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Armenia
 
[Iravan
                            Khanate flag c.1827 (Persia)]
Iravan Khanate Flag c.1827
[Russian flag]
22 Feb 1828 - 22 Apr 1918
[Armenia 1918 -
                            1921]1 Aug 1918  - 2 Apr 1921
[Flag of USSR
                            1922-1991]12 Nov 1923 - 25 Dec 1991
[Armenia]
Re-adopted 24 Aug 1990

Map of Armenia
Hear National Anthem
"Mer Hayrenik"
(Our Fatherland)
National Anthem Text
Adopted 1 Jul 1991
(informal 1918-1920)
Constitution
 (5 Jul 1995)
(1918-1920 none)
Capital: Yerevan
Currency: Dram (AMD);
Russian Ruble (RUR) 1991-93;
Armenian Ruble (AMR) 1919-23
National Holiday: 21 Sep (1991)
Ankakhut'yan Or
(Independence Day)
Population: 3,038,217 (2018)
720,000 (1920)
GDP: $28.34 billion (2017)
Exports: $2.36 billion (2017)
Imports: $3.77 billion (2017)
Ethnic Groups: Armenian 98.1%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.1%,
other 0.7% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 44,800 (2018)
20,000 (1920)
Russian Forces: 5,000 (2014)

Merchant marine: None (2017)
Religions: Armenian Apostolic 92.6%, Evangelical 1%,
other 2.4%, none 1.1%, unspecified 2.9% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AIIB (applicant), BSEC, BTWC, CD, CE, CFE, CIS, CSTO, CTBT, CWC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, EITI, ENMOD, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, Moon, NAM (observer), NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO (dialogue partner), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Armenia Index
Chronology
 
