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Germany 
 
[Emperor's Banner until 1401
                                    (Holy Roman Empire, Germany)]
                  962 - 1401
      Holy Roman Emperor's flag
 
 
 
 
[Germany 1871-1921, N. Ger.
                                    Confed. 1867-1870]
              1 Jul 1867 - 16 Apr 1871 
           (North German Confederation);
             16 Apr 1871 - 31 Dec 1921;
             11 Mar 1933 - 15 Sep 1935
                     (co-national flag)
 
[Germany]
               9 Mar 1848 - 15 Aug 1852
               (German Reich -Frankfurt);
             14 Aug 1919 - 11 Mar 1933
 
 
 
[Third
                                    Reich 1933-1945 (Germany)]
              11 Mar 1933 - 23 May 1945
           (co-national flag to 15 Sep 1935)
 
[Allied Occupation of Germany
                                    (C-Ensign)]
            12 Nov 1945 - 14 Aug 1950 
               Provisional Civil Ensign
 
[Germany]
                  Re-adopted 9 May 1949 
            ("West Germany" to 3 Oct 1990)
 
Map of Germany
Hear National Anthem
"Deutschlandlied"
(Song of the Germans)
Text of Anthem
Adopted 3 Oct 1990
Constitution
 (23 May 1949)
Capital: Berlin
Currency: Euro (EUR);
1948 - 1 Jan 2002 Deutsche
 Mark (DEM)
 National Holiday:  3 Oct (1990)
German Unity Day
Population: 81,147,265 (2013)
GDP: $3.23 trillion (2013) 
Exports: $1.49 trillion (2013)
Imports: $1.23 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: German 88.2%, Turkish 3.4% (Kurdish 0.7%),
Italian 1%, Greek 0.7%, Serb 0.6%, Russian 0.6%,
Polish 0.4%, other 5.1% (2000) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 182,927 (2010)
U.S. Troops: 52,264 (2012)
British Troops: 21,500 (2012)

Merchant marine: 427 ships (2010)
Religions: Christian 75.8% (of which Protestant 35.6%
[Lutheran 33.9%], Roman Catholic 33.5%, Orthodox 0.9%,
other Christian 4.9%, independent Christian 0.9%), Sunni
Muslim 4.4%,
Jewish 0.1%, atheist 2.2%, non-religious 17.2%,
 other 0.3% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), AfDB (nonregional), ADB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), BTWC, CBSS, CCM, CDB (nonregional), CE, CERN, CFE, CTBT, CWC, DC, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO,  Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Germany
Index
Chronology
25 Dec 800                 Holy Roman Empire¹ ("First Reich").
25 Jul 1806                Confederation of the Rhine founded (under French
                             rule). 
 6 Aug 1806                Holy Roman Empire dissolved.
19 Oct 1813                Confederation of the Rhine dissolves.
21 Oct 1813 - 20 Jun 1815  Attempted central coordination.
20 Jun 1815 - 24 Aug 1866  German Confederation; members in official order:
                            (1) Austria²
                            (2) Prussia (announces exit 14 Jun 1866, 
                                permission denied by Federal Assembly 16 
                                Jun 1866).
                            (3) Bavaria (4) Saxony (5) Hanover
                            (6) Württemberg (from 1 Sep 1815)
                            (7) Baden (from 26 Jul 1815)
                            (8) Hesse-Kassel (9) Hesse-Darmstadt
                           (10) Holstein (plus Schleswig from 12 Apr 1848)
                           (11) Luxembourg
                           (12) Limburg (from 5 Sep 1839, see Netherlands)
                           (13) Braunschweig (14) Mecklenburg-Schwerin
                           (15) Nassau-Usingen + Nassau-Weilburg, merged 
                                24 Mar 1816 into Nassau. 
                           (16) Saxe-Weimar (17) Saxe-Gotha 
                           (18) Saxe-Coburg (19) Saxe-Meiningen 
                           (20) Saxe-Hildburghausen
                           (21) Mecklenburg-Strelitz (22) Holstein-Oldenburg
                           (23) Anhalt-Dessau (merged 30 Aug 1863 
                                into Anhalt)
                           (24) Anhalt-Bernburg (same as above)
                           (25) Anhalt-Köthen (same as above)
                           (26) Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 
                           (27) Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
                           (28) Hohenzollern-Hechingen 
                                (annexed by Prussia 12 Mar 1850)
                           (29) Liechtenstein
                           (30) Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
                                (annexed by Prussia 12 Mar 1850)
                           (31) Waldeck (32) Reuss Senior Line 
                           (33) Reuss Junior Line (34) Schaumburg-Lippe
                           (35) Lippe (36) Hesse-Homburg (from 7 Jul 1817) 
                           (37) Lauenburg (38) Lübeck (39) Frankfurt
                           (40) Bremen  (41) Hamburg
12 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1849  German Empire (Reich)
                             (officially from 28 Mar 1849).
 1 Jul 1867 -  1 Jan 1871  North German Confederation; members in 
                             official order:
                             (1) Prussia³ (with Lauenburg) (2) Saxony
                             (3) Mecklenburg-Schwerin 
                             (4) Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
                             (5) Mecklenburg-Strelitz (6) Oldenburg
                             (7) Brunswick (8) Saxe-Meiningen
                             (9) Saxe-Altenburg
                            (10) Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (11) Anhalt
                            (12) Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 
                            (13) Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
                            (14) Waldeck (15) Reuss Senior Line 
                            (16) Reuss Junior Line (17) Schaumburg-Lippe 
                            (18) Lippe (19) Lübeck (20) Bremen (21) Hamburg 
                            (22) Hesse-Darmstadt (only the territories on 
                                 the right bank of the Rhine).
 1 Jan 1871                German Empire ("Second Reich").
18 Jan 1871 - 11 Nov 1918  Alsace-Lorraine annexed from France.
10 Nov 1918                Germany a republic (style German Reich is not 
                             officially abandoned. Alternative polity styles- 
                             German Socialist Republic, German Republic,
                             Germany - are in official use, but have no
                             constitutional status). 
 1 Dec 1918 - 30 Jun 1930  Allied occupation of the Rhineland.
28 Jun 1919                By the Treaty of Versailles, Alsace-Lorraine 
                             restored to France; Eupen-Malmedy and Neutral
                             Moresnet ceded to Belgium; Danzig made a Free
                             City; most of West Prussia, part of Pomerania,
                             Posen, a "Corridor" to the Baltic and part of
                             Upper Silesia (after plebiscite) ceded to 
                             Poland; Memel and the Saarland to be under
                             International administration; Rhineland to be 
                             demilitarized and under Allied occupation; 
                             Northern Schleswig ceded to Denmark after 
                             plebiscite; union with Austria forbidden;
                             and all colonies surrendered to the Allies.
13 Mar 1938 - 27 Apr 1945  Austria annexed.
21 Oct 1938 -  6 May 1945  Sudetenland annexed from Czechoslovakia.
16 Mar 1939                Styled Greater German Reich (Grossdeutsches Reich)
                             designates the territorial scope of legislation
                             applying to the German Reich together with
                             Böhmen und Mähren. It becomes part of the
                             official style of the Head of State for external
                             relations from 28 Jul 1942; and is also used for
                             external relations as the polity style from 
                             26 Jun 1943; no Constitutional status given.
 1 Sep 1939 -  2 Apr 1945  Danzig annexed.
15 Jun 1940 - 20 Mar 1945  Alsace-Lorraine annexed.
23 May 1945 -  5 May 1955  Allied occupation (formally assuming supreme
                             power 5 Jun 1945).
17 Oct 1945                Soviet Union annexes northern East Prussia 
                             (Königsberg).
 7 Sep 1949                Federal Republic of Germany ("West Germany" to
                             3 Oct 1990)
 7 Oct 1949                Soviet backed German Democratic Republic (GDR)
                            ("East Germany") formed in the east.
 3 Oct 1990                East Germany incorporated into the Federal
                             Republic of Germany.
Federal
Republic of
Germany
(since 1949)
States
since 1918
German states
before 1918
A - E & F - M
N - Q & R - Z

Prussia
Provinces
(to 1945)
Holy Roman
Empire

(1576-1806)
 Confederation
of the Rhine

(1806-1813)
Transitional
Administration

(1813-1815)
German Reich
(1815-1945)
Allied Military
Occupation

(1945-1949)
  • U.S. Zone
  • British Zone
  • French Zone
  • Soviet Zone
  • Dutch Zone
  • Polish Zone
  • East Germany
    (1949-1990)
    East German
    Districts
    (1952-1990)
     Heligoland
    (1807-1891)
     Saarland
    (1918-35,1945-56)
    Allied Rhineland
    Occupation

    (1918-1930)
    Rheinland Republic
    (1919,1923,1924)
    French
    Départements
    in Germany

    (1800-1813)
    Neuschwabenland
    (1939)
    Historical Maps
    of Germany
    Map of Holy
    Roman Empire
    in 1789
    Map of Germany
    in 1807
     

    Holy Roman Empire¹ 

    [Emperor's
                          Banner until 1402 (Holy Roman Empire,
                          Germany)]
                     962 - 1402
         Holy Roman Emperor's Flag
    flag of the
                          Holy Roman Emperor 1402-1806
                1402 - 6 Aug 1806
          Holy Roman Emperor's Flag
    25 Dec 800                 Holy Roman Empire¹ 
     6 Aug 1806                Reich dissolved.

