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Georgia
 
[Kingdom of Georgia Flag,
                                    1762-1802]
19 Jan 1762 - 14 Apr 1802
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
24 Apr 1802 - 26 May 1918
 
[Flag
                                    of Democratic Republic of Georgia
                                    1918]
26 May 1918 - 10 Sep 1918
   
[flag
                                    of Democratic Republic of Georgia
                                    1918 - 1921]
10 Sep 1918 - 22 Feb 1921
 
[Flag
                                    of Democratic Republic of Georgia
                                    Feb. 1921]
22 Feb 1921 - 25 Feb 1921
 
[Flag of
                                    Soviet Union]
30 Dec 1922 - 25 Dec 1991
 
[Flag
                                    of Republic of Georgia 1990-2004]
14 Nov 1990 - 14 Jan 2004

[Flag of
                                    Georgia]
Adopted 14 Jan 2004


Map of Georgia
Hear National Anthem
"Tavisupleba" (Liberty)
Adopted 23 Apr 2004
Hear Former Anthem
"Dideba" (Praise)
(1918-1920, 1991-2004)
Constitution
(17 Oct 1995)
Capital: T'bilisi
(
Tiflis 1801-1936)
Currency: Lari (GEL); 1993-95 Kupon Lari (GEK); 1991-93 Russian Ruble (RUR); 1918-21
Georgian Ruble (GER)
National Holiday: 26 May (1918)
Damouk’ideblobis Dghe
(Independence Day)
Population: 4,926,087 (2018)
2,500,000 (1921)
GDP: $39.85 billion (2017)
Exports: $3.56 billion (2017)
Imports: $7.42 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Georgian 86.8%, Azeri 6.3%, Armenian 4.5%,
other 2.3% (includes Russian, Ossetian, Yazidi, Ukrainian,
Kist, Greek) (2014)
Total Active Armed Forces: 37,461 (2010)
Merchant marine: 82 ships (2018)
Religions: Orthodox (official) 83.4%, Muslim 10.7%, Armenian
 Apostolic 2.9%, other 1.2% (includes Catholic, Jehovah's
Witness, Yazidi, Protestant, Jewish), none 0.5%, unspecified/
no answer 1.2% (2014)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AIIB, APM, BSEC, BTWC, CD, CE, CFE, CPLP (associate observer), CTBT, CWC, DC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, G-11, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NPT, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PAM (observer), PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Georgia Index
Chronology
1491                       Kingdom of Georgia divided into three Kingdoms 
                             (Imertia, K`art`li, and Kakhet`i).
1505                       Under Persian suzerainty.
1516                       Under Ottoman suzerainty.
1620 - 1683                Under Ottoman suzerainty.
1727 - 1735                Annexed by Ottoman Empire.
1736 - 1744                Annexed by Persia.
19 Jan 1762                Kingdoms of K`art`li and Kakhet`i in personal 
                             union, often officially styled Kingdom of 
                             Georgia.
28 Feb 1801                Kingdom declared annexed by the Russian Empire by
                             manifesto of Emperor Pavel I.
24 Apr 1802                Incorporation into Russian Empire; "Georgian Tsar"
                             added to imperial style from 1882.
23 Apr 1840                Georgian-Imeretian (from 28 Feb 1847, Tiflis)
                             guberniya.
27 Dec 1844                Part of the Viceroyalty of the Caucasus 
                             (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia).
1846 - 1917                Kutais and Tiflis governorates (within Viceroyalty
                             of the Caucasus).
13 Oct 1864                Serfdom abolished in Georgia by emancipation decree of
                             Emperor Aleksandr II.
22 Nov 1881                Part of the Government-general of the Caucasus.
26 Feb 1905                Viceroyalty of the Caucasus (restored).
20 Sep 1917                Transcaucasian Federation created (Armenia,
                             Azerbaijan, and Georgia).
22 Apr 1918 - 26 May 1918  Part of Democratic Federative Republic of
                             Transcaucasia.
28 May 1918 - 11 Nov 1918  German protectorate (German forces land 4 Jun 1918).
18 Sep 1918 - 12 Apr 1919  Sochi district annexed by Georgia (occupied 
                             from 6 Jul 1918).
26 May 1918                Democratic Republic of Georgia (in dissidence
                             25 Feb - 16 Mar 1921).
25 Dec 1918 - 24 Sep 1919  Allied (British) forces occupy Tiblisi and Batumi
                             (to 14 Jul 1920).
 7 May 1920                Independence recognized by Soviet Russia.
25 Feb 1921                Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic of Georgia.
13 Oct 1921                Georgia cedes Ardahan and Artuin to Turkey; Lorri 
                             to Armenian S.S.R.; and Zaqatala to Azerbaijani
                             S.S.R.
12 Mar 1922                Part of the Federative Union of Socialist Soviet
                             Republics of Transcaucasia.
13 Dec 1922                Part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative 
                             Soviet Republic (see below).
30 Dec 1922                T.S.F.S.R. founding component of the Soviet Union
                             (see Russia).
 5 Dec 1936                T.S.F.S.R. dissolved; Georgian Soviet Socialist
                             Republic becomes a full union republic.
18 Nov 1989                State sovereignty declared.
14 Nov 1990                Republic of Georgia
31 Mar 1991                Referendum supports independence with 99.5% of vote.
 9 Apr 1991                Independence declared.
28 Nov 1991                South Ossetia declares independence from Georgia.
26 Dec 1991                Final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.).
23 Jul 1992                Abkhazia declares its independence from Georgia.
26 Nov 1995                Georgia (an alternative official name of the state
                             from 6 Nov 1992).
8/9 Aug 2008               Russian intervention in South Ossetia and Abkhazia
                             (and Georgia proper at Gori, Poti and Zugdidi;
                             Russian forces leave Georgia proper 8 Oct 2008,
                             but remain in Abkhazia and South Ossetia).
Georgia
(1918-1922,
from 1993)
Abkhazia
Adjaria
South Ossetia
Georgian S.S.R.
(1921-1991)
Georgian Principalities
Guria

Mingrelia
(Samegrelo)

Svania
(Svanet`i)
Georgian Orthodox
Church
Map of Georgia
in May 1921

 

K`art`li

[Kingdom of K`art`li Flag
                (Georgia)]

1491                       Kingdom of K`art`li, part of the Kingdom of Georgia,
                             established.
1516 - 1620                Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
1620 - 1688                Vassal of Persia.
1683 - 1801                Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
1727 - 1735                Annexed by Ottoman Empire.
1736 - 1744                Annexed by Persia (Iran).
19 Jan 1762                Personal union with Kakhet`i re-established.

Kings (alternative names are the official Ottoman and/or Persian names)
1695 - 1703                Nikoloz Irakli I                   (b. 1643 - d. 1710)
                             (= Nazar `Ali Khan) (2nd time)
1703 -  2 May 1709         Giorgi XI (= Gurjin Khan           (b. af.1648 - d. 1709)
                             and Shah Nawaz III) (3rd time)
 2 May 1709 - Jul 1709     Levanti (= Shah Qoli Khan)         (b. c.1659 - d. 1709)
Jul 1709 -  8 Oct 1711     K`aikhosro (= Khosraw Khan)        (b. 1674 - d. 1711)
 8 Oct 1711 - Oct 1714     Vakhtang VI (= Hoseyn Qoli Khan)   (b. 1675 - d. 1737)
                             (1st time)
Oct 1714 - Jun 1716        Iese (= `Ali Qoli Khan) (1st time) (b. 16.. - d. 1727)
1716 - 1717                Vakhtang VI (= Hoseyn Qoli Khan)   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1717 - Aug 1719            Bak`ar III (= Shah Nawaz IV)       (b. 1700? - d. 1750)
                             (1st time)
Aug 1719 - May 1723        Vakhtang VI (= Hoseyn Qoli Khan)   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
May 1723 - Jun 1723        Konstantine III (= Mahmud Qoli Khan)
Jun 1723 - Jul 1724        Bak`ar III (= Ebrahim Pasha)      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1724 - 1727                Iese (= Mostafa Pasha) (2nd time) (s.a.)
1727 - 1735                Vacant
1735 - 1736                Alek`sandre II (= `Ali Mirza)
1736 - 1744                Vacant
Jul 1744 - 19 Jan 1762     T`eimuraz II                      (b. 1680 - d. 1762)


Kakhet`i

[Kingdom of Kakhet`i Flag
                (Georgia)]

1491                       Kingdom of Kakhet`i, part of the Kingdom of Georgia, established.
1516 - 1620                Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
1620 - 1676                Vassal of Persia.
1676 - 1703                Annexed by Persia (Iran).
1703 - 1801                Vassal of Ottoman Empire.

Kings (alternative names are the official Ottoman and/or Persian names)
May 1703 - May 1721        Davit` II (= Emam Qoli Khan)       (b. 1678 - d. 1721)
May 1721 -  4 Dec 1732     Konstantine II (= Mahmud Qoli Khan (d. 1732)
                             [from 1724] Mahmud Pasha)
 4 Dec 1732 - 1736         T`eimuraz II (1st time)            (b. 1680 - d. 1762)
1736 - 1738                Alek`sandre III                    (d. 1739)
1738 - 1744                T`eimuraz II (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Jul 1744 - 19 Jan 1762     Irakli II                          (b. 1721 - d. 1798)


K`art`li and Kakhet`i  (styled Kingdom of Georgia)

[Kingdom of Georgia Flag,
                1762-1802]

19 Jan 1762                Kingdoms of K`art`li and Kakhet`i in personal union,
                             often officially styled Kingdom of Georgia.
 6 Feb 1784                Vassal of Russian Empire.
28 Feb 1801                Annexed by Russia.

24 Apr 1802                Incorporation into Russian Empire; "Georgian Tsar" added
                             to imperial style on 15 Nov 1882.

Kings
19 Jan 1762 - 22 Jan 1798  Irakli II                          (b. 1721 - d. 1798)
22 Jan 1798 -  9 Jan 1801  Giorgi XII                         (b. 1746 - d. 1801)
 9 Jan 1801 - 24 Apr 1802  Provisional Government
                           - Ivan Petrovich Lazarev           (b. 1763 - d. 1803)
                              (chairman from 3 Jun 1801)
                           - Prince Ioane Batonishvili        (b. 1768 - d. 1839)
                           - Ignati T`umanishvili
20 Jan 1801 - 24 Apr 1802  Crown Prince Davit` Batonishvili   (b. 1767 - d. 1819)
                             (semi-officially recognized as regent)


Imeret`i

[Imereti Kingdom,
                XVth-XVIIIth centuries (Georgia)]

1491                       Kingdom of Imeret`i, part of the Kingdom of Georgia,
                             established.
1716 - 1720                Ottoman occupation.
21 Apr 1804                Russian protectorate.
23 May 1810                Incorporation into Russian Empire.

Kings
1701 - 1702                Mamia (1st time)                   (b. 16.. - d. 1714)
1702 - 1703                Giorgi V (1st time)                (b. 16.. - d. 1722)
1703                       Giorgi VI (1st time)               (b. 1691 - d. 1720)
1703 - 1707                Giorgi V (2nd time)                (s.a.)
1707 - Oct 1711            Giorgi VI (2nd time)               (s.a.)
Oct 1711 - Jun 1712        Mamia (2nd time)                   (s.a.)
Jun 1712 - Nov 1713        Giorgi VI (3rd time)               (s.a.)
Nov 1713 - May 1714        Mamia (3rd time)                   (s.a.)
May 1714 - Mar 1720        Giorgi VI (4th time)               (s.a.)
Mar 1720 - Jun 1720        Giorgi IV                          (b. 1702 - d. 1726)
Jun 1720 - 1741            Alek`sandre V (1st time)           (d. 1752)
1741 - 1742                Giorgi VII                         (b. 1721 - d. af.1772)
1742 - 1747                Alek`sandre V (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1747 - 1749                Mamuka
1749 - Mar 1752            Alek`sandre V (3rd time)           (s.a.)
Mar 1752 - 1766            Solomon I "Didi" (1st time)        (b. 1735 - d. 1784)
1766 - 1768                T`eimuraz
1768 -  4 May 1784         Solomon I "Didi" (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 4 May 1784 - 1789         Davit`                             (b. 1756 - d. 1795)
                             (continuing in rebellion to 1792)
1789 - 23 May 1810         Solomon II                         (b. 1773 - d. 1815)


Georgia

26 May 1918                Democratic Republic of Georgia (continues in dissidence to
                             16 Mar 1921).
25 Feb 1921                Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic of Georgia
12 Mar 1922                Part of the Federative Union of Socialist Soviet
                             Republics of Transcaucasia (see below).
13 Dec 1922                Part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet
                             Republic (see below).
 5 Dec 1936                T.S.F.S.R. dissolved; Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
                             becomes a full union republic (see below).
14 Nov 1990                Republic of Georgia
 9 Apr 1991                Independence declared.
25 Dec 1991                Final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.).
26 Nov 1995                Georgia (an alternative official name of the state from 6 Nov 1992).