c.2107 BC                  Armenia (Hayastan) under the legendary Hyak
                             dynasty.
c.860 BC - c.590 BC        Part of Urartu (Ararat) kingdom.
c.750 BC - c.612 BC        Under the suzerainty of Assyria.
c.590 BC - c.553 BC        Part of Medes kingdom.
c.553 BC - 331 BC          Part of Persian Empire (from c.570 part of Satrapy
                             of Armenia to 201 BC).
331 BC - c.200 BC          Under the Orontid (Eruandid or Yervanduni) dynasty.
c.200 BC - 189 BC          Seleucid (Syrian) occupation.
189 BC - 87 BC             Division into Armenia Major (Mets Hayk) and Armenia 
                             Minor (at Sophene) under the Artaxiad dynasty.
165 - 162 BC               Armenia Minor under Seleucid occupation.
87 BC                      Armenian state reunified.
41 - 47 AD                 Roman occupation.
114 - 116                  Roman occupation.
238 - 244                  Roman occupation. 
252 - 256                  Occupied by Parthian (Persian) Empire.
294 - 298                  Occupied by Parthian Empire.
261 - 272                  Palmyrene occupation.
314                        Armenia adopts Christianity (traditional date 301).
423 - 428                  Interregnum.
428                        Incorporated into Parthian Empire.
635 - 697                  Incorporated into Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
635 - 885                  Rulers from various families with style 
                             "Armenian Prince of Princes."
697 - 700                  Under Islamic rule.
700 - 711                  Byzantine rule restored.
711 - 885                  Under Islamic Caliphate and other Islamic powers.
885                        Independence under the Bagrationi dynasty 
                             (Kingdom of Armenia): five other Armenian
                             polities are also founded in parallel to, or
                             as successor to, the main Armenian state, they
                             are: Vaspurakan (914 - 1021); Vanand (Kars)
                             (962 - 1064); Siwnik (310 - 970); Lori
                             (982 - 1260); and Tarawn (705-851, 858 - 968).
1045 - 1064                Part of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
1064 - 1242                Under Sultanate of the Rum Saljuq Turks and
                             other Islamic powers.
c.1080                     Armenian state (Principality or Duchy from 
                             1198, Kingdom) founded in Cilicia region,
                             sometimes called "Lesser" or "Little" Armenia 
                             (1137 - 1145 under Byzantine occupation).
1201 - 1360                Zakarid Armenia (under Georgian suzerainty to 1236
                        then under Mongol and the Il-khanate).
1236 - 1256                Mongol occupation.
1256 - 1353                Part of the Il-khanate (Persia).
1375                       Kingdom of Lesser Armenia falls to the Mameluke
                             Sultanate of Egypt, from 1517 part of Ottoman 
                             Empire (note: several European rulers
                             incorporated the title "king of Armenia" into
                             their royal styles after 1375).
1501                       Eastern Armenia (modern Armenia) part of Persia,
                             the beylerbeylik of Chokhur Sa'ad, capital Erivan,
                             established by Persia.
1582 - 1604                Yerevan (eastern Armenia) occupied and annexed by
                             the Ottoman Empire, Eyalet of Erivan established.
1634 - 1636                Ottoman occupation of Erivan.
17 May 1639                Final division between Persia (east Armenia) and 
                             Ottoman Empire (west Armenia) in Treaty of Zuhab.
1722 - 1730                Polity of Kapan (Ghapan), uniting Armenian
                             meliks of Siunik (Syunik), the south-eastern part 
                             of modern Armenia, into one state, in rebellion
                             against both Persian (to 1727) and Ottoman empires.
1724 - 1736                Ottoman occupation and annexation of Erivan.
1734                       Semi-independent dynastic derebeys or "valley 
                             lords" established in western Ottoman Armenia.
1747                       Khanate of Īravān (Erivan) founded, part of (often
                             nominally) Persia.
1808 - 1849                Ottomans gradually suppress the Armenian derebeys
                             in western Armenia.
1813                       Sultanate of Shuragel (modern Gyumri), a subdivision
                             of khanate of Īravān, ceded by Persia to Russia.
26 Oct 1827                Yerevan (Erivan) occupied by Russia, khanate of
                             Īravān abolished.
22 Feb 1828                Eastern Armenia (Erivan) ceded to Russia by
                             Persia according to Treaty of Turkmenchay.
21 Mar 1828 - 10 Apr 1840  Armenian oblast (Armyanskaya oblast') formed from
                             Yerevan district and the former Khanate of
                             Nakhichevan (see Azerbaijan).
1828 - 1917                Part of the Viceroyalty and other Russian regional
                             administrations of the Caucasus [see under
                             Georgia]).
 9 Jun 1849                Russian governorate of Yerevan (Erevan)(Eryvanskaya
                             guberniya)(modern Armenia and Nakhichevan) created.
Feb 1905 - Oct 1905        Minor local rebellions as part of the Russian
                             Revolution of 1905.
16 May 1915 -  7 Apr 1918  Russian occupation of western (Ottoman) Armenia;
                             from Dec 1917 under Transcaucasian occupation.
Jun 1916 -  7 Apr 1918     Separate administration for western Armenia 
                             (see under Turkey).
26 Oct 1917                Armenian National Council established in Tiflis
                             (T'bilisi), Georgia (from 28 Nov 1917, subject to
                             the Transcaucasian Commissariat).
22 Apr 1918 - 26 May 1918  Part (with Azerbaijan and Georgia) of Democratic
                             Federative Republic of Transcaucasia 
                             (see under Georgia).
30 May 1918                Republic of Armenia (Hayastani Hanrapetout'youn)
                        (Armenian National Council issues a proclamation
                        to the Armenian people [backdated to 28 May 1918]
                        which publicly declares that the Council becomes
                        the "sole and highest authority" for the Armenian
                        regions, but omitted any reference to geographic
                        borders of an Armenian state).
 4 Jun 1918 - Nov 1918     Ottoman protectorate by the Treaty of Batum (ceased
                             following the Armistice of Mudros of 30 Oct 1918),
                             the territory of Armenia reduced to area around
                             Yerevan.
Jul 1918 - Jul 1921        Zangezur region (see below), the south-eastern part
                             of modern Armenia, mostly under local Armenian
                             administration.
17 Jan 1919 - Aug 1919     British administration of the Armenian-Georgian
                             disputed Lori Neutral Zone.
 1 Feb 1919 - 28 Aug 1919  British forces garrison Erevan (Yerevan).
28 Apr 1919                Kars region (see under South-Western Caucasus)
                             transferred by the Allies (British) to Armenia.
28 May 1919                Act of United and Independent Armenia adopted, a
                             formal incorporation of Kars region and (nominally)
                             western (Ottoman) Armenia into the Armenian state.
19 Jan 1920                Independence de facto recognized by the Allied
                             and Associated Powers.
10 May 1920 - 14 May 1920  Bolshevik rebellion in Alexandropol (Gyumri).
10 Aug 1920                Independence recognized by Soviet Russia.
10 Aug 1920                By Treaty of Sevres, the Ottoman Empire recognized
                             Ottoman (Western) Armenia as part of independent
                             Armenia (not ratified by the Ottoman Empire, not
                             recognized by the Turkish Grand National Assembly,
                             not effected).
29 Nov 1920                Socialist Soviet Republic of Armenia (see below),
                             proclaimed in rebellion.
 2 Dec 1920                Kars region re-incorporated into Turkey by the
                             Treaty of Alexandropol (occupied by Turkey from
                             30 Oct 1920).
 2 Dec 1920                Republic of Armenia government resigned by
                             agreement, on 4 Dec 1920 the Soviet Russian troops
                             entered Yerevan.
18 Feb 1921 -  2 Apr 1921  Anti-Soviet rebels occupy Yerevan and declare the
                             restoration of Republic of Armenia (rebellion
                             continued in Zangezur to 9 Jul 1921).
12 Mar 1922 - 13 Dec 1922  Part (with Azerbaijan and Georgia) of the
                             Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics 
                             of Transcaucasia (see Georgia).
16 Mar 1921                Kars region restored to Turkey, confirmed by the
                             Treaty of Moscow (reconfirmed on 13 Oct 1921 by
                             the Treaty of Kars).
13 Dec 1922                Part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative 
                             Soviet Republic (T.S.F.S.R.)(see Georgia).
30 Dec 1922                T.S.F.S.R. founding component of the Soviet Union
                            (see Russia).
 5 Dec 1936                T.S.F.S.R. dissolved; Armenian S.S.R. becomes a
                             full union republic.
23 Aug 1990                Republic of Armenia (Hayastani Hanrapetout'youn)
                        state sovereignty declared)(alternative polity
                        style Armenia [Hayastan] is endorsed by legislation
                        23 Aug 1990 - 13 Jul 1995).