    Emperors-elect¹
     4 Feb 1508 - 12 Jan 1519  Maximilian I                       (b. 1459 - d. 1519)
                                 (elected 16 Feb 1486)
    24 Feb 1530 - 26 Aug 1556  Karl V                             (b. 1500 - d. 1558)
                                 (elected 28 Jun 1519)
    26 Feb 1558 - 25 Jul 1564  Ferdinand II                       (b. 1503 - d. 1564)
                                 (elected 5 Jan 1531)
    25 Jul 1564 - 12 Oct 1576  Maximilian II                      (b. 1527 - d. 1576)
                                 (elected 28 Nov 1562)
     2 Nov 1576 - 20 Jan 1612  Rudolf II                          (b. 1552 - d. 1612)
                                 (elected 27 Oct 1575)
    20 Jan 1612 - 13 Jun 1612  Imperial vicars
                               - Friedrich V (1st time)           (b. 1596 - d. 1632)
                                 (count palatine of the Rhine)
                               - Johann Georg I (1st time)        (b. 1585 - d. 1656)
                                 (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony)
    24 Jun 1612 - 20 Mar 1619  Matthias II                        (b. 1557 - d. 1619)
                                 (elected 13 Jun 1612)
    20 Mar 1619 - 28 Aug 1619  Imperial vicars
                               - Friedrich V (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                                 (count palatine of the Rhine)
                               - Johann Georg I (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                                 (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony)
    28 Aug 1619 - 15 Feb 1637  Ferdinand III                      (b. 1578 - d. 1637)
    15 Feb 1637 -  2 Apr 1657  Ferdinand IV                       (b. 1608 - d. 1657)
                                 (elected 22 Dec 1636)
     2 Apr 1657 - 18 Jul 1658  Imperial vicars
                               - Karl I Ludwig                    (b. 1617 - d. 1680) 
                                 (count palatine of the Rhine;
                                  in dispute with Ferdinand Maria)
                               - Ferdinand Maria (duke of Bavaria)(b. 1636 - d. 1679)
                                 (in dispute with Karl I
    Ludwig)
                               - Johann Georg II                  (b. 1613 - d. 1680)
                                 (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony)
     1 Aug 1658 -  5 May 1705  Leopold I                          (b. 1640 - d. 1705)
                                 (elected 18 Jul 1658)
     5 May 1705 - 17 Apr 1711  Joseph I                           (b. 1678 - d. 1711)
                                 (elected 23 Jan 1690, crowned 26 Jan 1690)
    17 Apr 1711 - 12 Oct 1711  Imperial vicars
                               - Johann Wilhelm                   (b. 1658 - d. 1716)
                                 (count palatine of the Rhine)
                               - Friedrich August I "der Starke"  (b. 1670 - d. 1740)
                                 (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony)
    22 Dec 1711 - 20 Oct 1740  Karl VI                            (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                                 (elected 12 Oct 1711)
    20 Oct 1740 - 14 Jan 1742  Imperial vicars
                               - Karl Albrecht                    (b. 1697 - d. 1745)
                                 (duke of Bavaria)
                               - Friedrich August II  (1st time)  (b. 1696 - d. 1763)
                                 (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.)
    12 Feb 1742 - 20 Jan 1745  Karl VII                           (s.a.)
                                 (Karl Albrecht, duke of Bavaria)
                                 (elected 14 Jan 1742)
    20 Jan 1745 - 13 Sep 1745  Imperial vicars
                               - Maximilian III Joseph            (b. 1727 - d. 1777)
                                 (duke of Bavaria)
                               - Friedrich August II  (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                                 (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.)
     4 Oct 1745 - 18 Aug 1765  Franz I                            (b. 1708 - d. 1765)
                                 (elected 13 Sep 1745)
    18 Aug 1765 - 20 Feb 1790  Joseph II                          (b. 1741 - d. 1790)
                                 (elected 27 Mar 1764, crowned 3 Apr 1764)
    20 Feb 1790 - 30 Sep 1790  Imperial vicars
                               - Karl IV Philipp Theodor          (b. 1724 - d. 1799)
                                 (1st time) (count palatine of the Rhine, duke of Bavaria)
                               - Friedrich August III             (b. 1750 - d. 1827)
                                  "der Gerechte" (1st time)
                                 (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.)
     9 Oct 1790 -  1 Mar 1792  Leopold II                         (b. 1747 - d. 1792)
                                 (elected 30 Sep 1790)
     1 Mar 1792 -  7 Jul 1792  Imperial vicars
                               - Karl IV Philipp Theodor          (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time) (count palatine of the Rhine, duke of Bavaria)
                               - Friedrich August III             (s.a.)
                                 "der Gerechte" (2nd time)
                                 (count palatine of Saxony, duke of Saxony, etc.)
    14 Jul 1792 -  6 Aug 1806  Franz II                           (b. 1768 - d. 1835)
                                 (elected 7 Jul 1792)
     

    Archchancellors for Germany
    30 Mar 1695 - 25 Jul 1806  the Archbishops of Mayence (Mainz)
    Archchancellors for Gaul and the Kingdom of Arles
    13 Jul 1676 - 27 Apr 1803  the Archbishops of Trier
    Archchancellors for Italy
    19 Jul 1688 - 27 Apr 1803  the Archbishops of Cologne

     ¹Constitutionally the entity dealt here is the Reich ruled by the king elected by the electors (Kurfürsten) and crowned king. (It is a matter of dispute whether the king acquires his ruling authority with the election or only with the coronation; both dates are given in the following record.) In theory, his title is just King (König) without territorial appendage. By the time period covered here, it was understood that the king had acquired the dignity and notional authority of a Roman emperor (see below), and the scope of his authority as such was styled the Holy Roman Empire (Heiliges Römisches Reich - Sacrum Romanum Imperium); the addition "of the German Nation" (deutscher Nation - nationis germanicae) comes into official use in the 15th century (e.g., Act of the Imperial Diet [Reichsschluss] of 1486); its meaning has been the subject of considerable dispute since the 17th century. In the time period covered, the imperial authority extended de facto (except for some vestigial remnants, such as the chartering of notaries-public throughout Western Europe) only to the (German) Reich, and official use made no distinctions.
      Upon his election (and coronation) the person acquired the style of king, whether during the lifetime of the ruler or after an interregnum. Theoretically, he was king just as much as an existing ruler, but this was just theory. In honor of the imperial status of the ruler, the elected and crowned king, if not yet emperor-elect (see above), was styled, not just King or German King, but Roman King (Römischer König - Rex Romanorum, literally "king of the Romans").
      With the demise of the imperial authority, by death or abdication, if a Roman King was in existence, he took the style of Roman Emperor-Elect, King in Germany (see above). The imperial coronation by the pope having been discontinued (except for Karl V 24 Feb 1530), it was decided 4 Feb 1508 to forego the formal acquisition of the style of Roman Emperor and to fall back on the theory that an elected German king was ipso facto Roman emperor-elect and to make this point by incorporating this concept into the ruler's style.
      The full style during the period covered (to which were, of course, attached the styles belonging to the states ruled by the emperor-elect, such as Archduke of Austria) was as follows: Von Gottes Gnaden erwählter römischer Kaiser, R.I.S.A., König in Germanien - Divina favente clementia Romanorum imperator electus et semper augustus, R.I.S.A., rex in Germania. The initials R.I.S.A. stood for Romanorum imperator semper augustus, but were misinterpreted to stand for Romani imperii semper auctor, and this misinterpretation had by the period covered come into official use, being rendered in German as zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs ("at all times increaser of the empire").
      Under the provisions of the Golden Bull of 1356, when there was no king the royal authority was exercised by two imperial vicars (Reichsvikare - vicarii imperii), each with a separate territorial jurisdiction. They were specified to be the count palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgraf bei Rhein) and the count palatine of Saxony (Pfalzgraf von Sachsen). By the time period covered, the count palatine of Saxony was the duke of Saxony, elector; and the count palatine of the Rhine was the elector with that title, until the interregnum of 1657, when the electorate in question, and with it the county palatine, were in dispute with Bavaria.


    The Confederation of the Rhine
    [French Flag]
                25 Jul 1806 - 19 Oct 1813
    Note: Under the aegis of Napoléon I, Emperor of the French and King of Italy, a confederation of states resigning from the Reich was formed 25 Jul 1806, Napoléon becoming protecteur de la Confédération du Rhin in addition to his other styles. The Charter (Rheinbundsakte in German) was written in the French language, and called the entity États confédérés du Rhin, but used the term Confédération. The official German term was Rhein-Confoederation, but it was informally styled Rheinbund, the name by which it is known to history. The constituents of the Confederation were technically not states, but rulers. By joining the Confederation some had their rank elevated, notably a few who became grand-dukes (Grossherzog), who were regarded as of royal status. The Diet of the Confederation, as well as its College of Kings, was chaired by the former Archbishop of Mayence, Imperial Archchancellor and Elector, in his capacity as Prince-Primate (Fürstprimas).
     
     
    Map of Confederation
    of the Rhine
    Capital: Karlsruhe

    25 Jul 1806                Confederation of the Rhine founded.
                               Charter members:
                               - King of Bavaria (to 8 Oct 1813)
                               - King of Württemberg
                               - Elector-archchancellor (formerly archbishop of Mayence).
                               - Elector of Baden, becomes a grand-duke.
                               - Duke of Berg and Cleves, becomes a grand-duke.
                               - Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, becomes a grand-duke.
                               - Prince of Nassau-Usingen, senior of these two becomes a duke.
                               - Prince of Nassau-Weilburg 
                               - Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
                               - Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
                               - Prince of Salm-Salm
                               - Prince of Salm-Kyrburg
                               - Prince of Isenburg-Birstein
                               - Duke of Arenberg 
                               - Prince of Liechtenstein
                               - Count of Leyen, becomes a prince.
                               From 15 Sep 1806:
                               - Grand-duke of Würzburg
                               From 11 Dec 1806:
                               - King of Saxony
                               From 15 Dec 1806:
                               - Duke of Saxe-Weimar
                               - Duke of Saxe-Gotha
                               - Duke of Saxe-Meiningen
                               - Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen
                               - Duke of Saxe-Coburg
                               - Duke of Anhalt-Dessau
                               - Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg
                               - Duke of Anhalt-Köthen
                               - Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
                               - Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
                               - Duke of Oldenburg
                               - Prince of Lippe-Detmold
                               - Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe
                               - four Princes of Reuss
                               - two Princes of Schwarzburg
                               - Prince of Waldeck
                               From 15 Nov 1807:
                               - King of Westphalia
    19 Oct 1813                Confederation dissolves.

    Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine
    25 Jul 1806 - 19 Oct 1813  Napoléon I                               (b. 1769 - d. 1821)

    Prince-Primate (also Chairman of the Diet and the College of Kings)
    25 Jul 1806 - 19 Oct 1813  Karl Theodor Anton Maria Kämmerer 
                                 von Worms, Reichsfreiherr von Dalberg  (b. 1744 - d. 1817)
                                (1803 - 1806 Prince-archbishop of Regensburg,
                                 1806 - 1810 Grand Duke of Frankfurt)


    Transitional Central Administration 1813-1815

    Note: After the dissolution of the Rhine Confederation, there was no central authority in Germany until the creation of the German Confederation. An attempt at coordination was, however, made, and it was headed by a body called Central Administration Council (Zentralverwaltungsrat).

    21 Oct 1813 - 20 Jun 1815  Attempted central coordination.

    President of the Central Administration Council (Zentralverwaltungsrat)
    21 Oct 1813 - 20 Jun 1815  Heinrich Friedrich Karl Freiherr      (b. 1757 - d. 1831)
                                 vom und zum Stein


    German Reich
     
    [Germany]
                   9 Mar 1848 - 15 Aug 1852;
                 14 Aug 1919 - 11 Mar 1933 
     
    [Germany
                          1871-1921, N. Ger. Confed. 1867-1870]
                   1 Jul 1867 - 31 Dec 1921; 
      11 Mar 1933 - 15 Sep 1935  (co-national flag)
     
    [Third Reich
                          1933-1945 (Germany)]
                 11 Mar 1933 - 23 May 1945 
              (co-national flag to 15 Sep 1935) 
     
    Capital: Berlin (1871-1945)
    (Plön 29 Apr - 23 May 1945)
    Currency:  1871-1924 German
    Paper Mark (DED); 1924-1948
     German Reichsmark (DER);
     1945-1948 German Allied
    Mark (DEA)
    National Holiday 1933-1945:
    23 Apr (1889)
    Fuhrer's Birthday
    --------------------------
    1888-1918: Kaiser's Birthday
    27 Jan (1859)
    Population: 89,930,700 (1939)
    62,348,782 (1925)
    67,812,000 (1914)
    Map German Confederation
    Seat of Assembly: Frankfurt
    National Anthem
    (None)
    German Confederation
    Constitution
    (8 Jun 1815; in German)
    Map of German Empire
    Hear Imperial Anthem
    "'Heil Dir im Siegerkranz"
    (Hail To Thee in
    Victor's Crown)
    Text of National Anthem
     (1 Jan 1871-11 Aug 1922)
    Imperial Constitution
    (16 Apr 1871 - 14 Aug 1919;
    in German)
    Map of Germany 1920
    Hear Anthem 1922-1945
    "Deutschlandlied"
    (Song of Germany
    )
    Text of National Anthem
     (11 Aug 1922 - 5 Jun 1945)
    Weimar Constitution
     (14 Aug 1919 - 5 Jun 1945)
    Map of Germany 1944
    Hear NSDAP Anthem
    "Horst Wessel Lied"
    (Host Wessel Song)
    Text of  Horst Wessel
    (19 May 1933 - 23 May 1945)
    Nuremberg Laws
    (15 Sep 1935-May 1945)
    International Organizations/Treaties 1871-1945:  BIS, ICRM, IHB, ILO, IMO, IOC, ICPC, IPU, ITU, League of Nations (1926-1933), LORCS, PCA, PCIJ, UIBPIP, UPU
     
    20 Jun 1815                German Confederation
    12 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1849  German Empire (declared at Frankfurt; officially 
                                 from 28 Mar 1849).
    28 Mar 1849                Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia elected Emperor;
                                 on 28 Apr 1849, he rejects the election.
    24 Aug 1866                End of the German Confederation.
     1 Jul 1867                North German Confederation
     1 Jan 1871                German Empire (Deutsches Reich)
    10 Nov 1918                Germany a republic (but style German Reich not abandoned).
     