Chairmen of the National Council
26 May 1918 - 29 May 1918  Noe Nikolozis dze Zhordania        (b. 1868 - d. 1953)  SDLP-G
29 May 1918 -  8 Oct 1918  Nikoloz Simonis dze Chkheidze      (b. 1865 - d. 1926)  SDLP-G
Chairman of the Parliament
 
8 Oct 1918 - 12 Mar 1919  Nikoloz Simonis dze Chkheidze      (s.a.)               SDLP-G
Chairmen of the Constituent Assembly
12 Mar 1919                Silibistro Besarionis dze Jibladze (b. 1859 - d.c.1922) SDLP-G
                             (acting)

12 Mar 1919 - 25 Feb 1921  Nikoloz Simonis dze Chkheidze      (s.a.)               SDLP-G
                             (continues in dissidence to 16 Mar 1921)
12 Mar 1919 - 21 Jan 1921? Aleksandre Spiridonis dze                               SDLP-G
                             Lomtatidze (acting for absent
Chkheidze)
Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee

25 Feb 1921 –  6 Mar 1921  Mamia Dimitris dze Orakhelashvili  (b. 1881 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                             (acting)
 6 Mar 1921 -  7 Jul 1921  Pilipe Ieses dze Makharadze        (b. 1868 - d. 1941)  KPS-B
 7 Jul 1921 -  7 Mar 1922  Polikarpe Gurgenis dze Mdivani     (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
 7 Mar 1922 - 22 Jan 1923  Pilipe Ieses dze Makharadze        (s.a.)               KPS-B
Chairman of the Supreme Council 
14 Nov 1990 - 14 Apr 1991  Zviad Konstantines dze             (b. 1939 - d. 1993)  MM-TS
                             Gamsakhurdia
Presidents
14 Apr 1991 -  2 Jan 1992Ή Zviad Konstantines dze             (s.a.)               MM-TS
                             Gamsakhurdia
                            (in dissidence to 6 Jan 1993)
 2 Jan 1992 - 10 Mar 1992  Tengiz Kalistrates dze Kitovani    (b. 1939)            Mil
                           + Jaba Aleksandres dze Ioseliani   (b. 1926 - d. 2003)  Mil
                           (co-leaders of the Military Council)
Chairman of the State Council
10 Mar 1992 -  4 Nov 1992  Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze   (b. 1928 - d. 2014)  Non-party
Head of State
 4 Nov 1992 - 26 Nov 1995  Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (chairman of the Parliament to 6 Nov 1992)
Presidents

26 Nov 1995 - 23 Nov 2003  Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze   (s.a.)               SMK
23 Nov 2003 - 25 Jan 2004  Nino Anzoris asuli Burjanadze (f)  (b. 1964)            BDA
                             (1st time) (acting)
25 Jan 2004 - 25 Nov 2007  Mikheil Nikolozis dze Saakashvili  (b. 1967)            ENM
                             (1st time)
25 Nov 2007 - 20 Jan 2008  
Nino Anzoris asuli Burjanadze (f)  (s.a.)               BDA
                             (2nd time) (acting)
20 Jan 2008 - 17 Nov 2013  Mikheil Nikolozis dze Saakashvili  (s.a.)               ENM
                             (2nd time)
17 Nov 2013 -
16 Dec 2018  Giorgi Teimurazis dze              (b. 1969)            KODS
                             Margvelashvili
16 Dec 2018 -              Salome Nino Levanis asuli          (b. 1952)            Non-party
                             Zurabishvili (f)
                            (= Salomι Nino Zourabichvili)

Prime ministers
26 May 1918 - 24 Jun 1918  Noe Besarionis dze Ramishvili      (b. 1881 - d. 1930)  SDLP-G
24 Jun 1918 - 1921         Noe Nikolozis dze Zhordania        (s.a.)               SDLP-G
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
Feb 1922 - 1923            Sergey Ivanovich Kavtaradze        (b. 1885 - d. 1971)  KPS-B
Prime ministers
15 Nov 1990 - 18 Aug 1991  Tengiz Ipolitovich Sigua (1st time)(b. 1934)            Non-party 
18 Aug 1991 - 23 Aug 1991  Murman Omanidze (acting)           (b. 1938)            Non-party
23 Aug 1991 -  6 Jan 1992Ή Bessarion Paatovich Gugushvili     (b. 1945)            MM-TS
 6 Jan 1992 -  6 Aug 1993  Tengiz Ipolitovich Sigua (2nd time)(s.a.)               Non-party
 6 Aug 1993 - 20 Aug 1993  Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting) 
20 Aug 1993 -  5 Oct 1995  Otar Ambakovich Patsatsia          (b. 1929)            Non-party
Ministers of State
 8 Dec 1995 -  7 Aug 1998  Nikoloz "Niko" Mikheilis dze       (b. 1947)            SMK
                             Lekishvili
 7 Aug 1998 - 11 May 2000  Vazha Giorgis dze Lortkipanidze    (b. 1949)            SMK
11 May 2000 - 21 Dec 2001  Giorgi Longinozovich Arsenishvili  (b. 1942 - d. 2010)  SMK
21 Dec 2001 - 27 Nov 2003  Avtandil Khristoforovich           (b. 1951)            SMK
                             Jorbenadze
27 Nov 2003 - 17 Feb 2004  Zurab Besarionis dze Zhvania       (b. 1963 - d. 2005)  BDA
Prime ministers
17 Feb 2004 -  3 Feb 2005  Zurab Besarionis dze Zhvania       (s.a.)               BDA
 3 Feb 2005 - 17 Feb 2005  Mikheil Nikolozis dze Saakashvili  (s.a.)               ENM
                             (acting) 
17 Feb 2005 - 22 Nov 2007  Zurab Nogaideli                    (b. 1964)            BDA
22 Nov 2007 -  1 Nov 2008  Vladimer "Lado" Gurgenidze         (b. 1970)            Non-party
 1 Nov 2008 -  6 Feb 2009  Grigol "Gega" Mgaloblishvili
      (b. 1973)            Non-party
 6 Feb 2009 -
 4 Jul 2012  Nikoloz "Nika" Gilauri             (b. 1975)            Non-party
 4 Jul 2012 - 
25 Oct 2012  Ivane "Vano" Merabishvili          (b. 1968)            ENM
25 Oct 2012 - 20 Nov 2013  Bidzina Grigolis dze Ivanishvili   (b. 1956)            KODS
20 Nov 2013 - 30 Dec 2015  Irakli Garibashvili                (b. 1982)            KODS
30 Dec 2015 - 20 Jun 2018  Giorgi Kvirikashvili               (b. 1967)            KODS
20 Jun 2018 - 
8 Sep 2019  Mamuka Bakhtadze                   (b. 1982)            KODS 
 8 Sep 2019 -              Giorgi Zauris dze Gakharia         (b. 1975)            KODS


British High Commissioners to Transcaucasia (in Tiflis [now Tbilisi, Georgia])
Jul 1919 - 25 Apr 1920     John Oliver Wardrop (1st time)     (b. 1864 – d. 1948)
25 Apr 1920 - Sep 1920     Harry Charles Lukes                (b. 1884 - d. 1969)
Sep 1920 - Feb 1921
        John Oliver Wardrop (2nd time)     (s.a.)

National Government of Georgia (NGG) in exile

[Flag of Democratic
                  Republic of Georgia Feb. 1921]

Heads of State
18 Mar 1921 - 11 Jan 1953  Noe Nikolozis dze Zhordania        (s.a.)               SDLP-G
                             (in Leuville-sur-Orge, France exile)
1953 -  5 Jun 1954         Yevgeny Petrovich Gegechkori       (b. 1881 - d. 1954)  SDLP-G
                             (in Leuville-sur-Orge, France exile)

 ΉThe ousted administration of Gamsakhurdia and Gugushvili formed a counter-government at Zugdidi on 24 Sep 1993 that controlled part of western Georgia until 6 Nov 1993.

Territorial Disputes: Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Meshkheti Turks scattered throughout the former Soviet Union seek to return to Georgia; boundary with Armenia remains undemarcated; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian government; Azerbaijan and Georgia continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas including the Georgian David Gareja monastery complex. 

Party abbreviations: EDP = Erovnul Demokratiuli Partia (National Democratic Party, christian-democratic, est.1988); ENM = Ertiani Nats'ionaluri Modzraoba (United National Movement, center-right, liberal conservative, est.Oct 2001); KODS = K'art'uli Ots'neba – Demokratiuli Sak'art'velo (Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia, center-left, social liberal, populist, pro-European, est.21 Apr 2012); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: BDA = Burjanadze-Demokratiuli Aliansi (Burjanadze-Democratic Alliance, reform, social-democratic, 2003-2004); KPS-B = Komunisturi Partiis (Bolshevikebis) Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Gruzii (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Georgia, communist, from 1921 state party, May 1920-13 Oct 1952, renamed Communist Party of Georgia); MM-TS = Mrgvali Magida - Tavisupali Sak'art'velo (Round Table-Free Georgia, Georgian nationalist bloc, 1990-1992); SDLP-G = Sak'art'velos Sotsial-Demok'rat'iuli Partia (Georgian Social Democratic Party, Marxist, democratic socialist, split from Russian Social Democratic Worker's Party "Mensheviks", 1918-1926); SMK = Sak'art'velos Mokalaketa Kavshiri (Citizens Union of Georgia, centrist, pro-Shevardnadze, 1995-2003)



Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
 
[Flag of Georgian SSR in 1921]
25 Feb 1921 - 20 May 1921
 
[Flag of Georgian SSR 1921-1937]
20 May 1921 - 13 Feb 1937
 
[Flag of Georgian SSR 1937-1941]
13 Feb 1937 - 1941
 
[Flag of
                          Georgian SSR 1941-1951]
1941 - 11 Apr 1951
 
[Flag of Georgian
                          SSR 1951-1990]
11 Apr 1951 - 14 Nov 1990

Capital: Tbilisi
(Tiflis 1921-1936)
Hear SSR Anthem
"State Anthem of
Georgian SSR"
(1946-1991)
Constitution
(3 Apr 1978)
Population: 5,015,000 (1980)

25 Feb 1921                Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic of Georgia
13 Dec 1922 -  5 Dec 1936  Part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet
                             Republic (see below).
 5 Dec 1936                Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.
 7 Mar 1944 - 24 Nov 1956  Akhalkhevi district (of Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R.) annexed.
 5 Oct 1944 -  1 Jan 1957  Klukhori district (of
Karachay A.O.) annexed.
14 Nov 1990                Republic of Georgia

Executive Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
(Bolsheviks) of Georgia 

Mar 1921 - Apr 1922        Mamiya (Ivan) Dmitriyevich         (b. 1881 - d. 1937)
                            
Orakhelashvili 
                             (Mamia Dimitris dze Orakhelashvili)
                            (
provisional chairman Jun - Sep 1920)
Apr 1922 - 22 Oct 1922     Mikhail Stepanovich Okudzhava
     (b. 1887 - d. 1937)
25 Oct 1922 - Aug 1924     Vissarion Vissarionovich Lominadze (b. 1897 - d. 1935)

First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
of Georgia (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Georgia)
Aug 1924 -  6 May 1930     Mikhail Ivanovich Kakhiani         (b. 1896 - d. 1937)

 6 May 1930 - 20 Nov 1930  Levan Davidovich Gogoberidze       (b. 1896 - d. 1937)
20 Nov 1930 - 13 Oct 1931  Samson Andreyevich Mamulia         (b. 1892 - d. 1937)
13 Oct 1931 - 14 Nov 1931  Lavrentiy Iosipovich Kartvelishvili(b. 1890 - d. 1938)
14 Nov 1931 -
31 Aug 1938  Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beriya         (b. 1899 - d. 1953)
                             (Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria)
31 Aug 1938 -  2 Apr 1952  Kandid Nestorovich Charkviani
     (b. 1907 - d. 1994)
 2 Apr 1952 - 14 Apr 1953  Akakiy Ivanovich Mgeladze          (b. 1910 - d. 1980)
14 Apr 1953 - 19 Sep 1953  Aleksandr Iordanovich Mirtskhulava (b. 1911 - d. 2009)
20 Sep 1953 - 29 Sep 1972  Vasiliy Pavlovich Mzhavanadze      (b. 1902 - d. 1988)
29 Sep 1972 -  6 Jul 1985  Eduard Amvrosiyevich Shevardnadze  (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
 6 Jul 1985 - 14 Apr 1989  Dzhumber Ilyich Patiashvili        (b. 1940)
14 Apr 1989 -  7 Dec 1990  Givi Grigoryevich Gumbaridze       (b. 1945)
 7 Dec 1990 - 19 Feb 1991  Avtandil Antonovich Margiani       (b. 1945)
First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Independent Communist Party of Georgia
19 Feb 1991 - 26 Aug 1991  
Dzhemal ("Jimi") Pridonovich       (b. 1936 - d. 2014)
                             Mikeladze 
                          ("leading role" of party abolished Mar 1990)

Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee ("Revkom")
25 Feb 1921 –  6 Mar 1921  Mamiya (Ivan) Dmitriyevich         (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             Orakhelashvili (acting)
 6 Mar 1921 -  7 Jul 1921 
Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (b. 1868 - d. 1941)  KPS-B
                             (Pilipe Ieses dze Makharadze)
 7 Jul 1921 - 25 Feb 1922  Polikarp Gurgenovich "Budu"        (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                             Mdivani 
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
25 Feb 1922 - Oct 1922     Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (1st time)
Oct 1922 - Jan 1923        Ivan Fyodorovich Sturua            (b. 1870 - d. 1931)  KPS-B
22 Jan 1923 - Jun 1925     Mikhail Grigoryevich Tskhakaya     (b. 1865 - d. 1950)  KPS-B
                             (1st time)
Jun 1925 - 14 Jun 1927     Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (2nd time)
14 Jun 1927 - Apr 1928     Lavrentiy Iosipovich Kartvelishvili(s.a.)               KPS-B
Apr 1928 - Jun 1929        Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (3rd time) 
Jun 1929 - Dec 1930        Mikhail Grigoryevich Tskhakaya     (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (2nd time)
Jan 1931 - Jul 1938        Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (4th time)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
10 Jul 1938 - 10 Dec 1941  Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
14 Dec 1941 - 26 Mar 1948  Georgiy Fyodorovich Sturua         (b. 1884 - d. 1956)  KPS-B
26 Mar 1948 -  6 Apr 1952  Vasiliy Barnabovich Gogua          (b. 1908 - d. 1967)  KPS-B
 6 Apr 1952 - 15 Apr 1953  Zakhariy Nikolayevich              (b. 1903 - d. 1980) KPS-B;1952 KPS
                             Chkhubianishvili                 

15 Apr 1953 - 29 Oct 1953  Vladimir Gedevanovich              (b. 1905 - d. 1976)  KPS
                             Tskhovrebashvili 
29 Oct 1953 - 18 Apr 1959  Miron Dmitriyevich Chubinidze      (b. 1905 - d. 19..)  KPS
18 Apr 1959 -  6 Jan 1976  Georgiy Samsonovich Dzotsenidze    (b. 1910 - d. 1976)  KPS
26 Jan 1976 - 29 Mar 1989  Pavel Georgiyevich Gilashvili      (b. 1918 - d. 1994)  KPS
29 Mar 1989 - 17 Nov 1989  Otar Yevtikhiyevich Cherkeziya     (b. 1933)            KPS
17 Nov 1989 - 14 Nov 1990  Givi Grigoryevich Gumbaridze       (s.a.)               KPS
Chairman of the Supreme Council
14 Nov 1990 - 14 Apr 1991  Zviad Konstantinovich Gamsakhurdiya(b. 1939 - d. 1993)  MM-TS
                             (=
Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia)