21 Sep 1991                Referendum supports independence with 99.3% of vote.
23 Sep 1991                Independence declared.
26 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of U.S.S.R.).
18 Jan 1990                Armenia occupies the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki
                             (Tigranashen), Barxudarlı (Barkhudarly) 27 Apr
                             1992, Sofulu 27 Apr 1992, and Ashagy Eskipara
                             (Nerkin Voskepar) 8 Jun 1992. Azerbaijan also
                             occupies Armenian exclave of Artsvashen (Başkend)
                             9 Aug 1992. 
Provinces
(since 1995)
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
(1920-1991)
Zangezur (Syunik)
(1918-1921)
Armenian
Apostolic Church
Armenian Catholic
Church
 

 
 
 

Chiefs of Kapan (Ghapan)
(in rebellion against Persians and Ottomans)
1722 - May 1728            Davit Bek                          (b. 1669 - d. 1728)
1728 - 1730                Mkhitar Bek                        (d. 1730)
Khans of Erivan

1747 – 1752                Mir Mekhti Khan
1752 - 1755                Khalil Khan
1755 - 1759                Hasan `Ali Khan                    (d. 1759)
1759 - 1783                Huseyn `Ali Khan                   (d. 1783)
1783 - 1784                Qulam `Ali Khan                    (d. 1784)
1784 - 1805                Muhammad Khan
1805 - 1806                Mekhti Qulu Khan 
1806 - Oct 1806            Ahmad Khan                         (b. 1742 - d. 1806)
1806 - 26 Oct 1827         Huseyn Qulu Khan                   (b. 1740 - d. 1831)
Russian Administrators (title Nachal’nik)
1828 - 1830                Knyaz' Aleksandr Garsevanovich     (b. 1786 - d. 1846)
                             Chavchavadze
1830 - 1838                Knyaz' Vasiliy Osipovich Bebutov   (b. 1791 - d. 1858)
                             (= Barsegh Behbutyan)
1838 - 1839                Andrey Grigoryevich Patsovskiy     (b. 1788 - d. 1839)
1840 - 1849                part of Georgia-Imeretia governorate
Military Governors and Administrators of Civil Affairs of Yerevan Governorate

1849 - 1858                Ivan Ivanovich Nazorov             (d. 1859)
1858 - 1860                Nikolay Petrovich Kolyubakin       (b. 1810 - d. 1868)
1861 - 1864                Osip Antonovich Shcherbov-         (b. 1803 – d. 1865)
                             Nefedovich
1864 - 1869                Mikhail Ivanovich Astafyev         (b. 1821 - d. 1884)
Governors of Yerevan Governorate
20 May 1869 - 26 Jun 1873  Nikolay Nikolayevich Karmalin      (b. 1824 - d. 1900)
Jun 1873 - 1880            Mikhail Ivanovich Roslavlev        (b. 1822 - d. 1887)
 3 Apr 1880 -  3 Jan 1891  Mikhail Yakovlevich Shalikov       (b. 1831 - d. 1909)
14 Feb 1891 - 28 Nov 1895  Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Freze     (b. 1840 - d. 1918)
 3 Mar 1896 - 1916         Graf Vladimir Fyodorovich fon      (b. 1844 - d. 1919)
                             Tizengauzen
1916 - Mar 1917            Arkadiy Yevgenyevich Strel'bitskiy (b. 18.. - d. 1926)
Commissar of Yerevan Governorate
c.Feb 1918                 Sahak Torosyan                     (b. 1885 - d. 1940)  HHD
Chairman of the Armenian National Council

26 Oct 1917 -  1 Aug 1918  Avetis Arakeli Aharonyan           (b. 1866 - d. 1949)  HHD
                             (in T
iflis, Georgia to 19 Jul 1918)
26 Oct 1917 - 19 Jul 1918  Aram Haroutyouni Manoukyan        
(b. 1879 – d. 1919)  HHD
                             (special representative in Yerevan acting for Aharonyan)
Chairman of the Council of Armenia
(council adjourned sine die 4 Jun 1919, superseded by parliament)
 1 Aug 1918 -  1 Aug 1919  Avetik Hovhannesi
Sahakyan         (b. 1863 - d. 1933)  HHD
 4 Jun 1919 -  1 Aug 1919  authority of the Council transferred
                           to Cabinet of Ministers