    Presidents of the German Confederation
    20 Jun 1815 - 24 Aug 1866  the Emperors of Austria
    Presidential Envoys to the Federal Parliament (in Frankfurt)(all Austrian)
     5 Oct 1815 - 16 Dec 1815  Franz Joseph Freiherr  von Albini  (b. 1748 - d. 1816)
                                 auf Dürrenried
    16 Dec 1815 - 24 Feb 1823  Johann Rudolf Graf von Buol-       (b. 1763 - d. 1834)
                                 Schauenstein
    24 Feb 1823 - 12 Mar 1848  Joachim Eduard Freiherr von        (b. 1786 - d. 1866)
                                 Münch-Bellinghausen 
    12 Mar 1848 - 14 May 1848  Franz Graf von Colloredo-Wallsee   (b. 1799 - d. 1859)
    14 May 1848 - 12 Jul 1848  Anton von Schmerling               (b. 1805 - d. 1893)
     1 May 1850 -  1 Nov 1852  Friedrich Graf von Thun-Hohenstein (b. 1810 - d. 1881) 
     2 Jan 1853 - 12 Oct 1855  Anton Freiherr Prokesch            (b. 1795 - d. 1876) 
    12 Oct 1855 -  4 May 1859  Johann Bernhard Graf von Rechberg  (b. 1806 - d. 1899) 
                                 und Rothenlöwen
    23 May 1859 - 24 Aug 1866  Aloys Freiherr von Kübeck          (b. 1819 - d. 1873)

    Presidents of the Constituent National Assembly (Frankfurt-am-Main)
    18 May 1848 - 19 May 1848  Friedrich Lang                     (b. 1778 - d. 1859)
                               (president by age of the Constituent National Assembly)
    19 May 1848 - 12 Jul 1849  Heinrich Wilhelm August Freiherr   (b. 1799 - d. 1880)  R-Lib
                                 von Gagern
    Provisional Central Authorities of the German Reich (Frankfurt-am-Main)
    12 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1849  Johann, Erzherzog von Österreich   (b. 1782 - d. 1859)
                                (Imperial Vicar [Reichsverweser])
     6 Jun 1849 - 18 Jun 1849  German Imperial Regency
                               (in Stuttgart; in rebellion)
                                - Peter Franz Joseph Raveaux      (b. 1810 - d. 1851)  Dem
                                - August Christoph Carl Vogt      (b. 1817 - d. 1895)  Dem
                                - August Heinrich Simon           (b. 1805 - d. 1860)  Dem
                                - Friedrich Schüler               (b. 1791 - d. 1873)  Dem
                                - Heinrich August Becher          (b. 1816 - d. 1890)  Dem
    20 Dec 1849 -  1 May 1850  Federal Commission (Frankfurt-am-Main)
                               (on behalf of the Emperor of Austria 
                                and the King of Prussia)
                                - Karl Friedrich Kübeck Freiherr  (b. 1780 - d. 1855)
                                    von Kübau (Austria)
                                - Karl Freiherr von Schönhals     (b. 1788 - d. 1857)
                                    (Austria)
                                - Carl Wilhelm Boetticher         (b. 1791 - d. 1868) 
                                    (Prussia)
                                - Joseph Maria von Radowitz       (b. 1797 - d. 1853)
                                    (to 31 Mar 1850)(Prussia)
                                - Eduard von Peucker (Prussia)    (b. 1791 - d. 1876)
                                    (from 19 Jan 1850; acting to 31 Mar 1850)
    President of the North German Confederation
     1 Jul 1867 -  1 Jan 1871  the King of Prussia
    Emperors4
    18 Jan 1871 -  9 Mar 1888  Wilhelm I                          (b. 1797 - d. 1888)
     4 Jun 1878 -  5 Dec 1878  Friedrich Wilhelm von Prussen      (b. 1831 - d. 1888)
                                 (acting)
     9 Mar 1888 - 15 Jun 1888  Friedrich III                      (s.a.)
     9 Mar 1888 - 15 Jun 1888  Wilhelm von Preussen (acting)      (b. 1859 - d. 1941)
    15 Jun 1888 -  9 Nov 1918  Wilhelm II                         (s.a.)
    Chairmen of the Executive Council of the Workers and 
    Soldiers' Councils of Greater Berlin
    11 Nov 1918 - 20 Dec 1918  Richard Müller                     (b. 1880 - d. 1943)  USPD
                               + Hans-Georg von Beerfelde         (b. 1877 - d. 1960)  Mil
                                 (to 12 Nov 1918)
                               + Brutus Molkenbuhr                (b. 1881 - d. 1959)  SPD
                                 (from 12 Nov 1918)
    Chairmen of the Central Council of the German Socialist Republic
    20 Dec 1918 -  6 Feb 1919  Robert Leinert                     (b. 1873 - d. 1940)  SPD
                               + Emmanuel "Max" Cohen-Reuss       (b. 1876 - d. 1963)  SPD
                               + Hermann Müller                   (b. 1876 - d. 1931)  SPD
    Presidents of the Constituent National Assembly 
     6 Feb 1919 -  7 Feb 1919  Wilhelm Pfannkuch                  (b. 1841 - d. 1923)  SPD
                                (president by age of the Constituent National Assembly)
     7 Feb 1919 - 11 Feb 1919  Eduard Heinrich Rudolph David      (b. 1863 - d. 1930)  SPD
    Presidents
    11 Feb 1919 - 28 Feb 1925  Friedrich Ebert                    (b. 1871 - d. 1925)  SPD
    28 Feb 1925 - 12 Mar 1925  Hans Luther (acting)               (b. 1879 - d. 1962)  Non-party
    12 Mar 1925 - 12 May 1925  Walter Simons (acting)             (b. 1861 - d. 1937)  Non-party
    12 May 1925 -  2 Aug 1934  Paul von Beneckendorff und         (b. 1847 - d. 1934)  Non-party
                                 Hindenburg
     2 Aug 1934 - 30 Apr 1945  Adolf Hitler -Führer               (b. 1889 - d. 1945)  NSDAP
     1 May 1945 - 23 May 1945  Karl Dönitz                        (b. 1891 - d. 1980)  Mil
     

    Prime ministers
    15 Jul 1848 - 16 Sep 1848  Karl Emich Prinz von Leiningen-    (b. 1804 - d. 1856)  Lib-Con
                                 Westerburg
    16 Sep 1848 - 18 Dec 1848  Anton von Schmerling               (b. 1805 - d. 1893)  Lib-Con
    18 Dec 1848 - 16 May 1849  Heinrich Freiherr von Gagern       (s.a.)
    16 May 1849 - 21 May 1849  Maximillian Karl Friedrich Wilhelm (b. 1781 - d. 1860)  Con
                                 Grävell (provisional)
    21 May 1849 - 20 Dec 1849  August Prinz von Sayn-Wittgenstein (b. 1788 - d. 1874)  Mil
                                 zu Berleburg
    Federal Chancellor
    14 Jul 1867 - 21 Mar 1871  Otto Eduard Graf von Bismarck-     (b. 1815 - d. 1898)  Non-party
                                 Schönhausen
    Chancellors
    21 Mar 1871 - 20 Mar 1890  Otto Eduard Fürst von Bismarck-    (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 Schönhausen
    20 Mar 1890 - 29 Oct 1894  Leo von Caprivi                    (b. 1831 - d. 1899)  Non-party
                                (from 18 Dec 1891, Leo Graf von Caprivi) 
    29 Oct 1894 - 17 Oct 1900  Chlodwig Carl Victor Fürst zu      (b. 1819 - d. 1901)  Non-party
                                 Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, 
                                 Prinz von Ratibor und Corvey 
    17 Oct 1900 - 14 Jul 1909  Bernhard Graf von Bülow            (b. 1849 - d. 1929)  Non-party
                                 (from 6 Sep 1905, Bernhard Fürst von Bülow)
    14 Jul 1909 - 16 Jul 1917  Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg      (b. 1856 - d. 1921)  Non-party
    16 Jul 1917 -  2 Dec 1917  Georg Michaelis                    (b. 1857 - d. 1936)  Non-party
     2 Dec 1917 -  5 Oct 1918  Georg Graf von Hertling            (b. 1843 - d. 1919)  Z
     5 Oct 1918 -  9 Nov 1918  Maxmilian Prinz von Baden          (b. 1867 - d. 1929)  Non-party
     9 Nov 1918 - 10 Nov 1918  Friedrich Ebert                    (s.a.)               MSPD
    Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners
    10 Nov 1918 - 27 Dec 1918  Friedrich Ebert (1st time)         (s.a.)               MSPD
                               + Hugo Haase                       (b. 1863 - d. 1919)  USPD
    27 Dec 1918 - 29 Dec 1918  Friedrich Ebert (2nd time)         (s.a.)               MSPD
    29 Dec 1918 - 30 Dec 1918  Friedrich Ebert (3rd time)         (s.a.)               MSPD
                               + Philipp Scheidemann              (b. 1865 - d. 1939)  MSPD
    30 Dec 1918 - 11 Feb 1919  Friedrich Ebert (4th time)         (s.a.)               MSPD
                                 (executive chairman) 
    Prime Ministers (presidents of the imperial ministry)
    13 Feb 1919 - 21 Jun 1919  Philipp Scheidemann                (s.a.)               SPD
    21 Jun 1919 - 14 Aug 1919  Gustav Bauer                       (b. 1870 - d. 1944)  SPD
    Chancellors
    14 Aug 1919 - 27 Mar 1920  Gustav Bauer                       (s.a.)               SPD
    13 Mar 1920 - 17 Mar 1920  Wolfgang Kapp (in rebellion)       (b. 1858 - d. 1922)  ADV
    27 Mar 1920 - 21 Jun 1920  Hermann Müller (1st time)          (s.a.)               SPD
    21 Jun 1920 - 10 May 1921  Konstantin Fehrenbach              (b. 1852 - d. 1926)  Z
    10 May 1921 - 22 Nov 1922  Joseph Karl Wirth                  (b. 1879 - d. 1956)  Z
    22 Nov 1922 - 13 Aug 1923  Wilhelm Carl Josef Cuno            (b. 1876 - d. 1933)  Non-party
    13 Aug 1923 - 30 Nov 1923  Gustav Stresemann                  (b. 1878 - d. 1929)  DVP
    30 Nov 1923 - 16 Jan 1925  Wilhelm Marx (1st time)            (b. 1863 - d. 1946)  Z
    16 Jan 1925 - 13 May 1926  Hans Luther                        (s.a.)               Non-party
    13 May 1926 - 17 May 1926  Otto Gessler (acting)              (b. 1875 - d. 1955)  DDP
    17 May 1926 - 28 Jun 1928  Wilhelm Marx (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Z
    28 Jun 1928 - 30 Mar 1930  Hermann Müller (2nd time)          (s.a.)               SDP
    30 Mar 1930 -  1 Jun 1932  Heinrich Brüning                   (b. 1885 - d. 1970)  Z
     1 Jun 1932 -  3 Dec 1932  Franz von Papen                    (b. 1879 - d. 1969)  Z/Non-party
     3 Dec 1932 - 30 Jan 1933  Kurt von Schleicher                (b. 1882 - d. 1934)  Non-party
    30 Jan 1933 - 30 Apr 1945  Adolf Hitler                       (s.a.)               NSDAP
    30 Apr 1945 -  1 May 1945  Paul Joseph Goebbels               (b. 1897 - d. 1945)  NSDAP
     2 May 1945 - 23 May 1945  Johann Ludwig "Lutz" Graf Schwerin (b. 1887 - d. 1977)  Non-party
                                 von Krosigk
                                (chairman [Leitender Minister] of interim government, at Flensburg)


