 2003            Davit Koblianidze
Dec 2003 - Jan 2004        Irakli Okruashvili                 (b. 1973)
Jan 2004 - 12 Sep 2007     Mikheil Kareli                     (b. 1975)            ENM
12 Sep 2007 -  5 Feb 2008  Lasha "Lado" Gegelashvili          (b. 1978?)           ENM
 5 Feb 2008 - Jul 2010     Lado Vardzelashvili                (b. 1979)            ENM
10 Jul 2010 - Sep 2011     Zurab Arsoshvili                   (b. 1978)            ENM
Sep 2011 - 10 Jul 2012     Giorgi Tatishvili                  (b. 1946?)           ENM
10 Jul 2012 - 12 Jan 2013  Sulkhan Sibashvili                 (b. 1982)            ENM
12 Jan 2013 - 23 Apr 2013  Andro Barnovi                      (b. 1974)            ENM
24 Apr 2013 - 13 Dec 2013  Zurab Chkheidze                                         Non-party
13 Dec 2013 - Mar 2016     Zurab Rusishvili                   (b. 1978)            KODS
Mar 2016 -  3 Feb 2017     Ioseb Okromelidze (interim)        (b. 1978)
 3 Feb 2017 -
29 Mar 2018  Kakha Samkharadze                  (b. 1970)            KODS
29 Mar 2018 - 26 Jul 2018  Akaki Machutadze                   (b. 1974)
Jul 2018 -                 Giorgi Khojevanishvili             (b. 1985)            KODS
                             (acting to 20 Aug 2018)

Party abbreviations: ENM = Ertiani Nats'ionaluri Modzraoba (United National Movement, center-right, reformist, est.2001); KODS = K'art'uli ots'neba – demokratiuli Sak'art'velo (Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia, center-left, social liberal, populist, pro-European, est.2012); KPRSO = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Respubliki Yuzhnaya Osetiya (Communist Party of the Republic of South Ossetia, est.1993); PSOP = Tsugat Rayguyrynts Hussar Iryston (People of South Ossetia for Peace, anti-Kokoity, pro-Georgia reunification, est.24 Oct 2006); YO = Yedinaya Osetiya (United Ossetia, pro-unification with Russia); YP = Yedinstvo Partiya (Unity Party, South Ossetia regionalist, social conservative, pro-Kokoity, pro-Russia, est.5 Apr 2003);
- Former parties: AN = Adamon Nykhas (People's Assembly,
South Ossetian nationalist, 1989-1992); KPS-B = Komunisturi Partiis (Bolshevikebis) Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Gruzii (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Georgia, Marxist-Leninist communist, from 1921 state party, May 1920-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPS); KPS = Komunisturi Partiis Sak'art'velos/ Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Gruzii (Communist Party of Georgia, communist, state party former KPS-B, 13 Oct 1952 - 12 Aug 1990, splits from CPSU and is renamed Independent Communist Party of Georgia on 12 Aug 1990, banned 26 Aug 1991); PSR = Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries of Georgia (democratic socialist, agrarian socialist, 1918-1921); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks])



Georgian Principalities

Guria

[Banner of Guria
                        c.1745 (Georgia)]
c.1745 Banner of Guria

1352                       Principality of Guria established (capital Ozurgeti), part of
                             Georgia (from 1491, Imereti).
1557                       Secession from Imereti.
1578                       Under the Ottoman suzerainty (nominally from 1767).
 8 Apr 1810                Russian protectorate.
1829                       Incorporation into Russian Empire.
Nov 1905 - 23 Jan 1906     Under control of the peasant rebels (as part of the 1905/07 Russian
                             revolution), popularly referred to as the "Guria Republic."

Princes (title Mtavari)
1689 - 1712                Mamia III "Didi" (1st time)        (b. 16.. - d. 1714)
                             (also in Imereti)
1712                       Giorgi IV (1st time)               (b. 1702 - d. 1726)
1712 - 16 Jan 1714         Mamia III "Didi" (2nd time)        (s.a.)
16 Jan 1714 - 1716         Giorgi IV (2nd time)               (s.a.)
1716                       K`aikhosro III
1716 - 1726                Giorgi IV (3rd time)               (s.a.)
                             (also in Imereti)
1726 - 1756                Mamia IV                           (b. c.1717 - d. 1778)
1756 - 1758                Giorgi V (1st time)                (b. 1726 - d. 1788)
1758 – 1765                Mamia IV (2nd time)                (s.a.)
1765 – 1771                Giorgi V (2nd time)                (s.a.)
1771 – 1778                Mamia IV (3rd time)                (s.a.)
1778 – 1788                Giorgi V (3rd time)                (s.a.)
1788 - 1792                Simoni II                          (d. 1792)
1792 - 1797                Vakhtang II                        (d. 1825)
1797 - 1826                Mamia V                            (b. 1789 - d. 1826)
1797 - 1809                K`aikhosro Gurieli -Regent         (d. 1829)
1826 -  2 Sep 1829         Davit`                             (b. 1815 - d. 1839)
1826 - 1829                Sopio Tsulukidze (f) -Regent       (d. 1829)
Leader of the Committee