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
25 Feb 1922 - Apr 1922     Polikarp Gurgenovich Mdivani "Budu"(s.a.)               KPS-B
Apr 1922 - Jan 1924        Sergey Ivanovich Kavtaradze        (b. 1885 - d. 1971)  KPS-B
 
5 Jan 1924 - Jun 1927     Shalva Zurabovich Eliava           (b. 1883 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
Jun 1927 - Jun 1929        L
avrentiy Iosipovich Kartvelishvili(s.a.)               KPS-B
Jun 1929 - Jan 1931        Filipp Yeseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
Jan 1931 - 22 Sep 1931     Vladimir (Levan) Pavlovich         (b. 1904 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                             Sukhishvili
22 Sep 1931 - Jun 1937     German Andreyevich Mgaloblishvili  (b. 1884 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
 9 Jul 1937 - 15 Apr 1946  Valerian Minayevich Bakradze       (b. 1901 - d. 1971)  KPS-B
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
15 Apr 1946 - Dec 1946     Valerian Minayevich Bakradze       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (1st time)
Dec 1946 -  6 Apr 1952     Zakhariy Nikolayevich              (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             Chkhubianishvili
 6 Apr 1952 -  7 May 1953  Zakhariy Nikolayevich Ketskhoveli  (b. 1902 - d. 1970) KPS-B;1952 KPS
 
9 May 1953 - 21 Sep 1953  Valerian Minayevich Bakradze       (s.a.)               KPS
                             (2nd time)
21 Sep 1953 - 17 Dec 1975  Givi Dmitriyevich Dzhavakhishvili  (b. 1912 - d. 1985)  KPS
17 Dec 1975 -  5 Jun 1982  Zurab Aleksandrovich Pataridze     (b. 1928 - d. 1982)  KPS
 2 Jul 1982 - 12 Apr 1986  Dmitriy Levanovich Kartvelishvili  (b. 1927)            KPS
12 Apr 1986 - 29 Mar 1989  Otar Yevtikhiyevich Cherkeziya     (s.a.)               KPS
29 Mar 1989 - 14 Apr 1989  Zurab Amvrosiyevich Chkheidze      (b. 1930 - d. 2007)  KPS
14 Apr 1989 - 15 Nov 1990  Nodari Amvrosiyevich Chitanava     (b. 1935)            KPS
15 Nov 1990 - 18 Aug 1991  Tengiz Ippolitovich Sigua          (b. 1934)            MM-TS

Party abbreviations: MM-TS = Mrgvali Magida - Tavisupali Sak'art'velo (Round Table-Free Georgia, Georgian nationalist bloc, May 1990-1993);
- Former parties:
KPS-B = Komunisturi Partiis (Bolshevikebis) Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Gruzii (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Georgia, communist, from 1921 state party, May 1920-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPS); KPS = Komunisturi Partiis Sak'art'velos/ Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Gruzii (Communist Party of Georgia, communist, state party former KPS-B, 13 Oct 1952 - 12 Aug 1990, splits from CPSU and is renamed Independent Communist Party of Georgia on 12 Aug 1990, banned 26 Aug 1991)


Kutaisi

 3 Nov 1951 - 23 Apr 1953  Kutaisi oblast (within Georgian S.S.R.).

First Secretaries of the Kutaisi Regional Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
of Georgia (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Georgia) Committee of the

Nov 1951 - 26 Apr 1952     Akakiy Ivanovich Mgeladze          (b. 1910 - d. 1980)  KPS-B
27 Apr 1952 - Apr 1953     Maksim Konstantinovich Balavadze   (b. 1910 - d. 19..)KPS-B; 1952 KPS

Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the Regional Council of Kutaisi
25 Dec 1951 - 1952         Boris Yermolayevich Lomidze        (b. 1909 - d. 19..)  KPS-B
1952 - Apr 1953            Sergey Viktorovich Sakvarelidze    (b. 1911 - d. 19..)KPS-B; 1952 KPS


Tbilisi

 3 Nov 1951 - 23 Apr 1953  Tbilisi oblast (within Georgian S.S.R.).

First Secretaries of the Tbilisi Regional Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
of Georgia (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Georgia)

Nov 1951 - 26 Apr 1952     Mikhail Mikhaylovich Lelashvili    (b. 1910 - d. 19..)  KPS-B
27 Apr 1952 - Apr 1953     Konstantin Dmitriyevich            (b. 1904 - d. 19..) KPS-B;1952 KPS
                             Budzhiashvili

Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Regional Council of Tbilisi
 4 Dec 1951 - Apr 1953     Ivan Petrovich Kudzhiashvili       (b. 1906 - d. 19..) KPS-B;1952 KPS



Transcaucasia

 
[Russian flag]
1802 - 26 Mar 1918
 
[alleged
                          Transcaucasian Federation flag, 1918 (No Flag
                          Was Adopted)]
22 Apr - 26 May 1918 Error, No Flag Was Adopted
 
[Flag of Federative Union of
                          Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia,
                          1922-1936]
13 Dec 1922 - 5 Dec 1936
 
Capital: Tiflis
(from 1936, Tbilisi)
Currency: Transcaucasian
 Ruble (ZKRR/ZKSR)
(1917-1918, 1922-1924)
Basic Law
(13 Dec 1922-10 Apr 1925;
10 Apr 1925-5 Dec 1936)
Ethnic groups: Georgian
30.5%, Azerbaijani 28.2%,
Armenian 22.7%, Russian
5.8%, Ossetian 2%, Talysh
1.3%, Kurds 1.1%,
Abkhazian 1% (1926)
Population: 5,850,700 (1926)

28 Feb 1801                Kingdom annexed by the Russian Empire.
 8 May 1802                Russian regional administration established in Tiflis.

23 Apr 1840                Georgian-Imeretian gubernia 
 8 Jan 1845                Part of the Viceroyalty of the Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, 

                             and Georgia).
 3 Mar 1878                Kars, Ardahan, and Batumi ceded to Russia by Ottoman Empire.
13 Jan 1882                Part of the Government-general of the Caucasus
13 Jan 1905                Viceroyalty of the Caucasus (restored).
22 Mar 1917                Viceroyalty replaced by the Special Transcaucasian Committee (OZAKOM)
                             appointed by the
Russian Provisional Government.
28 Nov 1917                Transcaucasian Commissariat established at Tiflis (modern Tbilisi).
23 Feb 1918                Transcaucasian Diet (Sejm) is convoked by Transcaucasian Commissariat
                             in Tiflis (modern Tbilisi), it included members of the Constituent
                             Assembly (from Petrograd, Jan 1918)
elected from Georgia,
                             Armenia, and Azerbaijan (O.S. date 10 Feb 1918).

 
9 Apr 1918                Transcaucasian Commissariat abolished.
22 Apr 1918                Transcaucasia is proclaimed an independent democratic federal
                             republic by resolution of the Diet (O.S. date 9 Apr 1918).
22 Apr 1918                Transcaucasian
Democratic Federative Republic
(name of the state
                             not formally approved)
(consisting of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and
                             Georgia)
.
26 May 1918                Transcaucasian Diet is dissolved by resolution of the Diet.
12 Mar 1922                Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia.  
13 Dec 1922                Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (T.S.F.S.R.)
30 Dec 1922                Constituent republic of the Soviet Union.
 5 Dec 1936                T.S.F.S.R. dissolved.

Executive Secretaries of the Transcaucasian Regional Committee of the
Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
23 Feb 1922 –  3 Nov 1922  Ivan (Mamia) Dmitriyevich          (b. 1881 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                             Orakhelashvili (Georgian SSR) 
                             (Mamia Dimitris dze Orakhelashvili)
 3 Nov 1922 - 24 Mar 1923  Aleksandr Fyodorovich
Myasnikov    (b. 1886 - d. 1925)  HKK
                             (Aleksandr Teodorosi Myasnikyan)
                             (
Armenian SSR)

First Secretaries of the Transcaucasian Regional Committee of the Russian
Communist Party (Bolsheviks)(from 31 Dec 1925, All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks])
24 Mar 1923 - 11 Dec 1924  Aleksandr Fyodorovich Myasnikov    (s.a.)               HKK
                             (Armenian SSR)
11 Dec 1924 -  8 Dec 1926  Sergey (Sergo) Grigoriy            (b. 1886 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                             Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze
                             (Georgian SSR)

 8 Dec 1926 - 27 Nov 1929  Ivan (Mamia) Dmitriyevich          (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             Orakhelashvili (1st time)
                             (
Georgian SSR)

27 Nov 1929 –  8 May 1930  Aleksandr Ivanovich Krinitskiy     (b. 1894 – d. 1937)  KPS-B
                             (Georgian SSR)
 8 May 1930 - 19 Nov 1930  Vissarion Vissarionovich Lominadze (b. 1897 - d. 1935)  KPS-B
                             (Besarion Lominadse)(Georgian SSR)
19 Nov 1930 – 31 Oct 1931  Lavrentiy Iosifovich Kartvelishvili(b. 1890 – d. 1938)  KPS-B
                             (Georgian SSR)

31 Oct 1931 - 17 Oct 1932  Ivan (Mamia) Dmitriyevich          (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             Orakhelashvili (2nd time)
                             (Georgian SSR)

17 Oct 1932 - 23 Apr 1937  Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beriya         (b. 1899 - d. 1953)  KPS-B
                             (Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria)
                             (Georgian SSR)

Commanders-in-chief in the Caucasus (in Tiflis [now Tbilisi, Georgia])
 9 Apr 1802 - 23 Sep 1802  Karl Fyodorovich fon Knorring      (b. 1746 - d. 1820)
23 Sep 1802 - 20 Feb 1806  Knyaz' Pavel Dmitriyevich          (b. 1754 - d. 1806)
                            
Tsitsianov
                             (Pavle Dimitris dze Tsitsishvili)
1806 - 1809                Graf Ivan Vasilyevich Gudovich     (b. 1741 - d. 1820)

Feb 1809 - 1811            Aleksandr Petrovich Tormasov       (b. 1752 - d. 1819)
18 Jul 1811 - 28 Feb 1812  Filipp Osipovich Pauluchchi        (b. 1779 - d. 1849)
                             (= Filippo Paulucci delle Roncole)

28 Feb 1812 -  9 Apr 1816  Nikolay Fyodorovich Rtishchev      (b. 1754 - d. 1835)
Oct 1816 - 27 Mar 1827     Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov         (b. 1777 - d. 1861) 
28 Mar 1827 - 1830         Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich         (b. 1782 - d. 1856)
13 Sep 1831 - 30 Nov 1837  Grigoriy Vladimirovich fon Rosen   (b. 1782 - d. 1841)
30 Nov 1837 - 25 Oct 1842  Yevgeniy Aleksandrovich Golovin    (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
Oct 1842 -  8 Jan 1845     Aleksandr Ivanovich Neidgardt      (b. 1784 - d. 1845)
Viceroys of the Caucasus
 
8 Jan 1845 - 13 Mar 1854  Knyaz' Mikhail Semyonovich         (b. 1782 - d. 1856)
                             Vorontsov
13 Mar 1854 - 11 Dec 1854  Nikolay Andreyevich Read (acting)  (b. 1793 - d. 1855)
11 Dec 1854 -  3 Aug 1856  Nikolay Nikolayevich Muravyov-     (b. 1794 - d. 1866) 
                             Karskiy
 3 Aug 1856 - 18 Dec 1862
  Knyaz' Aleksandr Ivanovich         (b. 1815 - d. 1879)
                             Baryatinskiy
18 Dec 1862 -  4 Aug 1881  Velikiy Knyaz' Mikhail Nikolayevich(b. 1832 - d. 1909)
                             Romanov
Commanders-in-chief of the Civil Administration of the Caucasus
13 Jan 1882 - 15 Jun 1890  Knyaz' Aleksandr Mikhaylovich      (b. 1820 - d. 1893)
                             Dondukov-Korsakov 
15 Jun 1890 - 18 Dec 1896  Sergey Aleksandrovich Sheremetyev  (b. 1836 - d. 1896)
24 Dec 1896 - 13 Jan 1905  Knyaz' Grigoriy Sergeyevich        (b. 1838 - d. 1907)
                             Golitsyn
Viceroys of the Caucasus
11 Mar 1905 -  5 Sep 1915  Graf Illaryon Ivanovich Vorontsov  (b. 1837 - d. 1916)
                             -Dashkov 
 
5 Sep 1915 - 22 Mar 1917  Velikiy Knyaz' Nikolay Nikolayevich(b. 1856 - d. 1929)
                             Romanov
Chairman of the Special Transcaucasian Committee of the Russian Provisional Government
22 Mar 1917 - Nov 1917     Vasiliy Akimovich Kharlamov        (b. 1875 - d. 1957)  KDP
Chairman of the Transcaucasian Commissariat
28 Nov 1917 -  9 Apr 1918  Yevgeniy Petrovich Gegechkori      (b. 1881 - d. 1954)  RSDRP-M
Chairman of the Transcaucasian Diet
23 Feb 1918 - 26 May 1918  Nikoloz Simonis dze Chkheidze      (b. 1865 - d. 1926RSDRP-M
                            
(Nikoloz Simonis dze Chkheidze)
                             (presiding officer to 26 Feb 1918)
Chairmen of the Union Council of the Socialist Soviet
Republics of Transcaucasia
(serving jointly)
12 Mar 1922 - 15 Jan 1923  Nariman Kerbalay Nadzhaf ogly      (b. 1870 - d. 1925)  AKP
                             Narimanov (Azerbaijani SSR)
                           + Polikarp (Budu) Gurgernovich     (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                               Mdivani (Georgian SSR)
                              (Polikarpe [Budu] Gurgenis dze Mdivani)
                              (to
4 Dec 1922)
                           + Aleksandr Fyodorovich Myasnikov  (s.a.)               HKK
                              (Aleksandr Teodorosi Myasnikyan)
                              (
Armenian SSR)

                           + Shalva Zurabovich Eliava         (b. 1883 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                              (Shalva Zurabis dze Eliava)
                              (Georgian SSR)
(from 4 Dec 1922)
Chairmen of the Transcaucasian Central Executive Committee
(serving jointly)
- Line 1 (Armenian SSR) -
16 Jan 1923 - 15 Apr 1925  Sarkis Saakovich Ambartsumyan      (b. 1870 - d. 1944)  HKK
                            
(Sargis Sahaki Hambaryoumyan)
15 Apr 1925
-  9 Apr 1927  Sarkis Meliksetovich Khanoyan      (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  HKK
                            