     ²According to the Charter of the German Confederation, "Austria has the chair in the Federal Assembly." Although the Charter does not use the term, this chairmanship is officially styled Präsidium or Bundespräsidium; it is ambiguous whether this style refers to the person or office of the Emperor of Austria.

     ³According to the Constitution of the North German Confederation, "The Crown of Prussia is entitled to the Presidency of the Confederation" (Präsidium des Bundes). The office does not confer a specific style on the King of Prussia; when exercising it, the style used is "King of Prussia in the name of the North German Confederation."

      4Full official style of the ruler: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preussen, Markgraf zu Brandenburg, Burggraf zu Nürnberg, Graf zu Hohenzollern, souveräner und oberster Herzog von Schlesien wie auch der Grafschaft Glatz, Grossherzog vom Niederrhein und Posen, Herzog zu Sachsen, Westfalen und Engern, zu Pommern, Lüneburg, Holstein und Schleswig, zu Magdeburg, Bremen, Geldern, Cleve, Jülich und Berg, sowie auch der Wenden und Kaschuben, zu Krossen, Lauenburg, Mecklenburg, Landgraf zu Hessen und Thüringen, Markgraf der Ober- und Niederlausitz, Prinz von Oranien, Fürst zu Rügen, zu Ostfriesland, zu Paderborn und Pyrmont, zu Halberstadt, Münster, Minden, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, zu Verden, Kammin, Fulda, Nassau und Moers, gefürsteter Graf zu Henneberg, Graf der Mark und zu Ravensberg, zu Hohnstein, Tecklenburg und Lingen, zu Mansfeld, Sigmaringen und Veringen, Herr zu Frankfurt ("German Emperor and King of Prussia; Margrave of Brandenburg; burgrave of Nürnberg, count of Hohenzollern; sovereign and highest Duke of Silesia as of the county of Glatz; Grand duke of the Lower Rhine and of Posen; Duke of Saxony, Wesphalia, and Angaria, of Pomerania, Lüneburg, Holstein and Schleswig, of Magdeburg, Bremen, Gelders, Cleves, Jülich and Berg, as well as of the Wendes and Kaschubs, of Krossen, Lauenburg, Mecklenburg; Landgrave of Hesse and Thuringia, Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia, Prince of Orange, Prince of Rügen, of East Frisia, of Paderborn and Pyrmont, of Halberstadt, Münster, Minden, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, of Verden, Kammin, Fulda, Nassau and Moers; Princely count of Henneberg; Count of the Mark and of Ravensberg, of Hohnstein, Tecklenburg and Lingen, of Mansfeld, Sigmaringen and Veringen, Lord of Frankfurt").
     

    Noble titles: Erzherzog = Archduke; Freiherr = Baron; Fürst = Prince; Graf = Count; Grossherzog = Grand Duke; Herzog = Duke; Kaiser = Emperor; König = King; Prinz = Prince; Reichsfreiherr = Imperial Baron; Reichsgraf = Imperial Count; Ritter = Knight.
     

    Party abbreviations (from 1 Dec 1933 all political parties except NSDAP are banned):
    ADV = Alldeutscher Verband (All-German [or pan-German] Union, nationalist, 1891-1939); DDP = Deutsche Demokratische Partei (German Democratic Party, liberal democratic, 1918-1933); DVP = Deutsche Volkspartei (German People's Party, conservative, nationalist, 1918-1933); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi fascist, xenophobic, German nationalist, 14 Jul 1933-31 May 1945 only legal party, 1920-1945); SPD = Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Social Democratic Party of Germany, social-democratic, 1875-1933); USPD = Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Independent Social Democratic Party, socialist-liberal, 1917-1922); ZDeutsche Zentrumspartei "Zentrum" (German Centre Party "Centre", catholic, centerist, 1870-1933); Mil = Military;
    - Former parties: Con = Conservative; Dem = Democrat; Lib = Liberal; Lib-Con = Liberal-
    Conservative; MSPD = Majorität Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Majority Social Democratic Party of Germany, 1917-1919, renamed SPD); R-Lib = Right Liberal


    Allied Military Occupation
     
    [C-Ensign]
             23 May 1945  - 9 May 1949 
                Provisional Civil Ensign
     
    [Germany]
                    Adopted 9 May 1949
     
     
    Map of Allied Occupation
    Zones in Germany
    Allied Occupation
    Commanders of Berlin

     2 May 1945                Soviet forces begin Allied occupation of Berlin.
     8 May 1945                Allies accept the unconditional of Germany surrender.
    23 May 1945                Allied occupation.
     5 Jun 1945                Four Allied Powers issue a declaration "on the assumption of supreme
                                 power in Germany."   
     1 Jan 1947                Bizone ("Bizonia") created my economic merger of U.K. & U.S. zones.
     8 May 1949                Trizone ("Trizonia") formed by addition of French zone to Bizone.
     7 Sep 1949                American, British, and French zones become Federal Republic
                                 of Germany.
    21 Sep 1949 - 23 Oct 1954  American, French, and British form Allied High Commission.
     7 Oct 1949                Soviet zone becomes German Democratic Republic.
     5 May 1955                Allied Occupation of West Germany ends.
    21 Sep 1955                Soviet military occupation of East Germany ends.
     3 Oct 1990                Re-unification of Germany, end of allied control on 15 Mar 1991.

    American Zone

    [US flag]

    Military governors 
     8 May 1945 - 10 Nov 1945  Dwight D. Eisenhower               (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
    11 Nov 1945 - 25 Nov 1945  George S. Patton, Jr. (acting)     (b. 1885 - d. 1945) 
    26 Nov 1945 -  5 Jan 1947  Joseph T. McNarney                 (b. 1893 - d. 1972)
     6 Jan 1947 - 14 May 1949  Lucius DuBignon Clay               (b. 1897 - d. 1978)
    15 May 1949 -  1 Sep 1949  Clarence R. Huebner (acting)       (b. 1888 - d. 1972)
    High commissioners
     2 Sep 1949 -  1 Aug 1952  John J. McCloy                     (b. 1895 - d. 1989)
     1 Aug 1952 - 11 Dec 1952  Walter J. Donnelly                 (b. 1896 - d. 1970)
    11 Dec 1952 - 10 Feb 1953  Samuel Reber (acting)              (b. 1903 - d. 1971)
    10 Feb 1953 -  5 May 1955  James B. Conant                    (b. 1893 - d. 1978)


    British Zone

    United Kingdom flag

    Military governors
    22 May 1945 - 30 Apr 1946  Sir Bernard Law Montgomery         (b. 1887 - d. 1976)
                                (from 1 Jan 1946, Bernard Law
                                 Montgomery, Viscount Montgomery
                                 of Alamein)
     1 May 1946 - 31 Oct 1947  Sir William Sholto Douglas         (b. 1893 - d. 1969)
     1 Nov 1947 - 21 Sep 1949  Sir Brian Hubert Robertson         (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
    High commissioners 
    21 Sep 1949 - 24 Jun 1950  Sir Brian Hubert Robertson         (s.a.)
    24 Jun 1950 - 29 Sep 1953  Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick              (b. 1897 - d. 1964)
    29 Sep 1953 -  5 May 1955  Sir Frederick Hoyer Millar         (b. 1900 - d. 1989)


    French Zone

    Military commander
    May 1945 - Jul 1945        Jean de Lattre de Tassigny         (b. 1889 - d. 1952)
    Military governor
    Jul 1945 - 21 Sep 1949     Marie-Pierre Koenig                (b. 1898 - d. 1970)
    High commissioner
    21 Sep 1949 -  5 May 1955  André François-Poncet              (b. 1887 - d. 1978)


    Soviet Zone

    [Flag of USSR]

    Military commander
    Apr 1945 -  9 Jun 1945     Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov      (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
    Military governors
     9 Jun 1945 - 10 Apr 1946  Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov      (s.a.)
    10 Apr 1946 - 29 Mar 1949  Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky       (b. 1897 - d. 1968)
    29 Mar 1949 - 10 Oct 1949  Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov           (b. 1900 - d. 1982)
    Chairman of the Soviet Control Commission
    10 Oct 1949 - 28 May 1953  Vasily Ivanoivich Chuikov          (s.a.)
    High commissioners
    28 May 1953 - 16 Jul 1954  Vladimir Semyonovich Semyonov      (b. 1911 - d. 1992) 
    16 Jul 1954 - 20 Sep 1955  Georgy Maksimovich Pushkin         (b. 1909 - d. 1963)


    Dutch Zone

    [National flag of the
                Netherlands]

    22 Mar 1949                By the Treaty of Paris, The Netherlands are authorized to occupy
                                 and annex some frontier parts of Germany as a compensation
                                 for the German occupation 1940-45 (effective 21 Apr 1949).
    23 Apr 1949                Dutch administration begins in two frontier areas of (West)                              Germany, as authorized by Treaty of Paris as compensation                              for the 1940-45 German occupation of The Netherlands;                              two Drostambten come into existence (including - municipalities
                                 of Havert, Hillensberg, Millen, Süsterseel, Tüddern [Dutch:
                                 Tudderen], Wehr, parts of Höngen, Gangelt, Schümm, Saeffelen as
                                 and Elten and Hoch-Elten).
    26 Sep 1951                The areas are annexed to neighbouring Netherlands provinces:
                                 Elten to Gelderland, Tudderen to Limburg; the landdrosten
                                 continue in office.
     1 Aug 1963                Elten and Tudderen are returned to (West) Germany in exchange
                                 for the payment of a war indemnity.

