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German States to 1918  R-Z


Note: The list below is only complete for those polities that survived beyond 1806.  Within 
the Holy Roman Empire, there existed countless minor states (ecclesiastical states, imperial
cities, imperial villages, lordships, counties, baronies, principalities, etc.), which
are nearly impossible to list with even partial accuracy.  A major reorganization was
brought about by the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, when more than 100 polities were
abolished.  Polities listed prior to 1806 are a sample of the major or most well known
polities of the Holy Roman Empire and the Confederation of the Rhine.  After 1806, all the
polities that survived the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna are listed.
 
For the sake of providing a division between eras, after the republican revolutions 
of 1918, which overthrew the last German monarchies, remaining states are listed under
German states since 1918; these include the states and provinces of the Weimar Republic, Third Reich, and the modern period.  The provinces of Prussia are listed in a separate section following the entry for Prussia (Prussian provinces to 1946). Statistical data is given only for those polities that survived to 1918.
 

Noble titles: Edler/Edle = Noble; Erzherzog/Erzherzogin = Archduke/Archduchess;  Freiherr/Freifrau = Baron/Baroness; Fürst/Fürstin = Prince/Princess; Gefürsteter Graf/Gräfin = Princely Count/Countess; Graf/Gräfin = Count/Countess; Grossherzog/Grossherzogin = Grand Duke/Duchess; Herr/Herrin = Lord/Lady; Herzog/Herzogin = Duke/Duchess; Kaiser/Kaiserin = Emperor/Empress; Köing/Königin = King/Queen; Kurfürst/Kurfürstin = Prince/Princess Elector; Landgraf/Landgräfin = Landgrave/Landgravine; Markgraf/Markgräfin = Margrave/Margravine; Pfalzgraf/Pfalzgräfin = Count/Countess Palatine; Pfalzgraf/Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein = Count/Countess Palatine of the Rhine; Prinz/Prinzessin = Prince/Princess; Reichsfreiherr = Imperial Baron; Reichsgraf/Reichsgräfin = Imperial Count/Countess; Rheingraf/Rheingräfin = Rhinegrave/Rhinegravine; Ritter = Knight; Wildgraf = Wildgrave.

Ecclesiastical titles: Äbt/Äbtissin = Abbot/Abbess; Bischof = bishop; Erzbischof = Archbishop; Fürstabte = Prince-Abbot; Fürstbtissin = Princess-Abbess; Fürstbischof = Prince-bishop
 
Maps showing some of the major territorial changes: Historical Map of Germany in 1660;
Historical map of Germany in 1789; Historical map of Germany in 1803; Map of Germany in 1812;
Map of German Confederation 1815; Map of German Empire 1871

Rantzau: see under Danish Counties 1660-1793
Rapperswil: see under Swiss Cantons
Reckheim (Rekem): see under Belgium


Regensburg Bishopric

[Regensburg (Germany)]

739                        Bishopric of Regensburg (Hochstift Regensburg)(formerly
                             Ratisbon).
 1 Dec 1802                Principality of Regensburg(-Aschaffenburg) created
                             for prince-primate Karl Theodor von Dalberg.
 2 Jul 1805                Papal confirmation of the change of location of
                             the archbishopric from Mainz to Regensburg.
 6 Aug 1806                Frankfurt administered by Regensburg.
16 Feb 1810                Separate Grand Duchy of Frankfurt formed.
 9 May 1810 - 22 May 1810  French administration.
22 May 1810                Annexed to Bavaria.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Regensberg)
 4 Nov 1685 - 29 Sep 1694  Joseph Clemens von Bayern von        (b. 1671 - d. 1716)
                             Wittelsbach
26 Mar 1716 - 26 Apr 1719  Clemens August Maria Herzog von      (b. 1700 - d. 1761)
                             Bayern
29 Jul 1719 - 27 Jan 1763  Johann Theodor Cardinal von Bayern   (b. 1703 - d. 1763)
27 Apr 1763 - 20 Aug 1768  Klemens Wenzeslaus Herzog von        (b. 1739 - d. 1812)
                             Sachsen
18 Jan 1769 - 15 Feb 1787  Anton Ignaz Graf von Fugger-Glött    (b. 1711 - d. 1787)
20 Apr 1787 - 30 Dec 1789  Maximilian Polykarp Graf von Törring (b. 1739 - d. 1789)
                             -Jettenbach
30 Mar 1790 - 26 Nov 1802  Joseph Konrad Freiherr von           (b. 1743 - d. 1803)
                             Schroffenberg
Governor
26 Nov 1802 -  1 Dec 1802  Karl Christian Ernst Graf von        (b. 1767 - d. 1849)
                             Benzel-Sternau
Landeskommissar
 1 Dec 1802 - 30 Dec 1802  Joseph Benedikt Graf von Thurn       (b. 1744 - d. 1825)
                             und Valsassina
Prince-Archbishop
30 Dec 1802 -  9 May 1810  Karl Theodor Anton Maria Freiherr    (b. 1744 - d. 1817)
                             von Dalberg 
                           (Elector to 6 Aug 1806; and 16 Feb 1810 - 
                            28 Oct 1813, Grand Duke of Frankfurt)
French Administrator
 9 May 1810 - 22 May 1810  Jean Dominique de Compans            (b. 1769 - d. 1845)