(Sargis Melikseti Xanoyan)
 9 Apr 1927 - 27 Feb 1931  Sergey (Sarkis) Ivanovich Kasyan   (b. 1876 - d. 1937)
  HKK
                            
(Sargis Hovhannesi Kasyan)
27 Feb 1931 - 18 Jan 1935  Armen
Artyomovich Ananyan          (b. 1893 - d. 1958)  HKK
                            
(Armen Artemi Ananyan)
18 Jan 1935 -  5 Dec 1936  Sergey Nikolayevich
Martikyan      (b. 1874 - d. 1957)  HKK
                             (Sergo Nikolayi Martikyan)
 - Line 2 (Azerbaijani SSR) -
16 Jan 1923 - 26 Jan 1930  Samed Aga Agamali ogly Aliyev      (b. 1867 - d. 1930)  AKP
26 Jan 1930 - 18 Jan 1931  Vacant
18 Jan 1931 - 28 Jan 1932  Gazanfar Makhmud ogly Musabekov    (b. 1888 - d. 1938)
  AKP
                            
(Musabayov)
28 Jan 1932
 -  5 Dec 1936  Sultan Medzhid Medzhid ogly        (b. 1887 - d. 1938)  AKP
                             Efendiyev
- Line 3 (Georgian SSR) -
16 Jan 1923 - 27 Feb 1931  Mikhail Grigoryevich Tskhakaya     (b. 1865 - d. 1950)  KPS-B
                             (Mikheil Grigolis dze Tskhakaya)
27 Feb 1931 -  5 Mar 1935  Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze       (b. 1868 - d. 1941)  KPS-B
                             (Pilipe Ieses dze Makharadze)
                             (1st time)
 5 Mar 1935 - 27 May 1935  Aveli Safronovich Enukidze         (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
                            
(Abel Sopronis dze Enukidze)
27 May 1935 -  5 Dec 1936  Filipp Ieseyevich Makharadze
       (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (2nd time)(acting to Feb 1936)

Chiefs of the Civil Administration in the Caucasus
 
8 Nov 1847 - 10 Mar 1858  Knyaz' Vasiliy Osipovich Bebutov   (b. 1791 - d. 1858)
1858 - 1863                Aleksey Fyodorovich Kruzenshtern   (b. 1813 - d. 1887)
                             Kruzenshtern
                            (Peter Magnus Alexis von Krusenstiern) 

1863 - 1875                Baron Alexander Pavlovich Nikolay  (b. 1821 - d. 1899)
24 Dec 1875 - Jan 1877     Pavel Nikolayevich Klushin         (b. 1814 - d. 1886)
23 Aug
1878 - 11 Mar 1884  Dmitriy Semyonovich Starosel'skiy  (b. 1832 - d. 1884)
1884 - 1905                Post abolished
Assistants for Civil Affairs in the Caucasus
26 Feb 1905 -  2 Apr 1906  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Sultan-     (b. 1836 - d. 1920)
                             Krym-Girey
Apr 1906 -  6 Sep 1909     Iustin Vasilyevich Mitskevich      (b. 1841 - d. 1918)
1909 - 1913                Emmanuil Aleksandrovich Vatatsi    (b. 1856 - d. 1920)
Dec 1913 - 22 Mar 1915     Nikolay Leonidovich Peterson       (b. 1866 - d. 1920)
16 Nov 1915 - 31 Mar 1917  Knyaz' Vladimir Nikolayevich Orlov (b. 1868 - d. 1927) 
Prime minister
22 Apr 1918 - 26 May 1918  Akaki I. Chkhenkeli                (b. 1874 - d. 1959)  RSDRP-M
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Transcaucasian S.F.S.R.
16 Jan 1923 -  9 Jun 1927  Ivan (Mamia) Dmitriyevich          (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             Orakhelashvili (1st time)
                             (Mamia Dimitris dze Orakhelashvili)
                            
(Georgian SSR)
 9 Jun 1927 - 29 Jan 1931  Shalva Zurabovich Eliava           (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (Shalva Zurabis dze Eliava)
                             (Georgian SSR)

29 Jan 1931 - 28 Jan 1932  Ivan (Mamia) Dmitriyevich          (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             Orakhelashvili (2nd time)
                             (Georgian SSR)
28 Jan 1932 -  5 Dec 1936  Gazanfar Makhmud ogly Musabekov    (s.a.)               AKP
                             (Musabayov)(Azerbaijani SSR)

Party abbreviations: AKP = Azerbaycan Kommunist Partiyasi (Azerbaijani Communist Party, 1918-16 Sep 1991); HKK = Hayastani Komunistakan Kusaktsutyun (Armenian Communist Party, 1918-Sep 1991); KPS-B = Komunisturi Partiis (Bolshevikebis) Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Gruzii (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Georgia, Marxist-Leninist communist, from 1921 Georgian SSR state party, May 1920-13 Oct 1952, renamed Communist Party of Georgia);
-
Former parties:
KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya/Konstytutsiyno-Demokratychna Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, 12 Oct 1905-12 Dec 1917);  SDLP-G = Sak'art'velos Sotsial-Demok'rat'iuli Partia (Georgian Social Democratic Party, Marxist, democratic-socialist, split from RSDRP-M, 1918-1926); RSDRP-M = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Men'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Mensheviks], split from RSDRP-B, democratic socialist, Orthodox Marxist, 1 Jan 1912-1922)


Kutaisi governorate

Military Governors
17 Apr 1847 - 1851         Konstantin Yakovlevich
Belyavskiy  (b. 1802 - d. 1857)
1851 - 1853                Aleksander Ivanovich Gagarin       (b. 1801 - d. 1857)
1853 - 1856                Knyaz' Ivan Konstantinovich        (b. 1812 - d. 1895)
                            
Bagration-Mukhranskiy
1856 - 1860               
Knyaz' Georgiy Romanovich Eristov  (b. 1812 - d. 1891)
                             (governor-general)
1860 - 1863                Nikolay Petrovich Kolyubakin       (b. 1811 - d. 1868)
1863 - 1866               
Knyaz' Dmitriy Ivanovich Svyatopolk(b. 1825 - d. 1899)
                             -Mirskiy
(governor general) 
1867 - 28 Sep 1874         Graf Vladimir Vasilyevich
Levashov (b. 1834 - d. 1898)  
Governors
1858 - 1861                Nikolay Agafonovich Ivanov 
1861 - 1866                Aleksander Stepanovich Ogolin      (b. 1821 - d. 1811)
1874 - 1878                Georgiy Konstantinovich Vlastov    (b. 1827 - d. 1899)
1878 - 1883                Nikolay Yasonovich Malafeyev
Military Governors
 1 Jul 1883 -  2 Nov 1887  Aleksey Mikhaylovich Smekalov      (b. 1838 - d. 1890)
 3 Nov 1887 -  1 Dec 1890  Aleksandr Ignatyevich Grosman    
22 Dec 1890 - 30 May 1898  Mikhail Yakovlevich Shalikov       (b. 1831 - d. 1909)
19 Jul 1898 - 21 Apr 1901  Fyodor Konstantinovich Gershelman  (b. 1853 - d. bf.1927)
20 Oct 1901 -  1 May 1905  Aleksey Alekseyevich Smagin        (b. 1857 - d. 1928)  
1905 - 1906                Vladimir
Aleksandrovich            (b. 1860 - d. 1916)
                             Starosel'skiy (acting)
1906 - 1907                Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Yazikov   (b. 1874 - d. 1937)
                             (acting)
28 Nov 1907 - 1914         Adam Ivanovich Slavachinskiy    
1914 - 1916                Lev Vladimirovich Potulov          (b. 1877 - d. af.1931)
1916 - 1917                Graf Aleksandr Vasilyevich         (b. 1869 - d. 1919)
                             Gudovich


Tiflis governorate

Governors
 6 Aug 1847 - 1849         Sergey Nikolayevich Yermolov         (b. 1798 - d. 1856)
Military governors
 6 Oct 1849 - 1855         Ivan Malkhazovich Andronnikov        (b. 1798 - d. 1868)
                             (Andronikashvili)
19 Dec 1855 - 1857         Nikolay Yevgenyevich Lukash          (b. 1796 - d. 1868)
 1 Jan 1858 - 1860         Aleksandr Khristianovich Kapger      (b. c.1809 - d. 1876)
Governors
25 Mar 1860 - 1876         Konstantin Ivanovich Orlovskiy       (b. 1810 - d. 1876)
24 May 1876 - 1878         Baron Maksimilian
Aleksandrovich fon (b. 1833 - d. 1884)
                            der Osten-Sacken
 8 Jan 1878 - 1883      
   Knyaz' Konstantin Dmitriyevich       (b. 1843 - d. 1916)
                             Gagarin 
11 Sep 1883 - 1887         Aleksandr Ignatyevich Grosman        (b. 1836 - d. 1890)
12 Mar 1887 - 1888         Karl Lvovich Zissermann (Sissermann) (d. 1888)
1889 - 1897                Knyaz' Georgiy Dmitriyevich          (b. 1847 - d. 1918)
                            
Shervashidze (Giorgi Shervashidze)
12 Jul 1897 - 15 Feb 1899  Fyodor Aleksandrovich Bykov          (b. 18.. - d. 1915)
31 Mar 1899 -  4 Aug 1905  Ivan Nikolayevich Svechin            (b. 1863 - d. 1930)
 4 Aug 1905 - 22 Sep 1907  Pavel
Aleksandrovich Rausch fon      (b. 1858 - d. 1923)
                             Traubenberg
1907 -  5 Oct 1911         Mikhail Aleksandrovich Lyubich-      (b. 1865 - d. 19..)
                             Yarmolovich-Lozina-Lozinskiy
 5 Oct 1911 - 23 Jun 1914  Andrey Gavrilovich Chernyavskiy      (b. 1867 - d. 1937)
1914 - 1916                Ivan Mikhaylovich Strakhovskiy       (b. 1866 - d. 1918)
1916 - 1917                Aleksandr Nikolayevich Mandrika
                             (acting)



Autonomous Regions

Abkhazia 
 
[Flag of Abkhazia c.1770-1866
                          (Georgia)]
c.1770 - 1866
 
[Flag of
                          Abkhazian SSR 1925-1935 (Georgia)]
1 Apr 1925 - 7 Jan 1935
 
[Flag of
                          Abkhazian ASSR 1935-1937 (Georgia)]
7 Jan 1935 - 2 Aug 1937
   
[Flag of
                          Abkhazian ASSR 1937-1938 (Georgia)]
2 Aug 1937 - 1938
 
[Flag of
                          Abkhazian ASSR 1938-1951 (Georgia)]
1938 - 26 Apr 1951
 
[Flag of Georgian
                          SSR 1951-1978]
26 Apr 1951 -  3 Nov 1978
 
[Flag of Abkhazian ASSR 1978-1981
                          (Georgia)]
3 Nov 1978 - 21 Jul 1981
 
[Flag of
                          Abkhazian ASSR 1981-1991 (Georgia)]
21 Jul 1981 - 25 Dec 1991
 
[unofficial Flag
                          of Abkhazian SSR 1990-1992 (Georgia)]
1990 - 25 Dec 1991 Unofficial?
 
[Flag of
                          Abkhazia (Georgia)]
Adopted 23 Jul 1992


Map of Abkhazia
Hear National Anthem
"Aiaaira" (Victory)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1992
(formally adopted 24 Oct 2007)
Constitution
 (26 Nov 1994)
Capital: Sukhum
(Sukhum to 16 Aug 1936;
Sukhumi 16 Aug 1936 -
4 Dec 1992)
Gudauta Aug 1992-27 Sep 1993)

Currency: Russian Ruble
(RUR) and Abkhazian Apsar
(from 2008)

National Holidays: 30 Sep (1993)
Den' nezavisimosti Abkhazii
(Independence Day of Abkhazia)
------------------------------------
26 Nov (1994)
Den' Konstitutsii
(Constitution Day)

Population: 243,206 (2015)
526,800 (1989)
GDP: $0.5 billion (2010)
Exports: $22 million (2006)
Imports: $117 million (2006)
Ethnic groups: Abkhazian 51.1%, Georgian (including
Megrelians) 19.2%, Armenian 17.2%, Russian 9.16%,
Greeks 0.55%, Ukrainian 0.72%, others 2.1% (2016)

1989: Georgian 45.68%, Abkhazian 17.76%, Armenian 14.58%,
Russian 14.27%, Greeks 2.79%, others 4.92% (1989)
Total Active Armed Forces: 2,100 (2009)
Russian Forces: 3,500 (2009)
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Christian (mainly Orthodox) 60%, Muslim
(mainly Sunni) 16%, animist 5%, Abkhazian
traditional religion 3%,
 atheist and non-religious 8%, undeclared 6%, other 2% (2003)
International Organizations/Treaties: CDRN, UNPO

c.767                      Kingdom of Abkhazia (Abasgia or Egrisi).
1008                       Incorporated into Kingdom of Georgia.
1463                       Principality of Abkhazia, secession from Georgia.
1578                       Sukhumi (Sohumkale) part of the Ottoman Empire.
17 Feb 1810                Russia occupies Sukhum (Sukhumi), Abkhazia a Russian protectorate.
21 Sep 1855 - 10 Jul 1856  Sukhum (Sukhumi) occupied by Ottoman Empire.
24 Jun 1864                Incorporated into Russian Empire (Sukhum military sector to 1883,
                             then Sukhum
district).
18 May 1877 -  2 Sep 1877  Sukhum (Sukhumi) occupied by Ottoman Empire.
20 Oct 1917 - 1918         Part of the North Caucasian Mountain Republic.
 
8 Nov 1917                Abkhazian People's Council adopts a constitution.
 
8 Apr 1918 - 17 May 1918  Soviet Bolshevik power established in Sukhumi, and then throughout the
                             territory of Abkhazia (with the exception of the Kodori Gorge).
23 Jun 1918                Incorporated into Democratic Republic of Georgia
.
21 Feb 1921                Democratic Republic of Georgia approves autonomy for Abkhazia.
 4 Mar 1921                Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia;
Soviet army occupies Sukhumi.
16 Dec 1921                Union treaty between the Abkhazian S.S.R. and the Georgian S.S.R.
                             signed.
19 Feb 1931                Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia, within Georgian
                             S.S.R.