    Landdrost of Tudderen (subordinated to the Dutch government, from 26 Sep 1951
    to the Queen's commissioners for Limburg)
    23 Apr 1949 -  1 Aug 1963  Hubert Michiel Jozef Dassen        (b. 1909 - d. 1978)


    Landdrosten of Elten (subordinated to the Dutch government, from 26 Sep 1951
    to the Queen's commissioners for Gelderland)
    23 Apr 1949 - 28 Oct 1961  Adriaan Blaauboer                  (b. 1906 - d. 1961) 
     5 Nov 1961 -  1 Aug 1963  Hans Georg Inundat baron van Tuyll (b. 1917 - d. 1988)  VVD 
                                 van Serooskerken

    Party abbreviations
    : VVD = Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, conservative-liberal, est.1948)


    Polish Zone

    [Poland]

    19 May 1945                Free Polish forces occupy 6,500 km of western Germany bordering 
                                 The Netherlands in Emsland, Lower Saxony (districts of Aschendorf,
                                 Meppen, Lingen and counties of Bentheim, Bersenbrück and
                                 Cloppenburg, including the towns of Papenburg and Haren).
    May 1945                   Polish zone is formally established within the British zone;
                                 subordinated to the Polish government in London exile.
    28 May 1945                German residents are evicted from Haren.
     4 Jun 1945                Haren renamed Maczków.
    fall 1946                  Free Polish forces begin evacuation.
    10 Sep 1948                Polish administration terminated, Maczków renamed Haren.

    Mayors (
    burmistrzem) of Maczków
    May 1945 - 23 Mar 1946     Zygmunt Galecki
    23 Mar 1946 - Feb 1947     Mieczyslaw Futa

    Federal Republic of Germany
     
    [Germany]
                     Adopted 9 May 1949
     
     
    Note: For data on Germany since 3 Oct 1990 see the table at the top of the entry.
    Map of West Germany
    Hear National Anthem
    "Deutschlandlied"
     (Song of Germany)
    Adopted 2 May 1952 
    Hear Former Anthem
    "Hymne an Deutschland"
    (Hymn to Germany)
    (31 Dec 1950-2 May 1952)
    ------------------------
    Hear Former Anthem
    "Ich hab mich ergeben"
    (I Am Devoted To You)
    (23 May 1949-31 Dec 1950)
    Constitution (Basic Law)
      (23 May 1949)
    W. Ger. Capital: Bonn
    Currency: Deutsche Mark
    (DEM)
    National Holidays: 17 Jun  (1953)
    National Day
    (celebrates East German uprising)
    -------------------------------------
    1949 -1953: 23 May (1949)
    Republic Day
    Population: 62,168,200 (1990)
    (includes West Berlin)
    GDP: $945.7 billion (1989)
    Exports: $323.4 billion (1988)
    Imports: $250.6 billion (1988)
    Ethnic groups: primarily German, Danish minority
    Total Armed Forces: 495,000 (1990)
    Merchant marine: 422 ships (1990)
    Religions: Roman Catholic 45%, Protestant 44%,
    other 11% 
    International Organizations/Treaties 1949-1990: ADB, AG, ANT, BTWC, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CTBT, DC (observer), EC, EIB, ENMOD, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, GATT, G-8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NPT, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
    States

     7 Sep 1949                Federal Republic of Germany ("West Germany" to 2 Oct 1990).

    Presidents
     7 Sep 1949 - 12 Sep 1949  Karl Arnold (acting)            (b. 1901 - d. 1958)  CDU
    12 Sep 1949 - 12 Sep 1959  Theodor Heuss                   (b. 1884 - d. 1963)  FDP
    13 Sep 1959 - 30 Jun 1969  Karl Heinrich Lübke             (b. 1894 - d. 1972)  CDU
     1 Jul 1969 - 30 Jun 1974  Gustav Heinemann                (b. 1899 - d. 1976)  SPD
     1 Jul 1974 - 30 Jun 1979  Walter Scheel                   (b. 1919)            FDP
     1 Jul 1979 - 30 Jun 1984  Karl Carstens                   (b. 1914 - d. 1992)  CDU
     1 Jul 1984 - 30 Jun 1994  Richard von Weizsäcker          (b. 1920)            CDU
     1 Jul 1994 - 30 Jun 1999  Roman Herzog                    (b. 1934)            CDU
     1 Jul 1999 - 30 Jun 2004  Johannes Rau                    (b. 1931 - d. 2006)  SPD
     1 Jul 2004 - 31 May 2010  Horst Köhler                    (b. 1943)            CDU
    31 May 2010 - 30 Jun 2010  Jens Böhrnsen (acting)          (b. 1949)            SPD
    30 Jun 2010 - 17 Feb 2012  Christian Wulff                 (b. 1959)            CDU
    17 Feb 2012 - 18 Mar 2012  Horst Seehofer (acting)         (b. 1949)            CSU
    18 Mar 2012 -              Joachim Gauck                   (b. 1940)            Non-party


    Chancellors
    16 Sep 1949 - 15 Oct 1963  Konrad Adenauer                 (b. 1876 - d. 1967)  CDU
    16 Oct 1963 -  1 Dec 1966  Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard           (b. 1897 - d. 1977)  CDU
     1 Dec 1966 - 21 Oct 1969  Kurt Georg Kiesinger            (b. 1904 - d. 1988)  CDU
    21 Oct 1969 -  7 May 1974  Willy Brandt                    (b. 1913 - d. 1992)  SPD
     7 May 1974 - 16 May 1974  Walter Scheel (acting)          (s.a.)               FDP
    16 May 1974 -  1 Oct 1982  Helmut Schmidt                  (b. 1918)            SPD
     1 Oct 1982 - 27 Oct 1998  Helmut Kohl                     (b. 1930)            CDU
    27 Oct 1998 - 22 Nov 2005  Gerhard Schröder                (b. 1944)            SPD
    22 Nov 2005 -              Angela Kasner Merkel(f)         (b. 1954)            CDU

    Overall Director and Chairman of the Board of Directors
    of the United Economic Area
     2 Mar 1948 - 15 Sep 1949  Hermann Pünder                  (b. 1888 - d. 1976)  CDU

    Party abbreviations: CDU = Christlich-Demokratische Union (Christian-Democratic Union, center-right, christian-democratic, est.1945); CSU = Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern (Christian Social Union in Bavaria, center-right, CDU in Bavaria, est.1945); FDP = Freie Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party, liberal, est.1948); SPD = Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Social Democratic Party of Germany, social-democratic, est.1875)



    German Democratic Republic  (East Germany)
     
    [Germany]
                    7 Oct 1949 - 1 Oct 1959
     
    [The national
                          flag of East Germany]
                   1 Oct 1959 - 3 Oct 1990
     
    Map of East Germany Hear National Anthem
    "Auferstanden aus Ruinen"
    (Risen from Ruins)
    Text of National Anthem
    Adopted 5 Nov 1949
     Constitution
    (6 Apr 1968; in German)
    Capital: East Berlin
    (not officially recognized
     by US, UK, or France)
    Currency: Ostmark
    (DDM)
    National Holiday:  7 Oct (1949)
    Foundation of the German
     Democratic Republic
    Population: 16,307,170 (1990)
    GNP: $159.5 billion (1989)
    Exports: $30.7 billion (1988)
    Imports: $31.0 billion (1988)
    Ethnic groups: German 99.7%, Slavic and other 0.3%
    Total Armed Forces: 225,300 (1987)
    Merchant marine: 145 ships (1990)
    Religions: Protestant 47%, Roman Catholic 7%,
    unaffiliated or other 46%; less than 5% of Protestants
    and about 25% of Roman Catholics active participants
    International Organizations/Treaties: ANT, BTWC, CCC, Comecon, ENMOD, ESCR, IAEA, IBEC, ICRM, IHO, IIB, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intersputnik, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NPT, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WP, WToO
    Districts

     7 Oct 1949                German Democratic Republic ("East Germany").
     3 Oct 1990                Incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany.

    General Secretaries of the Socialist Unity (Communist) Party (SED)
    22 Apr 1946 - 25 Jul 1950  Wilhelm Pieck                       (b. 1876 - d. 1960)
                               + Otto Grotewohl                    (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
                               (co-chairmen)
    25 Jul 1950 -  3 May 1971  Walter Ulbricht                     (b. 1893 - d. 1973)
     3 May 1971 - 18 Oct 1989  Erich Honecker                      (b. 1912 - d. 1994)
    18 Oct 1989 -  3 Dec 1989  Egon Krenz                          (b. 1937)
                                ("leading role" of the party abolished 1 Dec 1989)
    18 Dec 1989 -  4 Feb 1990  Gregor Gysi                         (b. 1948)
                                (Chairman of the SED-PDS)

    Co-Chairmen of the Presidium of the German People's Council
    19 Mar 1948 -  7 Oct 1949  Wilhelm Pieck                       (s.a.)               SED
                               + Wilhelm Külz (to 10 Apr 1948)     (b. 1875 - d. 1948)  LDPD
                               + Otto Nuschke (to 18 Mar 1949)     (b. 1883 - d. 1957)  CDU
                               + Ernst Goldenbaum                  (b. 1898 - d. 1990)  DBD
                                 (from 18 Mar 1949)
                               + Lothar Bolz (from 18 Mar 1949)    (b. 1903 - d. 1986)  NDPD
                               + Hermann Kastner (from 18 Mar 1949)(b. 1886 - d. 1957)  LDPD
    Presidents
     7 Oct 1949 - 11 Oct 1949  Johannes Dieckmann (1st time)       (b. 1893 - d. 1969)  LDPD
                                 (acting)
    11 Oct 1949 -  7 Sep 1960  Wilhelm Pieck                       (s.a.)               SED
     7 Sep 1960 - 12 Sep 1960  Johannes Dieckmann (2nd time)       (s.a.)               LDPD
                                 (acting)
    Chairmen of the Council of State
    12 Sep 1960 -  1 Aug 1973  Walter Ulbricht                     (s.a.)               SED
     1 Aug 1973 -  3 Oct 1973  Friedrich Ebert (acting)            (b. 1894 - d. 1979)  SED
     3 Oct 1973 - 29 Oct 1976  Willi Stoph                         (b. 1914 - d. 1999)  SED
    29 Oct 1976 - 24 Oct 1989  Erich Honecker                      (s.a.)               SED
    24 Oct 1989 -  6 Dec 1989  Egon Krenz                          (s.a.)               SED
     6 Dec 1989 -  5 Apr 1990  Manfred Gerlach (acting)            (b. 1928 - d. 2011)  LDPD
    President of the People's Chamber
     5 Apr 1990 -  2 Oct 1990  Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (f)            (b. 1946)            CDU

    Chairman of the German Economic Council
     9 Mar 1948 - 11 Oct 1949  Heinrich Rau                        (b. 1899 - d. 1961)  SED
    Minister president
    12 Oct 1949 -  8 Dec 1958  Otto Grotewohl                      (s.a.)               SED
    Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (premiers)¹
     8 Dec 1958 - 21 Sep 1964  Otto Grotewohl                      (s.a.)               SED
    21 Sep 1964 -  3 Oct 1973  Willi Stoph (1st time)              (s.a.)               SED
                                 (acting to 24 Sep 1964; acting
                                 for Grotewohl Nov 1960 - 21 Sep 1964)
     3 Oct 1973 - 29 Oct 1976  Horst Sindermann                    (b. 1915 - d. 1990)  SED
    29 Oct 1976 - 13 Nov 1989  Willi Stoph (2nd time)              (s.a.)               SED
    13 Nov 1989 - 12 Apr 1990  Hans Modrow                         (b. 1928)            SED/NFDDR
    Minister president
    12 Apr 1990 -  2 Oct 1990  Lothar de Maizière                  (b. 1940)            CDU/AD