Presidents of Parliament
 1 Aug 1919 -  5 Aug 1919  Avetik Hovhannesi Sahakyan (acting)(s.a.)               HHD
 5 Aug 1919 -  4 Nov 1920  Avetis Arakeli
Aharonyan           (s.a.)               HHD
                             (exercised functions of diplomatic representation abroad)
- Vice Presidents of the Parliament acting for the absent president -
 5 Aug 1919 - 10 Aug 1919  Sarkis Shahnazari Araratyan        (b. 1886 - d. 1943)  HHD 
 5 Aug 1919 -  4 Nov 1920  Levon Seghbosi Shant              
(b. 1869 - d. 1951)  HHD
                             (absent from Armenia to 8 Dec 1919)

10 Aug 1919 - 16 Sep 1919  Hovsep Hovhannesi Arghutyan        (b. 1862 - d. 1925)  HHD
                             (acting)
16 Sep 1919 - 
4 Nov 1919  Sirakan Fadeyi Tigranyan           (b. 1875 - d. 1947)  HHD
 6 Nov 1919 -  4 Nov 1920  Avetik Hovhannesi Sahakyan         (s.a.)               HHD

President of Parliament
 4 Nov 1920 -  2 Dec 1920  Hovhannes Roubeni Kajaznuni        (b. 1868 - d. 1937)  HHD    

                             (Kachaznuni) 
Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee

10 May 1920 - 14 May 1920  Avetis (Akop) Sogomonovich         (b. 1896 - d. 1937)  RKP
                             Nuridzhanyan
                            (in rebellion in Alexandropol [Gymri])
Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces

 2 Dec 1920 -  4 Dec 1920  Drastamat "Dro" Martirosi Kanayan  (b. 1884 - d. 1956)  Mil
/HHD
Chairman of the Committee for the Salvation of the Fatherland
18 Feb 1921 - 21 Apr 1921  Simeon Nazari Vratsyan             (b. 1882 - d. 1969)  HHD
                             (in Yerevan to 2 Apr 1921, then in dissidence in Zangezur)

Chairman of the Government of Armenia

21 Apr 1921 -  9 Jul 1921  Simeon Nazari Vratsyan             (s.a.)               HHD
                             (in dissidence, in Zangezur)
Chairman of the Supreme Council

 4 Aug 1990 - 11 Nov 1991  Levon Hakobi Ter-Petrosyan         (b. 1945)            HHSh
Presidents
11 Nov 1991 -  4 Feb 1998  Levon Hakobi Ter-Petrosyan         (s.a.)               Non-party
 4 Feb 1998 -  9 Apr 2008  Robert Sedraki Kocharyan           (b. 1954)            Non-party
                             (acting to 9 Apr 1998)
 9 Apr 2008 -  9 Apr 2018  Serzh Azati Sargsyan               (b. 1954)            HHK
 9 Apr 2018 -              Armen Vardani Sargsyan             (b. 1953)            Non-party

Chief ministers
 7 Jun 1918 -  7 Aug 1919  Hovhannes Roubeni Kajaznuni        (s.a.)               HHD
                             (Kachaznuni) (in Tiflis, Georgia to
                             19 Jul 1918;
abroad on a diplomatic
                             mission from 28 May 1919)

28 May 1919 -  5 May 1920  Aleksandr Hovhannesi Khatisyan     (b. 1876 - d. 1945)  HHD
                             (acting for Kachaznuni to 7 Aug 1919)
 5 May 1920 - 23 Nov 1920  Hamazasp Ohandjanyan (Ohandzhanyan)(b. 1873 - d. 1947)  HHD
23 Nov 1920 -  2 Dec 1920  Simeon Nazari Vratsyan             (b. 1882 - d. 1969)  HHD 
Prime ministers

13 Aug 1990 - 25 Sep 1991  Vazgen Mikayeli Manukyan           (b. 1946)         HHSh;1991 AZhM
26 Sep 1991 - 22 Nov 1992 
Hrant Ararati Bagratyan            (b. 1958)            HHSh
                             (1st time)(acting)
22 Nov 1991 - 30 Jul 1992  Gagik Garushi Harutyunyan          (b. 1948)            Non-party
30 Jul 1992 -  2 Feb 1993  Khosrov Meliki Harutyunyan         (b. 1948)            Non-party
 2 Feb 1993 -  4 Nov 1996  Hrant Ararati Bagratyan            (s.a.)               HHSh
                             (2nd time)(acting to 12 Feb 1993)
 4 Nov 1996 - 20 Mar 1997  Armen Vardani S
argsyan             (s.a.)               Non-party
20 Mar 1997 - 10 Apr 1998  Robert Sedraki Kocharyan           (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (1st time)
10 Apr 1998 - 11 Jun 1999  Armen Razmiki Darbinyan            (b. 1965)            Non-party
11 Jun 1999 - 27 Oct 1999  Vazgen Zaveni Sargsyan             (b. 1959 - d. 1999)  HHK
29 Oct 1999 -  3 Nov 1999  Robert Sedraki Kocharyan           (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 3 Nov 1999 -  2 May 2000  Aram Zaveni Sargsyan               (b. 1961)            HHK
 2 May 2000 - 12 May 2000  Robert Sedraki Kocharyan           (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (3rd time) (acting)
12 May 2000 - 25 Mar 2007  Andranik Nahapeti Margaryan        (b. 1951 - d. 2007)  HHK
26 Mar 2007 -  9 Apr 2008  Serzh Azati S
argsyan               (s.a.)               HHK 
                             (acting to 4 Apr 2007)
 9 Apr 2008 - 13 Apr 2014  Tigran Sureni S
argsyan             (b. 1960)            HHK
13 Apr 2014 - 13 Sep 2016  Hovik Argami Abrahamyan            (b. 1958)            HHK
13 Sep 2016 - 17 Apr 2018  Karen
Vilhelmi Karapetyan          (b. 1963)            HHK
                            