 5 Dec 1936                Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, within Georgian S.S.R.
25 Aug 1990                Abkhazian Soviet Socialist Republic, state sovereignty (rescinded on
                             31 Aug 1990) declared as
part of Russian S.F.S.R. (not recognized).
23 Jul 1992               Republic of Abkhazia; Abkhazia declares independence (recognized only
                             by Russia [26 Aug 2008], Nicaragua [4 Sep 2008], Venezuela
                             [10 Sep 2009], Nauru [15 Dec 2009], Vanuatu [23 May 2011;
                             subsequently contradicted 20 May 2013], Tuvalu [18 Sep 2011,
                             revoked 31 Mar 2014] and Syria [29 May 2018]).

14 Aug 1992 - 26 Sep 1993  Georgian occupation of Sukhumi.
24 Nov 1992                Georgian government organizes Abkhazian Autonomous Republic
                             government in T'bilisi.
10 Oct 2002                Georgia designates Abkhazia an autonomous republic.
10 Aug 2008 -              Pro-Abkhaz intervention by Russian military forces.

Note: Imeret`i rather than the Abkhazian principality, is the geographic (but not ethnic) predecessor of present-day Abkhazia.


Executive Secretary of the Organizational Bureau of the Russian Communist Party
(Bolsheviks)
in Abkhazia
29 Mar 1921 - 1921         Georgiy Ivanovich Krishtof (Petrov)(b. 1900 - d. 1934)
Executive Secretaries of the Organizational Bureau of the Russian Communist Party
(Bolsheviks) in Abkhazia

1921                       Pyotr Semyonovich Agniashvili
     (b. 1898 - d. 1937)
1921 - Aug 1921            Larionov (acting)
Sep 1921 - Jan 1922        Nikolay Samsonovich Svanidze       (b. 1895 - d. 1937)
                             (acting)

Executive Secretaries of the Abkhaz Regional Committee of the Communist
Party (Bolsheviks) of Georgia

Jan 1922 - 1922            Serapion Aleksandrovich Gubeli-
   (b. 1892 - d. 1926)
                             Medzmariashvili
1922 - 1923                Nikolay Nikolayevich Akirtava      (b. 1894 - d. 1937)
1923 - Apr 1924            Gerasim Melkoyevich Markarov       (d. 1937)
Apr 1924 - Jan 1925        Yervand Mikhaylovich Asribekov     (b. 1898 - d. 1937)
Jan 1925 - Feb 1928        Georgiy Fyodorovich Sturua         (b. 1884 - d. 1956)
Feb 1928 - May 1929        Aleksand Semyonovich Amas          (b. 1904 - d. 1938)
                             (Amirbekov)
May 1929 - 1930            Pavel Grigoryevich Meladze         (b. 1898 - d. 1937)
1930 - May 1932            Vladimir Konstantinovich Ladariya  (b. 1900 - d. 1937)

First Secretaries of the Abkhaz Regional Committee of the Communist Party
(Bolsheviks) of Georgia (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Georgia)
May 1932 - 17 Jan 1936     Vladimir Konstantinovich Ladariya  (s.a.)
17 Jan 1936 - 18 Feb 1937  Aleksey Sergeyevich Agrba          (b. 1897 - d. 1938)

1937                       Mikhail Alekseyevich Gobechiya     (b. 1902 - d. 1937)
1937 - 1940                Kirill Georgiyevich Bechvaya       (b. 1903 - d. 19..)
                             (acting to Jun 1938)

1940 - 20 Feb 1943         Mikhail Ivanovich Baramiya         (b. 1905 - d. 19..)
20 Feb 1943 -  2 Jan 1951  Akakiy Ivanovich Mgeladze          (b. 1910 - d. 1980)
 
2 Jan 1951 - 21 Apr 1953  Shota Dmitriyevich Getiya          (b. 1904 - d. 19..)
21 Apr 1953 -  2 Oct 1953  Grigoriy Zosimovich Karchava       (b. 1907 - d. 19..)
 
2 Oct 1953 - Dec 1955     Georgiy Andreyevich Gegeshidze     (b. 1924 - d. 1971)
Dec 1955 - Jan 1958        Otar Davidovich Gotsiridze         (b. 1919 - d. 2010)
Jan 1958 - Sep 1965        Mikhail Timurovich Bgazhba         (b. 1915 - d. 1993)
Sep 1965 - 1975            Valerian Osmanovich Kobakhiya      (b. 1929 - d. 1992)
1975 - 19 Apr 1978         Valeriy Mikhaylovich Khintba       (b. 1940)
19 Apr 1978 -  6 Apr 1989  Boris Viktorovich Adleyba          (b. 1931 - d. 1990)
 6
Apr 1989 - 1991         Vladimir Filippovich Khishba       (b. 1936)

Lords
c.510 - c.530              Anos
c.530 - c.550              Ghozar
c.550 - c.580              Istvine
c.580 - c.610              Phiniktios
c.610 - c.640              Barnuk
c.640 - c.660              Dimitri I
c.660 - c.680              Theodosi I
c.680 - c.710              Konstante I
c.710 - c.730              Theodor
c.730 - c.756              Konstante II
c.745 - c.767              Levanti I
Kings

c.767 - c.811              Levanti II
c.811 - c.837              Theodosi II
c.837 - c.872              Dimitri II
c.872 - c.878              Giorgi I Aghts'epi
c.878 - c.880              Ivane Shavliani
c.800 - c.887              Adarnase Shavliani
c.887 - c.898              Bagrat I
c.898 - c.916              Konstantine III
c.916 - 960                Giorgi II
960 - 969                  Levanti III
969 - 976                  Dimitri III                        (d. 976)
976 - 979                  Theodosi III "Brms"
979 - 1008                 Bagrat II                          (b. c.906 – d. 1014)
Princes

1440 - 1459                Davit II Hutuni
1459 - 1491                Rabia
1491 - 1520                Salomoni I
1520 - 1578                Ars Khan
1625 - 1637                T `eimuraz Khan
1637 - 1650                Khara Begi
1650 - 1665                Kuapu
1665 - 1700                Salomoni II 
1700 - 1730                Jagetshi (Dzhigeshti)
1730 - 1750                Hamid Begi
1750 - 1757                Manuch`ar I                        (d. af.1757)
1757 - 1770                Manuch`ar II
1770 - 1779                Zurab
1779 - 1789                Levanti V (Muhammed Pasha) 
1789 - 14 May 1806         Kelesh-Ahmad Begi                  (b. 1747 - d. 1806)
14 May 1806 - 10 Jun 1810  Arslan Begi (1st time)
                           - jointly with following -
10 Jun 1810 - 13 Nov 1821  Safar Ali Begi (from 1810, Giorgi) (b. 17.. - d. 1821)
                             (in rebellion from 17 Feb 1810)
13 Nov 1821 - 16 Oct 1822  Dimitri IV (Umar Begi)             (d. 1822)
13 Nov 1821 - 1821         Tamar (f) -Regent
1821 - 1822                Arslan Begi (2nd time)             (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion)
16 Oct 1822 - 15 Feb 1864  Mikheil II (Hamud Begi)            (d. 1866)
15 Feb 1864 - 24 Jun 1864  Grigol III
29 Jul 1866 - Aug 1866     Giorgi Mikhaylovich Shervashidze   (b. 1846 - d. 1918)
                             (in rebellion)
Chairmen of Committee of Public Safety
10 Mar 1917 - Nov 1917     Aleksandr Georgiyevich Shervashidze
                             (Chachba)

Chairmen of the
Abkhazian People's Council
 8 Nov 1917 - Apr 1918     Simon Petrovich Basaria            (b. 1884 - d. 1942)
Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee of Sukhumi district

16 Feb 1918 - Jun 1918     Yefrem Aleksyevich Eshba           (b. 1893 - d. 1939)  RSDRP-B
Governor-general of Abkhazia
23 Jun 1918 – 1918         Giorgi Mazniashvili (
Mazniev)      (b. 1873 - d. 1937)  Mil
District Commissar of Sukhumi
1918 –  9 Oct 1918         N. Margania                                             Mil

Special Commissar of Sukhumi district
10 Oct 1918 – Mar 1919     Veniamin "Benia" Chkhikvishvili    (b. 1881 - d. 1924)  RSDRP-M
                             (Tchkhikvichvili)
Chairman of the Abkhazian People's Council

May 1919 - Jan 1921
       Varlam Aleksandrovich Shervashidze (b. 1889 - d. 1957)
                             (Chachba)  
Chairman of the Abkhaz Revolutionary Committee
17 Feb 1921 -
Feb 1922     Yefrem Aleksyevich Eshba           (s.a.)               RKP
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
Feb 1922 - 1922            Yefrem Aleksyevich Eshba           (s.a.)               KPS-B
1922 - 1923                Samson Alekseyevich Kartoziya      (b. 1893 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
1925 - 17 Apr 1930         Samson Yakovlevich Chamba          (b. 1886 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
17 Apr 1930 - 28 Dec 1936  Nestor Apollonovich Lakoba         (b. 1893 - d. 1936)  KPS-B
28 Dec 1936 - Sep 1937     Aleksey Sergeyevich Agrba          (s.a.)               KPS-B
                            
(acting to 17 Feb 1937)
 2 Nov 1937 - 12 Jul 1938  Avksentiy Narikiyevich Rapava      (b. 1899 - d. 1955)  KPS-B
                             (acting)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

13 Jul 1938 -  7 Apr 1948  Mikhail Konstantinovich Delba      (b. 1905 - d. 1992)  KPS-B
 7 Apr 1948 - Jan 1958     Andrey Maksimovich Chochua         (b. 1879 - d. 1965) KPS-B;1952 KPS
Jan 1958 - Oct 1978        Bagrat Vasilyevich Shinkuba        (b. 1917 - d. 2004)  KPS   
Oct 1978 - 24 Dec 1990     Valerian Osmanovich Kobakhiya      (s.a.)               KPS
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
24 Dec 1990 -
26 Nov 1994  Vladislav Grigoryevich Ardzinba    (b. 1945 - d. 2010)
                             (at Gudauta Aug 1992 - 27 Sep 1993)
Presidents
26 Nov 1994 - 12 Feb 2005  Vladislav Grigoryevich Ardzinba    (s.a.)               Non-party
12 Feb 2005 - 29 May 2011  Sergey Vasilyevich Bagapsh         (b. 1949 - d. 2011)  YA
29 May 2011 -  1 Jun 2014  Aleksandr Zolotinskovich Ankvab    (b. 1952)            Ait
                             (acting to 26 Sep 2011)
31 May 2014 - 25 Sep 2014  Valeriy Ramshukhovich Bganba       (b. 1953)
                             (acting [for Ankvab to 1 Jun 2014])
25 Sep 2014 -              Raul Dzhumkovich Khadjimba         (b. 1958)            FUNA


Chairmen of the People's Council

1918 -  9 Oct 1918         Aleksandr Georgiyevich Shervashidze
                             (Chachba)

Sep 1918 - 10 Oct 1918     Varlam Aleksandrovich Shervashidze (s.a.)
                             (Chachba)  
18 Mar 1919 - 19..         Dmitriy Emuhvari
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

Feb 1922 - 17 Apr 1930     Nestor Apollonovich Lakoba         (s.a.)               KPS-B
17 Apr 1930 - 14 Jul 1938  authority transferred to Presidium
                           of the Central Executive Committee
14 Jul 1938 - 23 Nov 1938  
Avksentiy Narikiyevich Rapava      (s.a.)               KPS-B
23 Nov 1938 - 1943         Konstantin Georgiyevich            (b. 1902 - d. 19..)  KPS-B
                             Chichinadze
May 1943 - 27 Mar 1946     Aleksandr Iordanovich Mirtskhulava (b. 1911 - d. 2009) 
KPS-B
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
27 Mar 1946 -  7 Apr 1948  Aleksandr Iordanovich Mirtskhulava (s.a.)               KPS-B
 7 Apr 1948 - Oct 1953     Mikhail Konstantinovich Delba      (s.a.)             KPS-B;1952 KPS
Oct 1953 - 1957            Arkhip Mironovich Labakhua         (b. 1910 - d. 19..)  KPS
1957 - Jan 1958            Mikhail Timurovich Bgazhba         (s.a.)               KPS
Jan 1958 - 25 May 1967     Mikhail Gerasimovich Chikovani     (b. 1911 - d. 19..)  KPS
May 1967 - 1972            Pavel Georgiyevich Gilashvili      (b. 1918 - d. 1994)  KPS
1972 - Feb 1973            Boris Gerasimovich Gigiberiya      (b. 1917 - d. 1974)  KPS
Feb 1973 - Oct 1975        Shota Mikhaylovich Tatarashvili    (b. 1922)            KPS
Oct 1975 - 21 Sep 1978     A
vtandil Petrovich Sakvarelidze                         KPS
21 Sep 1978 -  7 Apr 1987  Yuza Dzhakhoyevich Ubilava         (b. 1941)            KPS
 
7 Apr 1987 - 22 Jul 1989  Otar Georgiyevich Zukhbaya         (b. 1940)            KPS
22 Jul 1989 - May 1990     Givi Alekseyevich Anchabadze       (b. 1933)            KPS
May 1990 -  5 May 1992     Vladimir Tachevich Mikanba         (b. 1931)            KPS to 1990
Prime ministers

 5 May 1992 - 18 Aug 1992  Vazha Illarionovich Zarandia       (b. 1932)
Oct 1992 - 18 Jul 1993     Tamaz Vladimirovich Nadareishvili  (b. 1954 - d. 2004)
18 Jul 1993 - 27 Sep 1993  Zhiuli Kalistratovich Shartava     (b. 1944 - d. 1993)  Non-party
 1 Nov 1993 - 12 Dec 1993  Leonid Ivanovich Lakerbaya         (b. 1947)      
                             (1st time) (acting)
Dec 1993 - 26 Nov 1994     Sokrat Rachevich Djindjolia       
(b. 1937)            Non-party
                             (Dzhindzholia)   
Jan 1995 - 29 Apr 1997     Gennadiy Leonidovich Gagulia       (b. 1948
- d. 2018)  Non-party
                             (1st time)
29 Apr 1997 - 20 Dec 1999  Sergey Vasilyevich Bagapsh         (s.a.)               Non-party
20 Dec 1999 - 30 May 2001  Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Tsugba     (b. 1944)            Non-party
 7 Jun 2001 - 29 Nov 2002  Anri Mikhaylovich Djergenia        (b. 1941)            Non-party
                             (Dzhergenya)
29 Nov 2002 - 22 Apr 2003  Gennadiy Leonidovich Gagulia       (s.a.
)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
22 Apr 2003 -  6 Oct 2004  Raul Dzhumkovich Khadjimba         (s.a.)               Non-party  
30 Aug 2004 -  6 Oct 2004  Astamur Borisovich Tarba           (b. 1961)            Non-party
                             (acting for Khadjimba)
 6 Oct 2004 - 14 Feb 2005  Nodar Vladimirovich Khashba        (b. 1951)            YA
14 Feb 2005 - 13 Feb 2010  Aleksandr Zolotinskovich Ankvab    (s.a.)               Ait
13 Feb 2010 - 27 Sep 2011  Sergey Mironipa Shamba             (b. 1951)            SDP
27 Sep 2011 -  2 Jun 2014  Leonid Ivanovich Lakerbaya         (s.a.)               Ait
                             (2nd time)
 2 Jun 2014 - 29 Sep 2014  Vladimir Valeryevich Delba (acting)(b. 1974)            Non-party
29 Sep 2014 - 16 Mar 2015  Beslan
Tikovich Butba              (b. 1960)            PERA
16 Mar 2015 - 20 Mar 2015  Shamil Omarovich Adzynba (1st time)(b. 1970)            Non-party
                             (acting)
20 Mar 2015 - 26 Jul 2016  Artur Artyomovich Mikvabia         (b. 1949)            YA
26 Jul 2016 -  5 Aug 2016  Shamil Omarovich Adzynba (2nd time)(s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting)
 5 Aug 2016 -
24 Apr 2018  Beslan Konstantinovich Bartsits    (b. 1978)            Non-party
24 Apr 2018 -  8 Sep 2018  Gennadiy Leonidovich Gagulia       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (3rd time)
 8 Sep 2018 -
18 Sep 2018  Daur Dzhumkovich Arshba (acting)   (b. 1962)            FUNA
18 Sep 2018 -              Valeriy Ramshukhovich Bganba       (s.a.)