    Commanders of Soviet Forces in Germany

     9 Jun 1945 - 10 Apr 1946  Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov       (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
    10 Apr 1946 - 29 Mar 1949  Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky        (b. 1897 - d. 1968)
    29 Mar 1949 - 26 May 1953  Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov            (b. 1900 - d. 1982)
    27 May 1953 - 16 Nov 1957  Adrey Antonovich Grechko            (b. 1903 - d. 1976)
    17 Nov 1957 - 14 Apr 1960  Matvey Vasilyevich Zakharov         (b. 1898 - d. 1972)
    15 Apr 1960 -  9 Aug 1961  Ivan Ignatyevich Yakubovsky         (b. 1912 - d. 1976)
                                 (1st time)      
     9 Aug 1961 - 18 Apr 1962  Ivan Stepanovich Konev              (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
    19 Apr 1962 - 26 Jan 1965  Ivan Ignatyevich Yakubovsky         (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    27 Jan 1965 - 31 Oct 1969  Petr Kirillovich Koshevoy           (b. 1904 - d. 1976)
     1 Nov 1969 - 13 Sep 1971  Viktor Georgyevich Kulikov          (b. 1921 - d. 2013)
    14 Sep 1971 - 19 Jul 1972  Semyon Konstantinovich Kurkotkin    (b. 1917 - d. 1990)
    20 Jul 1972 - 25 Nov 1980  Evgeny Filippovich Ivanovski        (b. 1918 - d. 1991)
    26 Nov 1980 -  6 Jul 1985  Mikhail Mitrofanovich Zaytsev       (b. 1923 - d. 2009) 
     7 Jul 1985 - 11 Jul 1986  Pyotr Georgyevich Lushev            (b. 1923 - d. 1997)
    12 Jul 1986 - 12 Nov 1987  Valery Aleksandrovich Belikov       (b. 1925 - d. 1987)
    26 Nov 1987 - 13 Dec 1990  Boris Vasilyevich Snetkov           (b. 1925 - d. 2006)
    13 Dec 1990 - 31 Aug 1994  Matvey Prokopyevich Burlakov        (b. 1935 - d. 2011)


    Countries Ga-Gi   ¹Although initially the government was officially called Regierung, the term Ministerrat was used unofficially and, from 16 Nov 1954, officially; the term Vorsitzender des Ministerrates for its head was made official 8 Dec 1958, replacing the earlier Ministerpräsident.

    Territorial Disputes: It was U.S. policy that the final borders of Germany had not been
    established; the U.S. sought to settle the property claims of U.S. nationals against the G.D.R.; East Berlin was not officially recognized as the capital of the G.D.R. by France, U.K., and U.S., which together with the U.S.S.R. had special rights and responsibilities in Berlin.

    Party abbreviations: SED = Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (Socialist Unity Party of Germany, communist - govt. party 1949-1989, est.21 Apr 1946, on 4 Feb 1990 it became Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus [Party of Democratic Socialism], from 15 Dec 1989 - 4 Feb 1990 called SED-PDS);
    - the Four "bloc parties" below were in alliance with the SED until 1989 (all 5 Parties, along with some mass organizations, formed the NFDD = Nationale Front des Demokratischen Deutschland [National Front of Democratic Germany], which from 1971 was the NFDDR = Nationale Front der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik [National Front of the German Democratic Republic]) -
    LDPD = Liberaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Liberal Democratic Party of Germany, 1947-1990, from 9 Feb 1990 as LDP = Liberaldemokratische Partei, from 27 Mar 1990 BFD, which 11 Aug 1990 merges with FDP); CDU = Christlich-Demokratische Union Deutschlands (Christian Democratic Union of [East] Germany, 1945-Oct 1990, merged into West German CDU); NDPD = Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (National Democratic Party of Germany, 1948-1990, merged into FDP); DBD = Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands (Democratic Farmer's Party of Germany, 1948-15 Sep 1990, merged into CDU);
    - new parties from 1989 -
    DA = Demokratischer Aufbruch (Democratic Awakening, conservative, 1 Oct 1989 - 1 Oct 1990, merged into CDU); DSU = Deutsche Soziale Union (German Social Union, conservative, est. 20 Jan 1990); FDP = Freie Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party, est.4 Feb 1990); DFP = Deutsche Forumpartei (German Forum Party, centrist, 27 Jan 1990-11 Aug 1990, merged into FDP); SDP = Sozialdemokratische Partei in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik (Social Democratic Party in the German Democratic Republic, est.7 Oct 1989, which is renamed on 13 Jan 1990 the SPD or Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands [Social Democratic Party of Germany]); AD = Allianz für Deutschland (Alliance for Germany, electoral alliance for 18 Mar 1990 elections by the CDU, DA, and DSU); BFD = Bund Freier Demokraten (Alliance of Free Democrats, liberal coalition, former LDP/NDPD, 12 Feb 1990 - 11 Aug 1990, merged into FDP)



    Heligoland (Helgoland)
     
    United Kingdom flag
                           5 Sep 1807 - 1 Jul 1890 
     
    [Heligoland Civil
                          flag 1814-1890]
              1807 - 1 Jul 1890 Civil Flag and Ensign
    [Heligoland
                          unofficial flag 1814-1890]
         1814 - 1 Jul 1890 Optional Civil Flag and Ensign
     
    Map of Heligoland
    Capital: Heligoland
    (In the Town)
    Population: 2,001 (1881);
    2,041 (1807) 

    1402                       Part of the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein.
    10 Aug 1490                Part of the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp.
    31 Dec 1720                Storm separates Sandy Island from Heligoland.
     7 Aug 1714                Part of
    Denmark.
     5 Sep 1807                British occupation.
    14 Jan 1814                British colony (officially ceded to U.K. by Treaty of Kiel).
     9 Aug 1890                Formal handover to Germany by U.K.
    15 Dec 1890                Annexed to Germany (from 18 Feb 1891, part of Prussian 
                                 province of Schleswig-Holstein).
     8 May 1945 -  1 Mar 1952  British occupation (population evacuated Apr 1945).

    Lieutenant governors
     5 Sep 1807 - 16 Oct 1807  Corbet James d'Auvergne (acting)   (b. 1767 - d. 1826)
    16 Oct 1807 - 1815         William Osborne Hamilton           (b. 1750? - d. 1818)
    Apr 1815 - 1840            Henry King                         (b. 1777/78 - d. 1854)
                                 (from 5 Jun 1834, Sir Henry King)
    13 Oct 1840 -  7 Mar 1857  John Hindmarsh                     (b. 1775 - d. 1860)

                                 (from 7 Aug 1851, Sir John Hindmarsh)
    1857 - 1863                Richard Pattinson                  (b. 1809 - d. 1875)
     2 Jun 1863 - Feb 1864     Henry Fitzharding Berkeley Maxse   (b. 1832 - d. 1883)
    Governors
    Feb 1864 - 1881            Henry Fitzharding Berkeley Maxse   (s.a.)
                                 (from 1 May 1877, Sir Henry Fitzhardinge Berkeley Maxse)
    1881 - 1888                John Terence Niolls O'Brien        (b. 1830 - d. 1903)
    27 Nov 1888 -  9 Aug 1890  Arthur Cecil Stuart Barkly         (b. 1843 - d. 1890)
    German Imperial Commissioner
     9 Aug 1890 - 1891         Adolf Wermuth                      (b. 1855 - d. 1927)



    Saarland (Saargebiet, Saarbecken)
     
    [Saar Territory
                          1920-1935 (Germany)]
                28 Jul 1920 - 1 Mar 1935 
     
    [Saar
                          Territory 1920-1935 version for governmental
                          use]
    28 Jul 1920 - 1 Mar1935 Government Flag
    [Saar 1947-1956
                          (Germany)]
                17 Dec 1947 - 1 Jan 1957
     
    Map of Saarland
    Hear National Anthem
    "Saarlied" (The Saar Song) 
    Text of National Anthem
    (1921-1935, 29 Nov 1950-1957)
      Constitution
    (17 Dec 1947; in German)
    Capital: Saarbrücken
    Currency: 1945 - 6 Jul 1959
    French
    Franc (FRF); 1947 Saar
     Mark (SAAM); 1919-1935
    French Franc (FRF); 1919-1930
     Saar Franc (SAAF)

    National Holiday: 15 Dec (1947)
    Constitution Day 

    Population: 1,019,000 (1957)
    812, 000 (1933)
    -----------------------------------
    Religions: Roman Catholic
    72.2%, Protestant 25.7%,
    Jewish 0.5% (1927)
    International Organizations/Treaties: 1920-1935: ITU, UPU; 1947-1957: CE (associate), IOC, UPU, WMO

    Oct 1792                   French rule.
    1814 - 20 Nov 1815         Allied occupation.
    20 Nov 1815                Annexed to Prussia (part of Rhine province); small parts
                                 annexed to Bavaria (part of Pfalz [Palatinate] province). 
    11 Nov 1918 - 26 Feb 1920  Allied (French) occupation.
    26 Feb 1920                League of Nations administration (Saargebiet/Saar Territory/
                                 Territoire de la Sarre).
    13 Jan 1935                In a plebiscite 90.73% vote to re-join Germany.
     1 Mar 1935                Re-incorporated into Germany.
    20 Mar 1945 - 31 Jul 1945  U.S. occupation.
    31 Jul 1945                French administration (Saargebiet = Territoire de la Sarre),
                                 "Saarland" gradually enters into official use after 8 Oct 1946.
    31 Jul 1945                French administration: Saargebiet = Territoire de la Sarre (also
                                 in official use: Sarre [French]; Saarland [German, gradually
                                 enters into official use after 8 Oct 1946])
    17 Dec 1947               Constituted as an autonomous state in economic union with France
                                 (Saarland).
    23 Oct 1955                Referendum votes against proposal for an independent Saarland
                                 under Western European Union (WEU) protection, 67.7% to 32.3%
     1 Jan 1957                Incorporated into Federal Republic of Germany as a state
                                 (for Saarland since 1957 see under Germany).