(1st time) (acting from 9 Apr 2018)
17 Apr 2018 - 23 Apr 2018 
Serzh Azati Sargsyan               (s.a.)               HHK
23 Apr 2018 -  8 May 2018  Karen Vilhelmi Karapetyan          (s.a.)               HHK
                            
(2nd time) (acting)
 8 May 2018 -              Nikol Vovayi Pashinyan             (b. 1975)            KP
                             (acting 16 Oct 2018 - 14 Jan 2019)
26 Nov 2018 -  5 Dec 2018  Ararat Samveli Mirzoyan            (b. 1979)            KP
                             (acting for Pashinyan) 

Allied Occupation

Allied High Commissioner to Armenia
 5 Jul 1919 -  1 Aug 1920  William Nafew Haskell, Jr. (U.S.)  (b. 1878 - d. 1952)  Mil
British Military Representatives,
Erevan (Yerevan)

 1 Feb 1919 -  2 Mar 1919  Verney Asser                       (b. 1873 - d. 1944)  Mil
 2 Mar 1919 - 28 Apr 1919  Clive Errington Temperley          (b. 1893? - d. 1956) Mil
28 Apr 1919 - 12 Jun 1919  Keith Maitland Davie               (b. 1868 - d. 19..)  Mil
12 Jun 1919 - 28 Aug 1919  John Chichele Plowden                                   Mil
British Commissioner-general of Lori Neutral Zone (at Alaverdi)
27 Jan 1919 - Aug 1919     Archibald Sholto George Douglas    (b. 1896 - d. 1981)  Mil

Territorial Disputes: Dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord re-establishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian Government.

Party abbreviations: AZhM = Azgayin Zhoghovrdavarakan Miutyun (National Democratic Union Armenia, centrist, split from HHSh, est.1991); HHD = Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutyun (Armenian Revolutionary Federation, "Dashnak", democratic socialist, Armenian nationalist, anti-communist, est.1890, banned 1920-90 and 1994-98, in exile 1920-1990); HHK = Hayastani Hanrapetakan Kusaktsutyun (Republican Party of Armenia, national conservative, republican, nationalist, est.2 Apr 1990); HKK = Hayastani Komunistakan Kusaktsutyun/ Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Armenii (Armenian Communist Party, Marxist-Leninist communist, 1920-1990 state party, to 13 Oct 1952 named Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Armenia, Nov 1990 split from Communist Party of Soviet Union, 1920-1991, re-est.29 Jul 1991); KP = Kaghakatsiakan Paymanagir (Civil Contract, centerist, liberal, pro-European, civil movement from 9 Dec 2013, HHK and Serzh Sarkisyan opposition, est.30 May 2015); Mil = Military;
- Former parties:
HHSh = Hayots Hamazgayin Sharzhum (Pan-Armenian National Movement, liberal,  liberal nationalist, centrist, anti-communist, 20 Feb 1988-23 Feb 2013); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed VKP)



Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
 
[Armenian S.S.R.
                          1922-1927 (USSR)]
2 Feb 1922 - 3 Apr 1927
[Flag of
                          Armenian SSR 1927-1937 (USSR)]
3 Apr 1927 - 23 Mar 1937
[Flag of
                          Armenian SSR 1937-1940 (USSR)]
23 Mar 1937 - 28 Sep 1940
[Flag of
                          Armenian SSR 1940-1952 (USSR)]
28 Sep 1940 - 17 Dec 1952
[Flag of Armenian
                          SSR 1952-1990 (USSR)]
17 Dec 1952 - 24 Aug 1990
Capital: Yerevan (Erevan)
Hear SSR Anthem
"Haykakan Sovetakan
Sots'ialistakan
Hanrapetut'yan petakan
orhnerg"
(State Anthem of 

Armenian SSR)
(1944 -1 Jul 1991)
-------------------------------
Former Anthem
"Internats'ional"
(The Internationale)
 (1920-1922, de facto possibly)
Constitutions
(2 Feb 1922, 3 Apr 1927,
23 Mar 1937, 14 Apr 1978)
Population: 3,031,000 (1980)
800,000 (1923)

29 Nov 1920                Socialist Soviet Republic of Armenia (Hayastani Soc'ialistakan
                             Xorhrdayin Hanrapetout'youn/Sotsialisticheskaya Sovetskaya
                             Respublika Armeniya
) proclaimed (in rebellion).
 