Pro-Georgian  Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia (in Tbilisi;
27 Sep 2006 - 12 Aug 2008 in Chkhalta, Abkhazia
)

[Possible Former
                      Pro-Georgia Abkhazian Autonomous Republic Flag to
                      2001?]
Possible flag to 2001?

[Pro-Georgian Abkhazian
                      Autonomous Republic proposed flag 2001?-2013]
  Proposal 2001? - 2013

[Pro-Georgian Abkhazian
                      Autonomous Republic proposed flag]
Proposal From 2013

Chairmen of the Supreme Council
24 Nov 1992 - 16 Mar 2004  Tamaz Vladimirovich Nadareishvili  (b. 1954 - d. 2004)  ALP
16 Mar 2004 - 20 Mar 2009  Temur Mzhavia                      (b. 1952)
20 Mar 2009 -  8 Apr 2019  Elguja "Gia" Gvazava               (b. 1952)            AGM 
 8 Apr 2019 -              Jemal Gamakharia                   (b. 1949)    
 

Prime ministers (chairmen of the government)
24 Nov 1992 - 18 Jul 1993  Tamaz Vladimirovich Nadareishvili  (s.a.)               ALP
18 Jul 1993 - 27 Sep 1993  Zhiuli Kalistratovich Shartava     (b. 1944 - d. 1993) 
Nov 1993 - Jul 1998        Zurak Erkvania                     (b. 1951)
Jul 1998 - 30 Sep 2004     Londer Tsaava
30 Sep 2004 - 21 Mar 2006  Irakli Alasania                    (b. 1973)
21 Mar 2006 - 15 Jun 2009  Malkhaz Akishbaya                  (b. 1972)
15 Jun 2009 -  8 Apr 2013  Giorgi Baramia                     (b. 1966)
 8 Apr 2013 -  1 May 2019  Vakhtang Kolbaya (acting)          (b. 1952)            DM-ES
 1 May 2019 -              Ruslan Abashidze (acting)          (b. 1971)
       

[United Nations
                    Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) 1993-2009]

Special Representatives of the Secretary-General and Heads of
the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)      
 
May 1993 –  1 Jul 1997     Eduard Brunner (Switzerland)       (b. 1932 - d. 2007)
 1 Jul 1997 - 18 Oct 1999  Liviu Aurelian Bota (Romania)      (b. 1936)
18 Oct 1999 – 23 May 2002  Dieter Boden (Germany)             (b. 1940)
23 May 2002 – 16 Jul 2006  Heidi Tagliavini (f) (Switzerland) (b. 1950)
Jul 2006 – Sep 2008        Jean Arnault (France)              (b. 1951)
30 Sep 2008 — 15 Jun 2009  Johan C. Verbeke (Belgium)         (b. 1951)


Party abbreviations:
AGM = Abkhazian Greens' Movement; ALP = Abkhazia Liberation Party (pro-autonomy with in Georgia, successor to "My Home Abkhazia", est.Oct 1999); CPA = Apsny Akomunistta Apart (Communist Party of Abkhazia, Marxist-Leninist communist, est.4 Mar 1995); DM-ES = Demokratiuli Modzraoba — Ert'iani Sak'art'velo (Democratic Movement – United Georgia, conservative, M. Saakashvili opposition, est.2008); FUNA = Forum dlya Narodnogo Yedinstva Abkhazii (Forum for the National Unity of Abkhazia, nationalist, merger of 12 opposition parties, est.8 Feb 2005); PERA = Partiya Ekonomicheskogo Razvitiya Abkhazii (Party for the Economic Development of Abkhazia, centrist, est.26 Sep 2007); SDP = Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Partiya Abkhazia (Social-Democratic Party of Abkhazia, social-democratic, anti-Ardzinba, est.15 Oct 2004); YA = Yedinaya Abkhazia/Apsny Akzaara (United Abkhazia, anti-Ardzinba opposition to 2011, est.2004);
- Former parties:
Ait = Aitaira (Revival, anti-Ardzinba); KPS-B = Komunisturi Partiis (Bolshevikebis) Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Gruzii (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Georgia, communist, from 1922 state party, May 1920-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPS); KPS = Komunisturi Partiis Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Gruzii (Communist Party of Georgia, Marxist-Leninist communist, state party former KPS-B, 13 Oct 1952 - 12 Aug 1990, splits from CPSU and is renamed Independent Communist Party of Georgia on 12 Aug 1990, banned 26 Aug 1991); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks]); RSDRP-M = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Men'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Mensheviks], split from RSDRP-B, democratic socialist, Orthodox Marxist, 1 Jan 1912-1922)



Adjaria (Adjara) 
[Flag of the United
                            Kingdom]
16 Dec 1919 - 20 Jul 1920 Batum U.K. Force
   
[Flag of Russia]
21  Dec 1918 - 28 Apr 1919 Batum Region Council
 
[Flag of Georgian SSR
                            1921-1937]
16 Jun 1921 - 13 Feb 1937
[Flag of
                            Adzhar ASSR 1937 - 1951 (Georgia)]
25 Oct 1937 - 22 May 1951
 
[Flag of Adzhar ASSR 1937-1951
                            Reported Variant (Georgia)]
25 Oct 1937 - 22 May 1951 Variant
 
[Flag of
                            Georgian SSR 1951-1981]
22 May 1951 - 9 Jun 1981
 
[Flag of
                            Adzhar ASSR 1981-1991 (Georgia)]
9 Jun 1981 - 25 Dec 1991
   
[Flag of
                            Repblic of Georgia 1990-2004]
25 Dec 1991 - 26 Jun 2000
   
[Flag of
                            Ajaria, 2000-2004 (Georgia)]
26 Jun 2000 - 20 Jul 2004

[Flag of Ajaria (Georgia)]
Adopted 20 Jul 2004
  


Map of Adjaria
Hear Local Anthem
Text of Local Anthem
Adopted 26 Jun 2000
Constitution
(29 Jul 2004)
Capital: Batumi
(Batum to 1936)
Currency: Georgian Lari
(GEL) 
Religions: Georgian
Orthodox 70%, Sunni
Muslim 30%, Armenian
 Christian 0.3% others 3%
  (2014)
Population: 336,077 (2014)
1535                       Batumi part of Guria principality.
1547 - 1564                Ottoman occupation of Batumi.
1582 - 1609                Ottoman occupation of Batumi.
1614                       Annexed by Ottoman Empire (named Acara).
 
3 Mar 1878                Batum oblast (including Artvin) area ceded to Russia by Ottoman
                             Empire in the Treaty of San Stefano (confirmed 13 Jul 1878 
                             by the Treaty of Berlin, ratified 3 Aug 1878).

1883                       Incorporated in Kutaisi province.
14 Jul 1903                Batum oblast re-established.
28 Nov 1917 – 15 Apr 1918  Under the Transcaucasian Commissariat.
 3 Mar 1918                Russia cedes the Batum region to the Ottoman Empire
by the
                             Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (ratified 29 Mar 1918, annulled
                             by the armistice of Moudros 30 Nov 1918).

15 Apr 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Ottoman occupation of Batum (departed 30 Dec 1918).
 4 Jun 1918                Cession to the Ottoman Empire is recognized by Georgia in the
                             Treaty of Batum.

16 Dec 1918 - 20 Jul 1920  Allied (British) occupation of Batum, claims by Georgia are not
                             recognized.

 8 Apr 1920                Council of the Entente proclaims Batum a free port with it
                             and coastal area a protectorate of the League of Nations
                             (guaranteed by U.K., France, and Italy).

20 Jul 1920                British administration turns Batum region over to Georgia.
11
Mar 1921 - 17 Mar 1921  Turkish occupation of Batum (on 16 Mar 1921 Turkey admits that Batum
                             region is part of Georgia in the Treaty of Moscow, but it retains
                             Artvin and Ardahan
).
17 Mar 1921               
Georgian forces at Batum force Turkey out of the city as they
                             allow Soviet forces in and as the (non-Communist) Georgian
                             government flees into exile.
18 Mar 1921                Soviet forces occupy Batum.
16 Jul 1921                Socialist Soviet Republic Adzharistan

13 Oct 1921                Soviet-Turkish Treaty of Kars recognizes Batumi as part of the
                             Georgian S.S.R., but Turkey retains Ani, Ardahan, Artvin, Iğdır,
                             and Kars (ratified 11 Sep 1922).
15 Dec 1936                Adzhar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
, within Georgian S.S.R.
Dec 1990                   Adzhar (Ajar) Autonomous Republic
(confirmed by Georgia 20 Apr 2000).

Executive Secretaries of the Adzhar Regional Committee of the Communist
Party (Bolsheviks) of Georgia
1921                       Aleksandr Grigoryevich Gambarov    (b. 1890 - d. 1937)
                             (Gambaryan)   
1921 - 1922                Kirill Berdzenishvili
1922 - Jun 1922            Simon Aliyevich Takoyev            (b. 1876 - d. 1938)

Jun 1922 - 1924            Nikolay Samsonovich Svanidze       (b. 1895 - d. 1937)
1924 - 1925                Levan Davidovich Gogoberidze       (b. 1896 - d. 1937)
Apr 1926 - Dec 1926
       Nikolay Nikolayevich Akirtava      (b. 1894 - d. 1937)
Dec 1926 - 1929            Nikolay Yevseyevich Pantskhava     (b. 1898 - d. 1937)

1929 - 1930                Samson Andreyevich Mamulia         (b. 1892 - d. 1937)
1931 - 13 Jan 1932         Mikhail Alekseyevich Gobechiya     (b. 1902 - d. 1937)
13 Jan 1932 - May 1932     Artemiy Grigoryevich Geurkov       (b. 1901 - d. 1937)
First Secretaries of the Adzhar Regional Committee
of the Communist
Party (Bolsheviks) of Georgia
(from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Georgia)

May 1932 - 13 Apr 1937    
Artemiy Grigoryevich Geurkov       (s.a.)
13 Apr 1937 - 23 Feb 1938  Iosif Dmitriyevich Kochlamazashvili(b. 1906 - d. 19..)
                            
(acting to ... 1937)
23 Feb 1938 - 29 Nov 1938  Aleksey Nikolayevich Sadzhaya      (b. 1898 - d. 1942)
1938                       Aron Iosifis Tapalshvili
1938 - 1940                Mikhail Ivanovich Baramiya         (b. 1905 - d. 19..)
1940 - 1944                Georgiy Grigoryevich Tvalchrelidze (b. 1896 - d. 1968)
1944 - 1951                Kirill Georgiyevich Bechvaya       (b. 1903 - d. 19..)
1951 - 12 Jul 1952         David Georgiyevich Khantadze       (b. 1905 - d. 19..)
12 Jul 1952 - May 1953     Grigoriy Nayevich Tsintsabadze
May 1953 - Jan 1954        Makariy Ivanovich Dzhashi          (b. 1902 - d. 19..)
Jan 1954 - Mar 1961        David Mikhaylovich Mamuladze       (b. 1910 - d. 19..) 
Mar 1961 -  7 Jan 1975     Aleksandr Dursunovich              (b. 1914 - d. 19..)
                             Tkhilayshvili
 
7 Jan 1975 - 31 Aug 1986  Vakhtang Rafaelovich Papunidze     (b. 1925)
31 Aug 1986 -  8 Mar 1990  Guram Khuseynovich Emiridze        (b. 1937)
 
8 Mar 1990 - Mar 1991     Tengiz Suleymanovich Khakhva       (b. 1952)
Mar 1991 - 26 Aug 1991     Ilya Vladimirovich Tsulukidze      (b. 1950)

Governors of Batum Oblast
1878 - 1881                Konstantin Vissarionovich Komarov  (b. 1832 - d. 1912)
16 Apr 1881 - 1883         Aleksey
Mikhaylovich Smekalov      (b. 1838 - d. 1890)
14 Jul 1903 - 14 May 1905  Mikhail Nikolayevich Dryagin       (b. 1852 - d. af.1917)
15 Jul 1905 - 14 Jan 1908  Pyotr-Emmanuil Fridrikh Parkau     (b. 1851 - d. af.1912)
 6 Apr 1909 - 1917         Boris Stepanovich Romanovskiy-     (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
                             Roman'ko
Ottoman Commander of the 1st Caucasus Corps
15 Apr 1918 – Dec 1918     Musa Kazim Karabekir Pasha         (b. 1882 - d. 1948)  Mil
Allied (British) Military Governor at Batum (Batoum) in Transcaucasia
(from 4 Mar 1920, Commander of the Inter-Allied Force at Batum)