    Administrators-superior (Supreme Administrators)
    20 Nov 1918 - 17 Feb 1919  Henri Wirbel (France)(1st time)    (b. 1861 - d. 1948)
    17 Feb 1919 - 20 Nov 1919  Joseph Louis Marie Andlauer        (b. 1869 - d. 1956)
                                 (France)                
    20 Nov 1919 -  7 Mar 1920  Henri Wirbel (France)(2nd time)    (s.a.)
    Chairmen of the Commission of Government
    26 Feb 1920 - 31 Mar 1926  Victor-Michel-Émile-Marie Rault    (b. 1858 - d. 1930?)
                                 (France)            
     1 Apr 1926 -  9 Jun 1927  George Washington Stephens (Canada)(b. 1866 - d. 1942)
    31 Mar 1927 - 20 Jun 1927  Frantisek Vezensky (Czechoslovakia)(d. 1938)
                                 (acting for absent Stephens, then Wilton)
     9 Jun 1927 - 31 Mar 1932  Sir Ernest Colville Collins Wilton (b. 1870 - d. 1952)
                                 (U.K.)
     1 Apr 1932 - 28 Feb 1935  Geoffrey George Knox (U.K.)        (b. 1884 - d. 1958)
                                 (from 1 Mar 1935, Sir Geoffrey George Knox)
    President of the Tripartite Committee of the League of Nations for the Saar Territory
    28 Feb 1935 -  1 Mar 1935  Barone Pompeo Aloisi, conte di     (b. 1847 - d. 1949)
                                 Allumiere (Italy)      
    Reichskommissar für die Rückgliederung des Saarlandes (from 17 Jun 1936,
    Reichskommissar für das Saarland; from 8 Apr 1940, Reichskommissar für
    die Saarpfalz; from 11 Mar 1941, Reichsstatthalter in der Westmark)
     1 Mar 1935 - 28 Sep 1944  Josef Bürckel                      (b. 1895 - d. 1944)  NSDAP
    29 Sep 1944 - 21 Mar 1945  Willi Stöhr                        (b. 1903 - d. 1994)  NSDAP
    Allied Military governors
    Mar 1945 -  7 Jul 1945     Louis G. Kelly (U.S.)              (d. 1970)
     7 Jul 1945 -  7 Sep 1945  Louis-Constant Morlière (France)   (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
    Governor
     7 Sep 1945 - 10 Jan 1948  Gilbert-Yves-Édmond Grandval       (b. 1904 - d. 1981)  Mil
                                 (appointed 30 Aug 1945)
    High Commissioner of the French Republic in the Saar

    10 Jan 1948 -  5 Mar 1952  Gilbert-Yves-Édmond Grandval       (s.a.)
    Chiefs of the Diplomatic Mission of the French Republic in the Saar 
     1 Jan 1952 -  8 Jul 1955  Gilbert-Yves-Édmond Grandval       (s.a.)
     8 Jul 1955 - 27 Oct 1956  Charles-Marie-Eric de Carbonnel    (b. 1910 - d. 1965)

    President of the Government
    31 Jul 1945 -  8 Oct 1946  Hans Neureuter                     (b. 1901 - d. 1953)  Non-party
                                 (appointed in Saarbrücken 4 May 1945)
    Chairman of the Administration Commission

     8 Oct 1946 - 20 Dec 1947  Erwin Müller                       (b. 1906 - d. 1968)  Non-party
    Minister-presidents
    20 Dec 1947 - 29 Oct 1955  Johannes Hoffmann                  (b. 1890 - d. 1967)  CVP
    29 Oct 1955 - 10 Jan 1956  Heinrich Welsch                    (b. 1888 - d. 1976)  Non-party
    10 Jan 1956 -  1 Jan 1957  Hubert Ney                         (b. 1892 - d. 1984)  CDU
                                 (continues to 4 Jun 1957)

    Party abbreviations: CDU = Christlich-Demokratische Union (Christian Democratic Union, center-right, christian-democratic, est.1945); CVP = Christliche Volkspartei des Saarlandes (Saarland Christian People's Party, conservative, merged into CDU, 1945-1956); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Worker's Party, Nazi fascist, 1920-1945); Mil = Military



    Allied Occupation of the Rhineland

     1 Dec 1918                Allied occupation of territories in western Germany begins
                                (Belgian zone - north Rhine prov., Aachen, and from 1919
                                 Eupen-Malmedy; British zone - northern-central Rhine prov.,
                                 and Köln; French zone - southern Rhine prov., Hessian Rhine prov.,
                                 Bavarian Pfalz district, Mainz, Kehl and from 1921 Wiesbaden; and
                                 U.S. zone - south-central Rhine prov., Birkenfeld, and
                                 Koblenz).
     1 Jun 1919 - 1919         Rhineland Republic, failed French attempt to back separatists.
     6 Apr 1920 - 18 May 1920  France briefly occupies the Hessian towns of Bad-Homburg, Darmstadt,
                                 Frankfurt, Hanau, and Offenbach.
     8 Mar 1921                Franco-Belgian occupation of Düsseldorf, Duisberg and Ruhrort.
    24 Jan 1923                Withdrawal U.S. forces, former U.S. zone taken over by France.
    11 Jan 1923 -  1 Aug 1924  Franco-Belgian occupation of the Ruhr.
    23 Aug 1923                Germany establishes a separate ministry for the western territories
                                 under allied occupation.
    21 Oct 1923 - 26 Nov 1924  Rhineland Republic, 2nd failed French attempt to back separatists
                                 (Palatine Republic proclaimed at Speyer (2 Nov 1923 - 17 Feb 1924).
    Dec 1929                   Withdrawal of British forces, zone taken over by Belgium and France.
    30 Jun 1930                End of Allied occupation, Rhineland a demilitarized zone.
     7 Mar 1936                Rhineland is militarized by Germany.


    Commanders-in-Chief of the Allied Armies
    in Germany 
    (Belgian forces remained under direct command of King Albert)
    1918 - 1919                Ferdinand Foch (France)            (b. 1851 - d. 1929)
    1919 - 30 Jun 1930         the Commanders of the French Zone

    Delegate of the Allied Commander-in-chief and Chief Delegate of
    Permanent International Armistice Commission
      
    1918 - 1920                Alphonse Pierre Nudant (France)    (b. 1861 - d. 1952)
    Chairman of Inter-Allied Rhineland Commission (in Koblenz)
    (Commission Interalliée des Territoires Rhénans)
    1920 - 30 Jun 1930         Paul Tirard (France)               (b. 1879 - d. 1945)

    German Imperial Ministers for the Occupied Territories
    (Reichsminister für die besetzten Gebiete)

    23 Aug 1923 - 1923         Johannes Fuchs                     (b. 1874 - d. 1956)        
    1923 - 1925                Anton Höfle                        (b. 1882 - d. 1925)
    1925                       Josef Frenken                      (b. 1854 - d. 1945)
    1925 - 1926                Hans Luther                        (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
    1926 - 1927                Johannes Bell                      (b. 1868 - d. 1949)
    1927 - 1928                Wilhelm Marx                       (b. 1863 - d. 1946)
    1928 - 1929                Theodor von Guérard                (b. 1863 - d. 1943)
    1929                       Karl Severing                      (b. 1875 - d. 1952)
    1929 - 1930                Joseph Wirth                       (b. 1879 - d. 1956)
    1930 - 30 Jun 1930         Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus      (b. 1891 - d. 1971)

    Ruhr Occupation Area 1923-24

    Commander of the French occupation forces
    (subordinated to commander of French zone)
    1923 - 1924                Henrys

    Commander of the Belgian occupation forces
    (subordinated to the French commander in the Ruhr)
    1923 - 192.                Borremans

    Directors of the Inter-Allied Mission of Control of the Factories and Mines 
    (Mission interalliée de Controle des Usines et des Mines [MICUM])
    1923                       Emile Coste (France)               (b. 1864 - d. 1945)
    1923 - 1924                Paul Herman Frantzen (France)      (b. 1880 - d. 1935)


    American Zone

    Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force
    Apr 1917 -  1 Jul 1919     John Joseph Pershing               (b. 1860 - d. 1948)
    Commanders of the U.S. Third Army
    (subordinated to commander of Allied Expeditionary force
    1918 - 1919                Joseph Theodore Dickman            (b. 1857 - d. 1928)     
    1919                       Hunter Liggett                     (b. 1857 - d. 1935)
    Commander of American Forces in Germany
     2 Jul 1919 - 24 Jan 1923  Henry Tureman Allen                (b. 1859 - d. 1930) 

    U.S. Observers to the Inter-Allied Rhineland Commission
    1920 - May 1920            Pierrepont Burt Noyes              (b. 1870 - d. 1959)
    1920 - 1923                Henry Tureman Allen                (s.a.)
    1923 - 1930                None


    Belgian Zone

    Commanders of the Belgian Rhine Army
    1918 -  1 Jun 1920         Auguste Edouard, baron Michel du
                                 Faing d'Aigremont                (b. 1855 - d. 1951) 
     1 Jun 1920 - Dec 1923     Louis, baron Roucquoy              (b. 1861 - d. 1937)
    Dec 1923 - c.1925          Burguet
    1925 - 1930                ....

    Belgian High Commissioners to the Inter-Allied Rhineland Commission
    1920 - 1921                Émile Edouard Charles Louis        (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
    1921 - Jul 1925            Edouard, baron Rolin-Jacquemyns    (b. 1863 - d. 1936)
    1925 - 1929                Pierre Forthomme                   (b. 1877 - d. 1959)


    British Zone


    Commander of the British Second Army
    1918 - 1919                Sir Herbert Charles Onslow Plumer  (b. 1857 - d. 1932)
    Commander of British Expeditionary Forces in France and Flanders
    1915 - 1919                Sir Douglas Haig                   (b. 1831 - d. 1928)
    Commanders of the British Army on the Rhine
    1919                       Sir Herbert Charles Onslow Plumer  (s.a.)
    22 Apr 1919 - 1920         Sir William Robert Robertson       (b. 1860 - d. 1933)  
     3 Mar 1920 - 1922         Sir Thomas Lethbridge Napier       (b. 1865 - d. 1925)
                                 Morland  
     8 Mar 1922 - 1924         Sir Alexander John Godley          (b. 1867 - d. 1957)
    17 Jun 1924 - 1927         Sir John Philip Du Cane            (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
    30 Apr 1927 - Dec 1929     Sir William Thwaites               (b. 1868 - d. 1947)

    British High Commissioners to the Inter-Allied Rhineland Commission
    1920                       Sir Harold Arthur Stuart           (b. 1860 - d. 1923)
    1920 - 1921                Arnold Robertson (acting)
    1921 - 20 Feb 1928         Victor Alexander Sereld Hay,       (b. 1876 - d. 1928)
                                 Baron Kilmarnock (from 8 Jul 1927)  
                                 Earl of Erroll                   
    1928 - 1929                William Seeds                      (b. 1892 - d. 1973)


    French Zone

    Commanders of the French Rhine Army (Armée du Rhin)
    (from 1919, also commanders-in-chief of the Allied Armies in Germany)
    1918 - 1919                Charles Marie Emmanuel Mangin      (b. 1866 - d. 1925)
    Oct 1919 - 1924            Jean Marie Joseph Degoutte         (b. 1866 - d. 1938)
    1924 - 30 Jun 1930         Louis Adolphe Guillaumat           (b. 1863 - d. 1940)

    French High Commissioner to the Inter-Allied Rhineland Commission  
    1920 - 30 Jun 1930         Paul Tirard                        (s.a.)


    'Rhineland Republics' 
     
    [Rhineland
                          Republic flag 1919, variant 1923-1924]
                       1 Jun 1919 - 1919
     
    [Rhineland
                          Republic flag 1923-24, Variant 1919]
                 22 Oct 1923 - 17 Feb 1924

     1 Jun 1919 - 1919         Rhineland Republic, centered in Wiesbaden, proclaimed
                                 (failed French attempt to back a separatist Rhineland state
                                 as a buffer between Germany and France). 
    21 Oct 1923 - 27 Feb 1924  Rhineland Republic proclaimed as a confederation of three
                                 states: North (Lower Rhine), South (Upper & Middle Rhine)
                                 and Rhur, with its capital at Cologne; supported by French
                                 and Belgian occupation forces.
    12 Nov 1923 - 17 Feb 1924  Palatinate Republic federated with the Rhenanian Republic proclaimed
                                 at Speyer.