2 Dec 1920                Republic of Armenia government resigned by agreement, on 4 Dec 1920
                             the Soviet Russian troops entered Yerevan.
18 Feb 1921 -  2 Apr 1921  Anti-Soviet rebels (see above) occupied Yerevan.
16 Mar 1921                Kars region restoration to Turkey confirmed by the Treaty of Moscow
                             (confirmed on 13 Oct 1921 by the Treaty of Kars).
30 Nov 1921                Union Treaty with the Russian S.F.S.R.
12 Mar 1922 - 13 Dec 1922  Part of the Federative Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of
                             Transcaucasia
(
see under Georgia).
13 Dec 1922 -  5 Dec 1936  Part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet
                             Republic (see under Georgia).
 3 Apr 1927                Armenian 
Socialist Soviet Republic (Haykakan Soc'ialistakan
                            
Xorhrdayin Hanrapetout'youn
/Armyanskaya Sotsialisticheskaya
                             Sovetskaya Respublika
).
 5 Dec 1936                Accession individually to the Soviet Union (see under Russia).
 5 Dec 1936
               Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Haykakan Xorhrdayin
                            
Soc'ialistakan Hanrapetout'youn; 1940?: Haykakan Sovetakan
                            
Soc'ialistakan Ṙespoublika; 1966?: Haykakan Sovetakan
                             Soc'ialistakan Hanrapetout'youn; 1989? Haykakan Xorhrdayin
                             Soc'ialistakan Hanrapetout'youn/
Armyanskaya Sovetskaya
                             Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika).
 1 Dec 1989                Unification of the Armenian S.S.R. and the Nagorno-Karabakh

                             Autonomous Oblast is proclaimed by a joint session
                             of the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian S.S.R. and the National

                             Council of Nagorno-Karabakh (see under Azerbaijan)(not recognized
                             by Azerbaijan S.S.R. or Soviet Union, not effected).
23 Aug 1990                Republic of Armenia

Executive Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
(Bolsheviks) of Armenia (HHK)

10 Sep 1920 - 19 May 1921  Gevork Sarkisovich Alikhanyan       (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
19 May 1921 - 29 Apr 1922  Sergey Lukyanovich Lukashin         (b. 1885 - d. 1937)
                             (Sarkis Srapionyan)
Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Armenia (HHK)
29 Apr 1922 - Mar 1923     Askanaz Artemyemvich Mravyan        (b. 1886 - d. 1929)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
(Bolsheviks) of Armenia (HHK)(from 13 Oct 1952, Armenian Communist Party)
Mar 1923 -  6 Jul 1927     Ashot Gareginovich Hovhannisyan     (b. 1887 - d. 1972)
 6 Jul 1927 -  8 Apr 1928  Haik Aleksandrovich Osepyan         (b. 1891 - d. 1937)
 8 Apr 1928 -  7 May 1930  Aykaz Arkadyevich (Arshakovich)     (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
                             Kostanyan       
 7 May 1930 -  9 Jul 1936  Agasi Gevondovich Khandzhan         (b. 1901 - d. 1936)
13 Jul 1936 - 21 Sep 1937  Amatuni Semyonovich Vartapetyan     (b. 1900 - d. 1938)
                             (Amatuni Semyonovich Amatouni)
24 Sep 1937 - 12 Mar 1953  Grigoriy Artyomovich Arutyunov      (b. 1900 - d. 1957)
                             (Arutyunyan)
                             (acting to 6 Jun 1938)
12 Mar 1953 - 28 Dec 1960  Suren Akopovich Tovmasyan           (b. 1910 - d. 1980)
28 Dec 1960 -  5 Feb 1966  Yakov Nikitovich Zarobyan           (b. 1903 - d. 1980)
 5 Feb 1966 - 27 Nov 1974  Anton Ervandovich Kochinyan         (b. 1913 - d. 1989)
27 Nov 1974 - 21 May 1988  Karen Serobovich Demirchyan         (b. 1932 - d. 1999)
21 May 1988 -  6 Apr 1990  Suren Gurgenovich Arutyunyan        (b. 1939 - d. 2019)
 6 Apr 1990 - 30 Nov 1990  Vladimir Migranovich Movsisyan      (b. 1933 - d. 2014)
30 Nov 1990 - 14 May 1991  Stepan Karapetovich Pogosyan        (b. 1932 - d. 2012)
14 May 1991 -  7 Sep 1991  Aram Gasparovich Sarkisyan          (b. 1949)
                            (moves to multi-party elections May 1990)