Nov 1905 - 23 Jan 1906     Beniamin "Benia" Chkhikvishvili    (b. 1881 - d. 1924)  RSDRP

Party abbreviation: RSDRP = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party, 1898 - 1912, in Jan 1912 [formally Aug 1917] split into RSDRP-B and RSDRP-M)



Mingrelia (Megrelia)

[Banner of Mingrelia
                        (Samegrelo) c.1745 (Georgia)]
c.1745 Banner of Mingrelia

c.1260                     Principality of Mingrelia (Samegrelo, officially named Odishi
                             until 1803) established (capital Zugdidi), part of Georgia
                             (from 1491, Imereti).

1557                       Secession from Imereti.
1578                       Under the Ottoman suzerainty (nominally from 1767).
 4 Dec 1803                Russian protectorate.

Nov 1855 - Feb 1856        Occupied by Ottoman Empire.
1857 -  4 Jan 1867         Russian administration.
 4 Jan 1867                Incorporation into Russian Empire.

Princes (title Mtavari)
1691 - 1704                Giorgi IV "Lipartiani" (1st time)  (d. 1716)
1704 - 1710                Kats`ia I                          (d. 1710)
1710 - 1714                Giorgi IV "Lipartiani" (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1715 - 1728                Bezhan                             (d. 1728)
1728 - 1757                Otia                               (d. 1757)
1757 - 17 Dec 1788         Kats`ia II                         (d. 1788)
17 Dec 1788 - 1791         Grigol (1st time)                  (b. 1770 - d. 1804)
1791 - 1793                Manuch`ar II                       (b. 17.. - d. c.1840)
1793 - 1794                Tariel (1st time)                  (b. 17.. - d. 1833)
1794 - Mar 1802            Grigol (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
Mar 1802 - 1802            Tariel (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
1802 -  4 Nov 1804         Grigol (3rd time)                  (s.a.)
 4 Nov 1804 - 1840         Levan V                            (b. 1793 - d. 1846)
 4 Nov 1804 - 1811         Nino Bagratuni (f) -Regent         (b. 1772 - d. 1847)
1840 - 11 Sep 1853         Davit`                             (b. 1812 - d. 1853)
11 Sep 1853 -  4 Jan 1867  Nikoloz                            (b. 1847 - d. 1903)
11 Sep 1853 - 1856         Ekaterine Chavchavadze (f) -Regent (b. 1816 - d. 1882)
1856 - 1857                Grigol Dadiani -Regent             (b. 1814 - d. 1901)
Russian Administrators of Mingrelia
1857 - 1858                Nikolay Petrovich Kolyubakin       (b. 1810 - d. 1868)
1858 - 1861                Mikhail Petrovich Kolyubakin       (b. 1806 - d. 1872)
1861 - 1865?               Mikhail Yegorovich Chilyayev       (b. 1821 - d. 1878)
1866 - 1867                Georgiy Konstantinovich Vlastov    (b. 1827 - d. 1899)   



Svania (Svanet`i)

[Banner of Svaneti
                        (Svanet`i) c.1745 (Georgia)]
c.1745 Banner of Svanet`i

1460                       Principality of Svania (Svanet`i) established, secession from
                             Mingrelia and Georgia.

26 Dec 1833                Russian protectorate.
1858                       Incorporation into Russian Empire.

Princes (title Mtavari)
bf.1715 - c.1750           Otar                               (d. c.1750)
c.1750 - c.1780            Misost (Tengis Bey I)              (d. c.1780)
c.1780 - 1812              Tsiokh Bey I                       (d. 1812)
1812 - 1821                Mistost (Tengis Bey II)            (d. 1821)
1821 - Sep 1841            Tsiokh Bey II                      (b. c.1800 - d. 1841)
                             (from 1834, Mikheil)
Sep 1841 - 1858            Konstantine                        (b. 1826 - d. 1858)
                             (
Russian prisoner from Nov 1857)
1841 - 1843                Digorkhan (f) -Regent              (d. 1843)







 © Ben Cahoon