16 Dec 1918 - 20 Jul 1920  William James Norman Cooke-Collis  (b. 1876 - d. 1941)  Mil
Turkish Commander of the 15th Corps
11 Mar 1921 – 17 Mar 1921  Musa Kazim Karabekir Pasha         (s.a.)
Chairman
of the Revolutionary Committee of Batumi and the Batumi oblast
17 Mar 1921 - 20 Mar 1921  Sergey Ivanovich Kavtaradze        (b. 1885 - d. 1971)  RKP
Chairmen of the Batumi oblast Revolutionary Committee
(from 8 Sep 1921, Adzharistan Revolutionary Committee)
20 Mar 1921 - 23 Jul 1921  Sergey Ivanovich Kavtaradze        (s.a.)               RKP
23 Jul 1921 - 10 Jan 1922  Aleksandr Grigoryevich Gambarov    (s.a.)               RKP
                             (Gambaryan)
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
10 Jan 1922 - Dec 1922     .... (acting)
Dec 1922 - Oct 1925        Osman Khulusovich Motskobili       (b. 1898 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
1927 - 1930                Muyedin Ferkhatovich Surmanidze    (b. 1875 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
1930 - 1937                Zekeriya Dursunovich Lordkipanidze (b. 1892 - d. 1937)  KPS-B
1937 - Jul 1938            Ismail Khasanovich Futkaradze
                             (acting)

Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Jul 1938 - Jan 1954        Daud Aliyevich Davitadze           (b. 1901 - d. 19..) KPS-B;1952 KPS
Jan 1954 - 1955            Archil Mikhaylovich Beridze        (b. 1922)            KPS
                             (acting)

Apr 1955 - Nov 1968        Revaz Muradovich Komakhidze        (b. 1911 - d. 1968)  KPS
Nov 1968 - Mar 1969        .... (acting)
Mar 1969 - 1989            David Dursunovich Diasamidze       (b. 1925 - d. 1989)  KPS
1989 - 20 Mar 1990         .... (acting)
20 Mar 1990 - Mar 1991     Tengiz Suleymanovich Khakhva       (s.a.)              
KPS
15 Mar 1991 - Aug 1991     Aslan Ibrahimovich Abashidze       (b. 1938)            KPS
                             (acting to Jul 1991)
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (from 1998, also Head of the Republic)

Aug 1991 -  6 May 2004     Aslan Ibraimis dze Abashidze       (s.a.)               1992: UDR
                             (= Aslan Ibrahimovich
Abashidze)
Chairman of the Interim Council

 7 May 2004 - 20 Jul 2004  Levan Varshalomidze                (b. 1972)            ENM
Chairmen of the Supreme Council
20 Jul 2004 - 28 Oct 2012  Mikheil Makharadze                 (b. 1946)            TA
28 Oct 2012 - 28 Nov 2016  Avtandil Beridze                   (b. 1955)            KODS
28 Nov 2016 -              Davit Gabaidze                     (b. 1980)            KODS

Chairman of the Administrative Council for Batum oblast
21 Dec 1918 - 28 Apr 1919  Pyotr Nikolayevich Maslov          (d. af.1931)         KDP

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

Jan 1922 - Nov 1922        Aleksandr Grigoryevich Gambarov    (s.a.)               KPS-B
                             (Gambaryan)
Dec 1922 - c.1925          Khasan Takhsin Khimshiashvili      (d. 1930)            KPS-B
c.1927 - 1929              Mamed Kh. Gogiberidze                                   KPS-B
1929 - 1930                Zekeriya Dursunovich Lordkipanidze (s.a.)               KPS-B
193. - 193.                Suleyman Diasamidze                (b. 1895 - d. 1962)
1937 -
27 Mar 1946         Ismail Khasanovich Futkaradze                           KPS-B
                             (acting to Jul 1938)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

27 Mar 1946 - Oct 1947     Ismail Khasanovich Futkaradze                           KPS-B
Oct 1947 - 1953            Mamiya Alekseyevich Gogolishvili   (b. 1912 - d. 19..) KPS-B;1952 KPS
1953 - Jan 1954            David Mikhaylovich Mamuladze       (s.a.)               KPS
Jan 1954 - Mar 1961        Aleksandr Dursunovich              (s.a.)               KPS
                             Tkhilayshvili
Mar 1961 - Jun 1975        Levan Mikhaylovich Davitadze       (b. 1916 - d. 19..)  KPS
Jun 1975 - Aug 1977        Irakliy Azizovich Dzhashi                               KPS
Aug 1977 - 1986            Yuriy Gedevanovich Ungiadze        (b. 1928)            KPS
1986 - Aug 1993            Guram Yegorovich Chigogidze        (b. 1935)            KPS;1991 Ind
Prime ministers
1993                       Aslan Ibraimis dze Abashidze       (s.a.)
                            
(1st time) (acting)
Aug 1993 - Nov 1993        Guram Varshalomidze               
(b. 1939)
Nov 1993 - 16 Nov 1996     Jemal Nakashidze
16 Nov 1996 - May 1999     Avtandil Gorgiladze                (b. 1952)
May 1999 - 2002            Giorgi Tsintskiladze
2002 - 13 Jul 2003         Eduard Rasim Kakabadze
13 Jul 2003 - Aug 2003     Aslan Ibraimis dze Abashidze       (s.a.)               UDR
                             (2nd time)(acting)
Aug 2003 -  6 Apr 2004     Rezo Shamilishvili
 6 Apr 2004 - 20 Jul 2004  Rostom Japaridze                   (b. 1948)
20 Jul 2004 - 30 Oct 2012  Levan Varshalomidze                (s.a.)               ENM
30 Oct 2012 - 15 Jul 2016  Archil Khabadze                    (b. 1981)            KODS
15 Jul 2016 -
21 Jul 2018  Zurab Pataradze                    (b. 1973)            KODS
21 Jul 2018 -              Tornike Rizhvadze                  (b. 1989)            KODS

Party abbreviations: ENM = Ertiani Nats'ionaluri Modzraoba (United National Movement, center-right, reformist, est.2001); KODS = K'art'uli ots'neba – demokratiuli Sak'art'velo (Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia, center-left, social liberal, populist, pro-European, est.21 Apr 2012); TA = Chveni Adjara ("Our Adjara", Ajaria regionalist bloc, anti-Abashidze, est.2003);
- Former parties:
KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, 12 Oct 1905-1920, declared abolished by Bolsheviks 12 Dec 1917, in exile to 1924); KPS-B = Komunisturi Partiis (Bolshevikebis) Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Gruzii (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Georgia, Marxist-Leninist communist, from 1921 state party, May 1920-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPS); KPS = Komunisturi Partiis Sak'art'velos/ Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Gruzii (Communist Party of Georgia, communist, state party former KPS-B, 13 Oct 1952 - 12 Aug 1990, splits from CPSU and is renamed Independent Communist Party of Georgia on 12 Aug 1990, banned 26 Aug 1991); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks]); UDR = Demokratiuli Aghordzinebis Kavshir (Union of Democratic Revival, "Revival", named Revival of the Union 1992-98, Aslan Abashidze personalist, Ajaria autonomist, social-democratic, 1992-98 named Union of the Revival of the Adjara, 1992-2004)



South Ossetia (Alania)

[South Ossetian
                          (Alania) flag (Georgia)]
Adopted 26 Nov 1990

Map of South Ossetia
Hear National Anthem
"Respublikae Xussar Irystony
 Paddzaxadon Gimn"
(The National Anthem of the
Republic of South Ossetia
)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 5 May 1995
Constitution
(8 Apr 2001)
-------------------------------
Former Constitution
(2 Nov 1993 - 8 Apr 2001
)

Capital: Tskhinvali
(Staliniri 1934-1961;
Shida Kartli - Gori)
Currency: Russian Ruble
(RUR)
National Holidays: 20 Sep (1990)
Den' nezavisimosti
Yuzhnaya Osetiya
(South Ossetia Independence Day)
------------------------------------
29 May (1992)
Den' Deklaratsii Nezavisimosti
(Day of the Declaration
of Independence)

Population: 53,532 (2015)
98,527 (1989)
GDP: $0.1 billion (2017)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Ossetian 89.9%, Georgian 7.4%, Russian 1.1%,
Armenian 0.7%, others 0.8% (2015)
1989: Ossetian 66.2%, Georgian 28.9%,
Russian 2.1%,
Armenian 1%, Jews 0.4%, others 1.4% (1989)

Total Active Armed Forces: 2,500 (2009)
Russian Forces: 5,500 (2009)
Merchant marine: None (2008)
Religions: Orthodox Christian, Muslim, neopagan, other/none
International Organizations/Treaties: CDRN

28 Feb 1801                South Ossetian lands (as part of Kingdom of Georgia) annexed
                             to
the Russia.
 
1 Jun 1918 - 1919         South Ossetian People's Council.
17 May 1920                Occupied by Georgia.
20 Apr 1922                Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia, within Georgian S.S.R.
 5 Dec 1936                South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, within Georgian S.S.R.

10 Nov 1989                South Ossetian Autonomous Republic declared.
20 Sep 1990               South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic (South Ossetia declares
                            
state sovereignty as a constituent republic of the Soviet Union)
                             (not recognized).

16 Oct 1990                Declaration of sovereignty confirmed.
28 Nov 1990                Renamed South Ossetian Soviet Republic.
11 Dec 1990                Georgia rescinds autonomy, districts divided between Georgian
                             regions, mostly Shida Kartli (see below).
 4 May 1991               
South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast; South Ossetian authorities rescind
                             sovereignty and declare autonomy
                            
(not recognized by Georgia).
 1 Sep 1991                Republic of South Ossetia; state sovereignty re-declared
                             (not recognized).
21 Dec 1991                Regional parliament adopts a declaration of independence from Georgia
                           
(recognized only by Russia [26 Aug 2008], Nicaragua [4 Sep 2008],
                             Venezuela
[10 Sep 2009], Nauru [16 Dec 2009], Tuvalu [19 Sep 2011,
                            
revoked 31 Mar 2014] and Syria [29 May 2018]).
19 Jan 1992                South Ossetian population votes in favor of independence from Georgia
                             or integration with Russia (as part of North Ossetia) by 99.1%.
29 May 1992                South Ossetia independence from Georgia effective.
12 Nov 2006                Referendum supports independence from Georgia by 99%.
10 May 2007                Georgia forms the Provisional Administration of South Ossetia
                             (at Kurta to Aug 2008).
 
8 Aug 2008 -              Pro-Ossetian intervention by Russian military forces. 
 
8 Aug 2008 - 10 Aug 2008  Georgian occupation of Tskhinvali
.
28 Jun 2012                Russian formally made one of the two state languages.
13 Apr 2017               
State of Alania adopted as an equivalent name.

Chairman of the South Ossetian District Committee of the Russian
Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
(in Vladikavkaz)
30 Jun 1919 - 1920         Vladimir Arzhevanovich
Sanakoyev   (b. 1884 - d. 1937)
                             (acting to 30 Jul 1919)

Executive Secretaries of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast Committee
of the Communist Party
(Bolsheviks) of Georgia
1921                       Sergey Grigoryevich Gagloyev       (b. 1896 - d. 1938)
Jan 1921 - Apr 1924        Vladimir Arzhevanovich Sanakoyev   (s.a.)
Apr 1924 - 1925            Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Dzhatiyev   (b. 1891 - d. 1937)
1925 - Jun 1928            Aleksandr Nafanailovich Abayev     (b. 1892 - d. 1937)
1929 - 1930                Sergey Aleksandrovich Kudryavtsev  (b. 1903 - d. 1938)
1930 - Feb 1931            Luka Mikhaylovich Lomidze          (b. 1901 - d. 1938)
Feb 1931 - Dec 1931        Stepan Yegorovich Akopov           (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
First Secretaries of the
South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast Committee of the Communist
Party (Bolsheviks) of Georgia (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Georgia) 

c.1932 - c.1934            Isaak Yeftimovich Zhvaniya         (b. 1891 - d. 1937)
c.1936 - 1937              Boris (Abdul-Begir) Gasanovich    
(d. 1937)
                             Tautiyev 
1937 - Feb 1938            Georgiy Aleksandrovich Gochashvili (b. 1904 - d. 19..)

                             (acting)
Feb 1938 - Jan 1949        Vladimir Gedevanovich 
            (b. 1905 - d. 1977)
                             Tskhovrebashvili (Tskhovrebadze)
                             (acting to ... 1938)   
Jan 1949 - May 1953        Akakiy Gabrielovich Imnadze        (b. 1908 - d. 19..)
May 1953 - 1954            Ivan Petrovich Kudzhiashvili       (b. 1906 - d. 19..)
1954 - 1959                Grigoriy Georgiyevich Sanakoyev    (b. 1914 - d. 19..)
1959 - 1962                Vladimir Dmitriyevich Kozayev      (b. 1917 - d. 19..)
1962 - Feb 1965            Iosif Semyonovich Chiayev          (b. 1907 - d. ....)
Feb 1965 -  5 Nov 1973     Georgiy Nikolayevich Dzhussoyev    (b. 1926)
 5 Nov 1973 - 22 Apr 1988  Feliks Sergeyevich Sanakoyev       (b. 1939)
22 Apr 1988 - Jan 1990     Anatoliy Georgiyevich Chekhoyev    (b. 1950)
Jan 1990 - Apr 1991        Valentin Vladimirovich
            (b. 1933)
                             Tskhovrebashvili
Apr 1991 - 26 Aug 1991     Znaur Nikolayevich Gassiyev        (b. 1925 - d. 2016)
 


Chairman of the South Ossetian People's Council
 1 Jun 1918 - May 1919     A
leksandr Arsenyevich Tibilov      (b. 1887 - d. 1937)
Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee
23 Mar 1920 -  9 Apr 1920  Vladimir Davidovich 
Abayev         (b. 1886 - d. 1964)  RKP
                             (1st time)
 7 Jun 1920 - Dec 1920
    Vladimir Davidovich Abayev         (s.a.)               RKP
                             (2nd time)
25 Feb 1921 - 1921         Vladimir Arzhevanovich Sanakoyev   (s.a.)               KPS-B
1921 - 22 Apr 1924         Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Dzhatiyev   (s.a.)               KPS-B
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
22 Apr 1922 - 1924         Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Dzhatiyev   (s.a.)               KPS-B
1924 - May 1925            T. Bekuzarov                                            KPS-B