Chairmen of the Military Revolutionary Committee
29 Nov 1920 -  4 May 1921  Sarkis Ivanovich Kasyan             (b. 1876 - d. 1937)  HKK

                             (at Dilijan to 4 Dec 1920, at Ararat Feb 1921 - Apr 1921)
 4 May 1921 - 21 May 1921  Aleksandr Fyodorovich Miasnikyan    (b. 1886 - d. 1925)  HKK

21 May 1921 -  2 Feb 1922  authority of the Committee transferred to
                           the Council of People's Commissars

Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee

 2 Feb 1922 - 23 Jun 1925  Sarkis Saakovich Ambartsumyan       (b. 1870 - d. 1944)  HKK
23 Jun 1925 -  7 Jul 1928  Artashes Balasyevich Karinyan       (b. 1886 - d. 1982)  HKK
 
7 Jul 1928 - 18 Feb 1931  Sarkis Ivanovich Kasyan             (s.a.)               HKK
18 Feb 1931 - 23 Apr 1933  Armenek Artyomovich Ananyan         (b. 1896 - d. 1958)  HKK
23 Apr 1933 - 17 Nov 1936  Sergo Nikolayevich Martikyan        (b. 1874 - d. 1957)  HKK
17 Nov 1936 - 29 Jul 1937  Gevorg Saribekovich Anesoglyan      (b. 1891 - d. 1938)  HKK
29 Jul 1937 -  6 Oct 1937  Bakhshi Arshakovich Nersesyan       (b. 1898 - d. 1959)  HKK
                             (acting)
 6 Oct 1937 - 12 Jul 1938  Matsak Petrosovich Papyan (acting)  (b. 1901 - d. 1962)
  HKK
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
12 Jul 1938 - 14 Jul 1938  Khachik Misakovich Akopdzhanyan     (b. 1902 - d. 1944)  HKK
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
14 Jul 1938 -  1 Apr 1954  Matsak Petrosovich Papyan           (s.a.)               HKK
 1 Apr 1954 -  3 Apr 1963  Shmalon Minasovich Arushanyan       (b. 1903 - d. 1982)  HKK
 
3 Apr 1963 -  3 Jul 1975  Nagush Khachaturovich Arutyunyan    (b. 1912 - d. 1993)  HKK
 3 Jul 1975 -  6 Dec 1985  Babken Yesayevich Sarkisov          (b. 1913 - d. 1999)  HKK
 6 Dec 1985 -  4 Aug 1990  Grant Mushegovich Voskanyan         (b. 1924 - d. 2005)  HKK
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
 4 Aug 1990 - 11 Nov 1991  Levon Akopovich Ter-Petrosyan       (b. 1945)            HHSh

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
21 May 1921 - 21 May 1922  Aleksandr Fyodorovich Miasnikyan    (s.a.)               HKK
21 May 1922 - 24 Jun 1925  Sergey Lukyanovich Lukashin
        (s.a.)               HKK
                             (Sarkis Srapionyan)  
24 Jun 1925 - 22 Mar 1928  Sarkis Saakovich Ambartsumyan       (s.a.)               HKK
                             (1st time) 
22 Mar 1928 - 10 Feb 1935  Sahak Mirzoyevich Ter-Gabrielyan    (b. 1886 - d. 1937)  HKK
10 Feb 1935 - Feb 1937     Abram Abramovich Guloyan            (b. 1893 - d. 1938)  HKK
Mar 1937 - May 1937        Sarkis Saakovich Ambartsumyan       (s.a.)               HKK
                             (2nd time) 
May 1937 - 21 Sep 1937     Stepan Yegorovich Akopov (Akopyan)  (b. 1897 - d. 1938)  HKK

23 Nov 1937 - Oct 1943     Aram Sergeyevich Piruzyan           (b. 1907 - d. 1996)  HKK
Oct 1943 - 1946            Agasi Solomonovich Sarkisyan        (b. 1905 - d. 1985)  HKK
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
1946 - 29 Mar 1947         Agasi Solomonovich Sarkisyan        (s.a.)               HKK 
29 Mar 1947 - Nov 1952     Saak Karapetovich Karapetyan        (b. 1906 - d. 1987)  HKK
20 Nov 1952 -  5 Feb 1966  Anton Ervandovich Kochinyan         (s.a.)               HKK
 5 Feb 1966 - 21 Nov 1972  Badal Amayakovich Muradyan          (b. 1915 - d. 1991)  HKK
21 Nov 1972 - 28 Nov 1976  Grigoriy Agafonovich Arzumanyan     (b. 1919 - d. 1976)  HKK
28 Nov 1976 - 17 Jan 1977  Gerasim Aramaisovich Martirosyan    (b. 1926 - d. 1993)  HKK
                             