    Chairman of the Government of the Rhenish Republic
     1 Jun 1919 - 1919         Johannes Adam Dorten               (b. 1880 - d. 1963)
    Plenipotentiaries of the Government of the Rhenish Republic
    22 Oct 1923 - 27 Feb 1924  Johannes Adam Dorten               (s.a.)
                               + Josef Friedrich Matthes          (b. 1886 - d. 1943)
                                 (prime minister)

    Autonomous Palatinate

    [Autonomous Palatinate
                1923-24]

    Chairmen of the Palatinate Republic
    12 Nov 1923 -  9 Jan 1924  Franz-Josef Heinz-Orbis            (b. 1884 - d. 1924)
     9 Jan 1924 - 17 Feb 1924  ....



    French Departments in Germany  1797-1814

     2 Oct 1794                French invasion of the Rhineland begins (Aachen on 6 Oct 1794,
                                 Cologne 26 Oct 1794, Bonn 8 Nov 1794).
    Nov 1794                   French create central administration (Pays d'entre Meuse et Rhin).
    18 Oct 1797                Treaty of Campo Formio cedes de facto Rhineland territories 
                                 to France.
     4 Nov 1797                A French commissioner is appointed to supervise and organize
                                 the territories into départements (not yet considered to be
                                 part of France); Roer, Sarre, Mont Tonnerre, Rhin-et-Moselle.
     9 Feb 1801                By the Treaty of Lunéville the Rhineland is de jure annexed 
                                 to France.
    30 Jun 1802                Rhine départements become regular départements of France.
    23 Sep 1802                Unified administration terminated.
    1813 - 1815                Allied administration; territories later restored to Prussia, 
                                 Bavaria, Oldenburg, etc.

    Commanders of the Army of the Sambre and Meuse (northern zone)
     2 Jul 1794 - 20 Dec 1794  Jean Baptiste Jourdan (1st time)   (b. 1762 - d. 1833)
    21 Dec 1794 - 28 Feb 1795  Jacques Maurice Hatry              (b. 1742 - d. 1802)
     1 Mar 1795 - 21 Jan 1796  Jean Baptiste Jourdan (2nd time)   (s.a.)
    22 Jan 1796 - 28 Feb 1796  Jean Baptiste Kléber (1st time)    (b. 1753 - d. 1800)
    29 Feb 1796 - 30 Jul 1796  Jean Baptiste Jourdan (3rd time)   (s.a.)
    31 Jul 1796 -  7 Aug 1796  Jean Baptiste Kléber (2nd time)    (s.a.)
     8 Aug 1796 - 23 Sep 1796  Jean Baptiste Jourdan (4th time)   (s.a.)
    23 Sep 1796 - 23 Jan 1797  Pierre Riel de Beurnonville        (b. 1752 - d. 1821)
                               - together with - 
    14 Dec 1796 - 23 Jan 1797  Jean Baptiste Kléber (3rd time)    (s.a.)
    26 Feb 1797 - 18 Sep 1797  Louis Lazare Hoche                 (b. 1768 - d. 1797)
    Commander of the Army of the Rhine (southern zone)
    14 Jan 1794 - 10 Apr 1795  Claude Ignace François Michaud     (b. 1751 - d. 1835)
    Commander of the Army of the Moselle
     2 Jul 1794 -  9 Feb 1795  Jean Victor Moreau                 (b. 1763 - d. 1813)
    Commanders of the Army of the Rhine and Moselle
    20 Apr 1795 -  4 Mar 1796  Jean Charles Pichegru              (b. 1761 - d. 1804)
    21 Apr 1796 -  9 Sep 1797  Jean Victor Moreau                 (s.a.)
    10 Sep 1797 - Sep 1797     Louis Lazare Hoche                 (s.a.)
    Sep 1797 -  7 Oct 1797     ....
    Commander of the Army of Germany
     7 Oct 1797 - 12 Dec 1797  Charles Pierre Francois Augereau   (b. 1757 - d. 1816)
    French Government Commissioners
     4 Nov 1797 - 179.         François Joseph Rudler             (b. 1757 - d. 1837)
    179. - 1799                Joseph Lakanal                     (b. 1762 - d. 1845)
    1799 - 1800                Henri Shée                         (b. 1739 - d. 1820)
    22 Sep 1800 - 1801         Jean-Baptiste Moisë Jollivet       (b. 1753 - d. 1818)
    20 Dec 1801 - 22 Sep 1802  André Jeanbon, dit Jeanbon Saint-  (b. 1749 - d. 1813)
                                 André


    Bouches-de-l'Elbe

    13 Dec 1810                French département of Bouches-de-l'Elbe formed from
                                 free cities of Hamburg and Lübeck and parts of Holstein.
    1814                       End of French rule.

    Prefects
    13 Dec 1810 - Mar 1813     Patrice Charles Ghislain de        (b. 1770 - d. 1827)
                                 Coninck
    15 Mar 1813 - 1814         Achille Stanislas Émile Le         (b. 1781 - d. 1864)
                                 Tonnelier, baron de Breteuil


    Bouches-du-Weser

    13 Dec 1810                French département of Bouches-du-Weser formed from
                                 free city of Bremen, duchy of Oldenburg, county of
                                 Hoya and part of Hanover.
    1814                       End of French rule.

    Prefect
    13 Dec 1810 - 1814         Charles Philippe Alexandre         (b. 1776 - d. 1814)
                                 d'Arberg                   


    Ems-Oriental 

    Jul 1807                   Principality of East Frisa (Ostfriesland), Barony of Kniphausen
                                (Knyphausen) and Häuptlingschaft Jever ceded to France 
                                 by Prussia and Russia respectively.
    11 Nov 1807                Incorporated into Kingdom of Holland as département
                                 of Oost-Friesland (East Friesland).
     1 Jan 1811                Incorporated into France as département of Ems-Oriental 
                                 (Eastern Ems).

    Governors-general 
    24 Nov 1806 -  6 Feb 1807  Henri Damas Bonhomme               (b. 1747 - d. 1826)
     6 Feb 1807 - 11 Nov 1807  ....
    Landdrost
    11 Nov 1807 -  5 Feb 1808  ....
     5 Feb 1808 - 22 Dec 1808  Godert Alexander Gerard Philip     (b. 1778 - d. 1848)
                                 van der Capellen
    22 Dec 1808 - 25 Feb 1811  Willem Queysen (arrived 1 Jan 1809)(b. 1754 - d. 1817)
    Prefect
    25 Feb 1811 -  8 Nov 1813  Sébastien Louis Joseph Jannesson   (b. 1779 - d. 1864)
                                 (arrived 1 Mar 1811)


    Ems-Supérieur

     1 Jan 1811                French département of Ems-Supérieur formed from bishopric
                                 of Minden (Prefecture Osnabrück).
    Oct 1813                   End of French rule.

    Prefect
    13 Jan 1811 - Oct 1813     Karl Ludwig Joseph von Keverberg   (b. 1768 - d. 1841)


    Lippe

    27 Apr 1811                French département of Lippe formed from parts 
                                 of Bouche-l'Yssel, Ems-Occidental and Yssel-Supérieur.
    Nov 1813                   End of French rule.

    Prefect
    13 Jun 1811 - Nov 1813     Jean Charles Annet Victorin de     (b. 1768 - d. 1833)
                                 Lasteyrie du Saillant


    Mont-Tonnerre

     9 Mar 1801                French département of Mont-Tonnerre (German: Donnersberg)
                                 formed from southern parts of electorate of Mainz and parts 
                                 of bishoprics of Speyer and Worms and of Palatinate and 
                                 duchy of Zweibrücken.
    1814                       End of French rule.

    Prefects
     9 Mar 1801 - 1801         Henri Shée                         (b. 1739 - d. 1820)
    1801 - 20 Dec 1801         Jean-Baptiste Moïse Jollivet       (b. 1753 - d. 1818)
    20 Dec 1801 - 10 Dec 1813  André Jeanbon, dit Jeanbon Saint-  (b. 1749 - d. 1813)
                                 André (from 9 Jan 1810, André
                                 Jeanbon, baron de Saint-André)


    Rhin-et-Moselle

     9 Mar 1801                French département of Rhin-et-Moselle (Rhine and Moselle)
                                 formed from parts of electorates of Trier and Cologne.
    1814                       End of French rule.

    Prefects
     9 Mar 1801 - 1803         Philippe Boucqueau de Villeraie    (b. 1773 - d. 1834)
    1803 - 1805                François Louis René Mouchard       (b. 1757 - d. 1814) 
                                 de Chaban
     1 Feb 1805 -  3 May 1806  Alexandre Théodore Victor          (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
                                 de Lameth
    15 Jun 1806 - 1810         Paul Adrien François Marie de      (b. 1769 - d. 1814)
                                 Lezay-Marnésia
     7 Aug 1810 - 1813         Jean Marie Thérèse Doazan          (b. 1774 - d. 1839)


    Roer

     9 Mar 1801                French département of Roer formed from duchies of Jülich,
                                 Guelders, and Kleve, principality of Meurs, parts of
                                 electorate of Cologne, and free cities of Cologne and Aachen.
    1814                       End of French rule.

    Prefects
     9 Mar 1801 -  4 Mar 1802  Nicolas Sébastien Simon            (b. 1749 - d. 1802)
     9 Jul 1802 - 1804         Alexandre Edme Méchin              (b. 1772 - d. 1849)
    15 Sep 1804 - 1806         Jean Charles Joseph Laumond        (b. 1753 - d. 1825)
     3 May 1806 - 19 Feb 1809  Alexandre Théodore Victor          (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
                                 de Lameth
    31 Mar 1809 - 1814         Jean Charles François de           (b. 1772 - d. 1848)
                                 Ladoucette (from 3 May 1809, Jean
                                 Charles François, chevalier de
                                 Ladoucette [from 31 Dec 1809, Jean
                                 Charles François, baron de Ladoucette])


    Sarre

     9 Mar 1801                French département of Sarre formed from parts of electorate
                                 of Trier and duchy of Zweibrücken.
    1814                       End of French rule.

    Prefects
    22 Jun 1800 - 1803         Joseph Bexon d'Ormschwiller
    22 Apr 1803 - 1810         Maximilien Xavier Képler           (b. 1758 - d. 1837)
                                (from 16 Sep 1808, Maximilien Xavier,
                                 chevalier Képler [from 14 Feb 1810,
                                 Maximilien Xavier, baron Képler])
     7 Aug 1810 - 1813         Alexandre François de Bruneteau    (b. 1769 - d. 1853)
                                 de Sainte Suzanne (from 19 Jan
                                 1812, Alexandre François de
                                 Bruneteau, baron de Sainte Suzanne)



    New Swabia (Neuschwabenland)
     
    Map of  Neuschwabenland
    19 Jan -  6 Feb 1939       Antarctic area 20°E to 10°W is explored by a German expedition
                                 led by Alfred Ritscher and is named New Swabia (Neuschwabenland), 
                                 Germany does not formally claim the area. 






    © Ben Cahoon