1926 - c.1929              Aleksandr Nafanailovich Abayev     (b. 1895 - d. 1976)  KPS-B
c.1929 - c.1936            ....
c.1936 - 1937              Ivan Petrovich Dzhidzhoyev         (d. 1937)            KPS-B
1937 - 1938                Vladimir Ivanovich Khubayev        (b. 1905 - d. 19..)  KPS-B
Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the Council of People's Deputies
1938 - 1943                Vladimir Ivanovich Khubayev        (s.a.)               KPS-B
Jul 1943 - 13 Apr 1948     Aleksandr Georgiyevich Galavanov   (b. 1902 - d. 1986)  KPS-B
13 Apr 1948 - 1953         Ilya Davidovich Kulukhov           (b. 1901 - d. 19..) KPS-B;1952 KPS
1953 - 1954                Grigoriy Georgiyevich Sanakoyev    (s.a.)               KPS
1954 - 1956                Vladimir Dmitriyevich Kozayev      (s.a.)               KPS
1956 - 1957                Iosif Semyonovich Chiayev          (s.a.)               KPS
1957 - 1959                Semyon Grigoryevich Tibilov        (b. 1900 - d. 19..)
  KPS
Dec 1959 - 196.
           V.G. Sanakoyev                                          KPS
1961 - 1964                Vladimir Isaakovich Gazzayev       (b. 1918)            KPS
1964 - Feb 1965            Georgiy Nikolayevich Dzhussoyev    (s.a.)               KPS
Feb 1965 - 1972            Kosta Kargoyevich Dzhioyev         (b. 1916)            KPS
1972 - Nov 1973            Feliks Sergeyevich Sanakoyev       (s.a.)               KPS
Nov 1973 - Nov 1981        Genrikh Irakliyevich Mardanov      (b. 1933)            KPS
Nov 1981 - May 1986        Tamara Shalvovna Kabulova (f)      (b. 1938)            KPS
May 1986 - 20 Sep 1990     Anatoliy Abramovich Kachmazov                          
KPS
Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the Soviets of the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic
20 Sep 1990 – 1990         Feliks Mikhaylovich Zasseyev       (b. 1945)
1990 - 16 Oct 1990         Torez Georgiyevich Kulumbegov      (b. 1938 – d. 2006)   
Chairman of the (to 28 Nov 1990, Provisional) Executive Committee

16 Oct 1990 – 10 Dec 1990  Torez Georgiyevich Kulumbegov
     (s.a.)   
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet

10 Dec 1990 - 23 Mar 1991  Torez Georgiyevich Kulumbegov      (s.a.)
                             (Georgian prisoner 29 Jan – 29 Dec 1991)
                             (1st time)
29 Jan 1991 -  4 May 1991  Alan Rezoyevich Chochiyev          (b. 1946)
                             (acting [for Kulumbegov to 23 Mar 1991])
Chairman of the Committee for Stabilization of the Situation in South Ossetia
23 Mar 1991 -  4 May 1991
 Znaur Nikolayevich Gassiyev        (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet
 1 Sep 1991 – 29 Dec 1991  Znaur Nikolayevich Gassiyev        (s.a.)
              Non-party
29 Dec 1991 – 23 Sep 1993  Torez Georgiyevich Kulumbegov      (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
23 Sep 1993 - 27 Nov 1996  
Lyudvig Alekseyevich Chibirov      (b. 1932
)            Non-party
Presidents

27 Nov 1996 - 18 Dec 2001  Lyudvig Alekseyevich Chibirov      (s.a.
)               Non-party
18 Dec 2001 - 
10 Dec 2011  Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoyty        (b. 1964)        Non-party:2003 YP
                             (Kokoity
)
11 Dec 2011 - 19 Apr 2012  
Vadim Vladimirovich Brovtsev       (b. 1969)            Non-party
                             (acting) 
19 Apr 2012 - 21 Apr 2017  Leonid Kharitonovich Tibilov 
     (b. 1952)            Non-party
21 Apr 2017 -              Anatoliy Ilyich Bibilov            (b. 1970)            YO

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
Apr 1922 - 192.            Razden Shamelovich 
Kozayev         (b. 1873 - d. 1937)  RKP
Prime ministers
(chairmen of the government)
28 Nov 1991 - Sep 1993     Oleg Dzherikhanovich Teziyev       (b. 1948)            Non-party
Oct 1993 - May 1994        Gerasim "Rezo" Georgiyevich        (b. 1945)            Non-party
                             Khugayev (1st time)
May 1994 - 1995            Feliks Mikhaylovich Zasseyev       (s.a.)
1995 - 25 Sep 1996         Vladislav Nikolayevich Gabarayev   (b. 1957)            Non-party
25 Sep 1996 -  2 Dec 1996  Valeriy Nikolayevich Khubulov
     (b. 1966 - d. 1998)  Non-party
                             (acting)
 2 Dec 1996 - Aug 1998     Aleksandr Apollonovich Shavlokhov  (b. 1940
)            Non-party
Aug 1998 -  6 Jun 2001     Merab Ilyich Chigoyev              (b. 1950 - d. 2016)  Non-party
 6 Jun 2001 - 14 Jun 2001  Leonid Kharitonovich Tibilov       (b. 1952)            Non-party
                             (acting)
14 Jun 2001 - 19 Dec 2001  Dmitriy Ivanovich Sanakoyev        (b. 1969
)            Non-party
19 Dec 2001 - 13 Aug 2003  Gerasim "Rezo" Georgiyevich        (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Khugayev (2nd time)
                             (acting to 9 Jan 2002)
14 Aug 2003 - 17 Sep 2003  Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoyev        (s.a.)               Non-party  
                             (acting)
17 Sep 2003 - May 2005     Igor Viktorovich Sanakoyev         (b. 1947)
           YP
May 2005 -  5 Jul 2005     Zurab Revazovich Kokoyev (acting)  (b. 1960)            YP
 5 Jul 2005 - 17 Aug 2008  Yuriy Ionovich Morozov             (b. 1949)            YP
17 Aug 2008 - 22 Oct 2008  Boris Eliozovich Chochiyev         (b. 1957)            YP
                             (acting)
22 Oct 2008 -  5 Aug 2009  Aslanbek Soltanovich Bulatsev      (b. 1963)            YP
 5 Aug 2009 - 26 Apr 2012  Vadim Vladimirovich Brovtsev       (s.a.)               YP
26 Apr 2012 - 20 Jan 2014  Rostislav Erastovich Khugayev      (b. 1951
)            Non-party
                             (acting to 15 May 2012)
20 Jan 2014 - 16 May 2017  Domenti Sardionovich Kulumbegov    (b. 1955)            Non-party
                             (acting to 2 Apr 2014)
16 May 2017 -              Erik Georgiyevich Pukhayev         (b. 1957)            Non-party

Provisional administrative entity in South Ossetian  (in Kurta, South Ossetia, until Aug 20088)

[Pro-Georgian South
                  Ossetian draft flag (Georgia)]

10 May 2007                Georgia forms "provisional administrative entity" in
                             South Ossetia.

President
 1 Dec 2006 - 10 May 2007  
Dmitriy Ivanovich Sanakoyev        (s.a.)               PSOP
Head of Provisional Administration

10 May 2007 -
             Dmitriy Ivanovich Sanakoyev        (s.a.)               PSOP

Prime minister
 7 Dec 2006 - Sep 2007     Uruzmag Karkusov                                        PSOP


Georgia: Shida Kartli Region

[Flag of Georgia]

State Representatives-Governors (in Gori)
1998 - 2002                Irakli Bochoridze                  (b. 1970)
2002 - Nov 2003            Davit Koblianidze
Dec 2003 - Jan 2004        Irakli Okruashvili                 (b. 1973)
Jan 2004 - 12 Sep 2007     Mikheil Kareli                     (b. 1975)            ENM
12 Sep 2007 -  5 Feb 2008  Lasha "Lado" Gegelashvili          (b. 1978?)           ENM
 5 Feb 2008 - Jul 2010     Lado Vardzelashvili                (b. 1979)            ENM
10 Jul 2010 - Sep 2011     Zurab Arsoshvili                   (b. 1978)            ENM
Sep 2011 - 10 Jul 2012     Giorgi Tatishvili                  (b. 1946?)           ENM
10 Jul 2012 - 12 Jan 2013  Sulkhan Sibashvili                                      ENM
12 Jan 2013 - 23 Apr 2013  Andro Barnovi                      (b. 1974)            ENM
24 Apr 2013 - 13 Dec 2013  Zurab Chkheidze                    (b. 1930)  
13 Dec 2013 - Mar 2016     Zurab Rusishvili                   (b. 1978)            KODS
Mar 2016 -  3 Feb 2017     Ioseb Okromelidze (interim)        (b. 1978)
 3 Feb 2017 -
29 Mar 2018  Kakha Samkharadze                  (b. 1970)            KODS
29 Mar 2018 - 26 Jul 2018  Akaki Machutadze                   (b. 1974)
Jul 2018 -                 Giorgi Khojevanishvili             (b. 1985)
                             (acting to 20 Aug 2018)

Party abbreviations: ENM = Ertiani Nats'ionaluri Modzraoba (United National Movement, center-right, reformist, est.2001); KODS = K'art'uli ots'neba – demokratiuli Sak'art'velo (Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia, center-left, social liberal, populist, pro-European, est.2012); KPRSO = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Respubliki Yuzhnaya Osetiya (Communist Party of the Republic of South Ossetia, est.1993); PSOP = Tsugat Rayguyrynts Hussar Iryston (People of South Ossetia for Peace, anti-Kokoity, pro-Georgia reunification, est.24 Oct 2006); YO = Yedinaya Osetiya (United Ossetia, pro-unification with Russia); YP = Yedinstvo Partiya (Unity Party, South Ossetia regionalist, social conservative, pro-Kokoity, pro-Russia, est.5 Apr 2003);
- Former parties: KPS-B = Komunisturi Partiis (Bolshevikebis) Sak'art'velos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (B
ol'shevikov) Gruzii (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Georgia, Marxist-Leninist communist, from 1921 state party, May 1920-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPS); KPS = Komunisturi Partiis Sak'art'velos/ Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Gruzii (Communist Party of Georgia, communist, state party former KPS-B, 13 Oct 1952 - 12 Aug 1990, splits from CPSU and is renamed Independent Communist Party of Georgia on 12 Aug 1990, banned 26 Aug 1991); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks])



Georgian Principalities

Guria

[Flag of Guria (Georgia)]

1352                       Principality of Guria established.
 8 Apr 1811                Russian protectorate.
1830                       Incorporation into Russian Empire.

Princes
1689 - 1712                Mamia III (1st time)               (b. 16.. - d. 1714)
1712                       Giorgi IV (1st time)               (b. 1702 - d. 1726)
1712 - 16 Jan 1714         Mamia III (2nd time)               (s.a.)
16 Jan 1714 - 1716         Giorgi IV (2nd time)               (s.a.)
1716                       K`aikhosro III
1716 - 1726                Giorgi IV (3rd time)               (s.a.)
1726 - 1744                Mamia IV                           (b. c.1717 - d. 1778)
1744                       Giorgi V
1744 - 1792                Svimon II (1st time)               (d. 1792)
1778 - 178.                K`aikhosro IV                      (d. af.1820)
1788 - 1792                Svimon II (2nd time)               (s.a.)
1792 - 1803                Vakhtang II                        (d. af.1814)
1803 - Jul 1823            Mamia V                            (b. 1789 - d. 1823)
1803 - 1805                K`aikhosro IV -Regent              (s.a.)
1805 - 1814                Makrina (f) -Regent                (d. 1814)
Jul 1823 -  2 Sep 1829     Davit`                             (b. 1815 - d. 1839)



Mingrelia (Megrelia)

[Flag of Mingrelia
                (Samegrelo)(Georgia)]

bf.1323                    Principality of Mingrelia (Samegrelo) established.
 4 Dec 1803                Russian protectorate.
1854 - 1856                Occupied by Ottoman Empire.
1857 -  4 Jan 1867         Russian administration.
 4 Jan 1867                Incorporation into Russian Empire.

Princes
1681 - 1691                Levan IV                           (d. af.1694)
1691 - 1704                Giorgi IV Lipartiani (1st time)    (d. 1716)
1704 - 1710                Kats`ia I                          (d. 1710)
1710 - 1714                Giorgi IV Lipartiani (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1715 - 1728                Bezhan                             (d. 1728)
1728 - 1744                Otia                               (d. 1744)
1744 - 17 Dec 1788         Kats`ia II                         (d. 1788)
17 Dec 1788 - 1791         Grigol (1st time)                  (b. 1774 - d. 1804)
1791 - 1793                Manuch`ar II                       (b. 17.. - d. 1804)
1793 - 1794                Tariel (1st time)                  (b. 17.. - d. 1802)
1794 - Mar 1802            Grigol (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
MAr 1802 - 1802            Tariel (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
1802 -  4 Nov 1804         Grigol (3rd time)                  (s.a.)
 4 Nov 1804 - 1840         Levan V                            (b. 1793 - d. 1846)
 4 Nov 1804 - 1804         Nino Bagratuni (f) -Regent         (d. 1847)
1804                       Nikoloz Dadiani -Regent 
1804                       Chkondideli Bessarion -Regent      (d. 1823)
1804                       Beri Gelovani Chikovani -Regent 
1840 - 11 Sep 1853         Davit`                             (b. 1812 - d. 1853)
11 Sep 1853 -  4 Jan 1867  Nikoloz                            (b. 1847 - d. 1903)
11 Sep 1853 - 1857         Ekaterina Chavchandaze (f) -Regent (b. 1816 - d. 1882)
18.. - 18..                Gigol -Regent                      (b. 1814 - d. 1901)
18.. - 18..                Zakaria, bishop of Mingrelia -Regent



Svania (Svanet`i)

[flag of Svania
                (Svanet`i)(Georgia)]

1460                       Principality of Svania established.
c.1505 - c.1516            Persian occupation.
c.1516                     Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
26 Nov 1833                Russian protectorate.
1858                       Incorporation into Russian Empire.

Princes
1750?                      Otar "the Great"
c.1780 - c.1800            Mistost                            (d. c.1800)
c.1800 - Sep 1841          Tsiokh Nikoloz                     (d. 1841)
Sep 1841 - 11 Sep 1857     Konstantine                        (b. 1827 - d. 1858)
Sep 1841 - 1846            Mikheil -Regent                    (d. 1850)







 © Ben Cahoon