(acting)
17 Jan 1977 - 16 Jan 1989  Fadey Tachatovich Sarkisyan         (b. 1923 - d. 2010)  HKK
16 Jan 1989 - 13 Aug 1990  Vladimir Surenovich Markaryants     (b. 1934 - d. 2000)  HHK
13 Aug 1990 - 25 Sep 1991  Vazgen Mikaelovich Manukyan         (b. 1946)            HHSh;1991
                                                                                    AZhM

Party abbreviations: AZhM = Azgayin Zhoghovrdavarakan Miutyun (National Democratic Union Armenia, centrist, split from HHSh, est.1991); HKK = Hayastani Komunistakan Kusaktsutyun/ Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Armenii (Armenian Communist Party, Marxist-Leninist communist, 1920-1990 state party, to 13 Oct 1952 named Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Armenia, Nov 1990 split from Communist Party of Soviet Union, 1920-1991, re-est.29 Jul 1991); HHSh = Hayots Hamazgayin Sharzhum (Pan-Armenian National Movement, liberal, liberal nationalist, centrist, anti-communist, 20 Feb 1988-23 Feb 2013)


Nagorno-Karabakh: see under Azerbaijan

Zangezur (Syunik)

[Armenia 1918 -
                          1921]Jul 1918  - 1 Jun 1921

Map of Zangezur (Syunik)
(1921)
Capital: Goris
(Kapan 25 Aug - Sep 1920,
Oct - 27 Dec 1920)
Population: 64,000 (1922)

1722 - 1730                Polity of Kapan (Ghapan) established (see under Armenia).
1747 - 1822                Part of the Khanate of Qarabagh (Karabakh)(see under Azerbaijan).
 4 Jun 1918                Zangezur (Syunik) part of Azerbaijan by the Treaty of Batum.
Jul 1918                   Local Armenian administration established, originally independent
                             of Republic of Armenia, in opposition to the Ottoman-Azerbaijani
                             forces.
23 Nov 1919                Treaty of Tiflis failed to establish a boundary between Armenia and

                             Azerbaijan, but sanctioned the effective status quo control.
10 Aug 1920                Armenia and Soviet Russia signed an agreement under which Soviet
                             Russian troops (occupied Goris on 5 Jul 1920) were allowed to
                             keep Zangezur.
25 Aug 1920                A dictatorship proclaimed by local Armenians, in rebellion against
                             Soviet Russian-Azerbaijani troops.
 2 Dec 1920                Azerbaijan S.S.R. recognizes Zangezur as part of Armenian S.S.R.
                             (not effected at that time).
25 Dec 1920                Autonomous Government of Syunik proclaimed at Tatev by anti-Soviet
                             Armenian forces, which was declared "autonomous within Republic
                             of Armenia."
26 Apr 1921                Mountainous Armenia proclaimed independent by 2nd Pan-Zangezurian
                             Congress, held in Tatev
(in rebellion against Soviet rule).
 1 Jun 1921                Mountainous Armenia merges itself into the Republic of Armenia,
                             autonomy continues de facto.
 5 Jul 1921                Boundary between Azerbaijan S.S.R. and Armenian S.S.R. established,
                             Zangezur recognized as part of Armenia.
13 Jul 1921                Soviet occupation of Zangezur completed (Goris taken on 2 Jul 1921).

Chairmen of Zangezur Armenian National Council (at Goris)
Jul 1918 - Mar 1919        Smbat Melik-Stepanyan               (b. 1879 - d. 1940)  Non-party
Mar 1919 - Jul 1919        Mushegh Zakharyan                   (d. af.1927)         Non-party
Jul 1919 - Nov 1919        Arshak Shirinyan                    (b. 1883 - d. 1920)  HHD
Provincial Commissars of the Republic of Armenia in Zangezur
and (nominally) Karabakh
(at Goris)
 6 Mar 1919 - Nov 1919     Arsen Shakhmazyan (interim)         (b. 1883 - d.af.1935)Mil
Nov 1919 - Jul? 1920       Sarkis (Sergey) Melik-Yolchyan      (d. af. 1925)        HHD
Dictator and commander (title: Sparapet)(at Kapan, except Sep 1920 - Oct 1920)
25 Aug 1920 - 27 Dec 1920  Garegin Ter-Harutyunyan             (b. 1886 - d. 1955)  Mil
                             "Garegin Nzhdeh"                           
Head of Autonomous Government of Syunik (at Goris)
27 Dec 1920 - Feb/Apr 1921 Gedeon Ter-Minasyan                 (b. 1865 - d. 1937)
Chief minister (varch’apet) of Mountainous Armenia (at Goris)
27 Apr 1921 -  1 Jun 1921  Garegin Ter-Harutyunyan             (s.a.)               Mil
                             "Garegin Nzhdeh"
                            (continues de facto to Jul 1921)

Party abbreviations: HHD = Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutyun (Armenian Revolutionary Federation, "Dashnak", democratic socialist, Armenian nationalist, anti-communist, est.1890, banned 1920-90 and 1994-98, in exile 1920-1990); Mil = Military



© Ben Cahoon