Regensburg Free City

[Regensburg (Germany)]

788 -  1 May 1190          Regensburg castle commanded by an (eventually) hereditary,
                             Burggraf (initially styled urbis prefectus).
954 - 1245                 Regensburg the main residence of the dukes of Bavaria.
 1 May 1190 - 10 Nov 1245  Imperial administration.
10 Nov 1245                Imperial City of Regensburg (Reichsstadt Regensburg), with
                             four mayors from c.1523; four
"succession lines" can be
                             distinguished.

18 Jul 1486 -  1 Jun 1492  Occupied by Bavaria.
1663 - 1803                Seat of the Perpetual Imperial Diet (Immerwährender Reichstag).
26 Nov 1802 -  1 Dec 1802  Administered by Mainz.
 1 Jan 1803                Assigned to Karl Theodor von Dalberg, Prince-Primate
                             (see Regensburg).
20 Apr 1809 - 1810         Austrian occupation.
 9 May 1810 - 22 May 1810  French administration.
22 May 1810                Annexed to Bavaria.

Mayors (title Bürgermeister)
- Line 1 -
1699 - 1700                Johann Christoph Wendler (3rd time)
1700 – 1701                Esaias Feischel (1st time)
1701 – 1702                Georg Elsperger (3rd time)
1702 – 1703                Johann Christoph Wendler (4th time)
1703 – 1704                Esaias Feischel (2nd time)
1704 – 1705                Georg Elsperger (4th time)
1705 – 1706                Johann Christoph Wendler (5th time)
1706 - 1707 
              Esaias Feischel (3rd time)
1707 - 1708
               Georg Elsperger (5th time)
1708 - 1710 
              Georg Heinrich Braun
1710 - 1712 
              Johann Christoph Dallnsteiner
1712 - 1713 
              Johann Christoph Wild (1st time)
1713 – 1714 
              Emanuel Harrer
1714 - 1716 
               Johann Christoph Wendler (6th time)
1716 - 1717 
              Johann Georg Bölgel (1st time)
1717 - 1718 
              Paulus Memminger (1st time)
1718 - 1719 
               Christian Zimmermann (1st time)
1719 - 1720 
               Johann Georg Bölgel (2nd time)
1720 - 1721 
               Paulus Memminger (2nd time)
1721 - 1722 
               Christian Zimmermann (2nd time)
1722 - 1723 
               Johann Georg Bölgel (3rd time)
1723 – 1724 
               Johann Christoph Wild (2nd time)
1724 - 1725 
               Michael Geidinger
1725 – 1726 
               Christian Zimmermann (3rd time)
1726 – 1727 
               Johann Christoph Wild (3rd time)
1727 – 1728  
              Michael Reutinger
1728 – 1729 
              Christian Zimmermann (4th time)
1729 – 1730 
              Georg Gottlieb Harrer
1730 – 1731 
               Johann Christoph Wild (4th time)
1731 - 1732 
               Paul Memminger (1st time)
1732 - 1733 
               Johann Ulrich Bösner (1st time)
1733 – 1734 
               Johann Wilhelm Adler (1st time)
1734 - 1735 
               Johann Ulrich Bösner (2nd time)
1735 - 1736  
              Paul Memminger (2nd time)
1736 – 1737 
              Georg Matthias Selpert (1st time)
1737 – 1738 
               Johann Wilhelm Adler (2nd time)
1738 – 1739 
               Johann Ulrich Bösner (3rd time)
1739 - 1740 
               Johann Albrecht Wendler
1740 – 1741 
               Johann Georg Glätzel  (1st time)
1741 – 1742 
               Georg Matthias von Selpert (2nd time)
1742 – 1743 
              Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (1st time)
1743 – 1744 
               Romanus Brauser
1744 – 1745 
               Johann Eduard Habrecht (1st time)
1745 – 1746 
               Johann Georg Glätzel (2nd time)
1746 – 1747 
               Johann Georg Bart (1st time)
1747 – 1748 
               Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (2nd time)
1749 - 1750 
               Johann Georg Bart (2nd time)
1750 - 1751 
               Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (1st time)
1751 – 1752 
               Johann Eduard Habrecht (2nd time)
1752 - 1753 
               Gottfried Christian Mämminger,
1754 - 1755 
               Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (3rd time)
1755 – 1756 
               Johann Georg Glätzel (3rd time)
1756 – 1757  
              Johann Georg Gritsch (1st time)
1757 – 1758  
              Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (2nd time)
1758 – 1759                Christoph Siegmund Koch (1st time)
1759 – 1760                Johann Georg Gritsch (2nd time)
1760 - 1761                Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (3rd time)
1761 – 1762                Christoph Siegmund Koch (2nd time)
1762 - 1763                Johann Georg Gritsch (3rd time)
1763 – 1764                Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (4th time)
1764 - 1765                Johann Heinrich Rostock
1765 – 1766                Johann Georg Glätzel (4th time)
1766 - 1767                Johann Christoph Wendler (1st time)
1767 – 1768                Johann Ludwig Grimm
1768 – 1769                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (1st time)
1769 - 1770                Johann Georg Glätzel (5th time)
1770 - 1771                Johann Christoph Wendler (2nd time)
1771 - 1772                Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (5th time)
1772 - 1773                Ludwig Cornelius Ritter
1773 - 1774                Johann Georg Glätzel (6th time)
1774 - 1778                Johann Christoph Wendler (3rd time)
1778 - 1779                Michael Friedrich Wild
1779 - 1780                Johann Eduard Habrecht (1st time)
1780 - 1781                Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (1st time)
1781 - 1782                Siegmund Georg Ulrich Bösner
1782 - 1783                Johann Emanuel Wild (1st time)
1783 - 1785                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (2nd time)
1785 - 1786                Hieronymus Mamminger (1st time)
1786 - 1787                Johann Eduard Habrecht (2nd time)
1787 - 1788                Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (2nd time)
1788 - 1789                Johann Emanuel Wild (2nd time)
1789 - 1790                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (3rd time)
1790 – 1791                Hieronymus Mämminger (2nd time)
1791 – 1792                Johann Eduard Habrecht (3rd time)
1792 – 1793                Hieronymus Mämminger (3rd time)
1793 - 1794                Johann Eduard Habrecht (4th time)
1794 - 28 sep 1795         Georg Septimus Dietrichs (3rd time)
28 Sep 1795 - 29 Mar 1796  Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (3rd time)
29 Mar 1796 - 1797         Johann Eduard Habrecht (5th time)
1797 - Sep 1797            Johan Friedrich Häberl               (d. 1797)

1798 – 1801                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (4th time)
1801 - 26 Nov 1802         Christoph Andreas Mämminger
- Line 2 –
1699 - 1700 
              Johann Jakob Fuchs (4th time)
1700 – 1701 
              Johann Jakob von Berg (4th time)
1701 – 1702 
               Jonas Paul Sebald (4th time)
1702 - 1703  
              Johann Jakob Fuchs (5thd time)
1703 – 1704
               Johann Jakob von Berg (5th time)
1704 – 1705 
               Jonas Paul Sebald (5th time)
1705 – 1706
               Georg Heinrich Braun
1706 - 1707 
               Johann Jakob von Berg (6th time)
1707 - 1708 
               Jonas Paulus Sebald (6th time)
1708 - 1709 
               Georg Elsperger (3rd time)
1709 - 1710 
               Emanuel Harrer (1st time)
1710 - 1712 
               Johann Christoph Wendler
1712 - 1713 
               Johann Christoph Dallnsteiner
                             (1st time)
1713 - 1714 
               Johann Christoph Wild (1st time)
1714 - 1715 
               Emanuel Harrer (2nd time)
1715 - 1716 
              Ruprecht Siegmund Häberl (1st time)
1716 - 1717 
              Johann Christoph Dallnsteiner
                             (2nd time)
1717 - 1718 
              Johann Christoph Wild (2nd time)
1718 - 1719 
              Ruprecht Siegmund Häberl (2nd time)
1719 - 1720 
               Johann Christoph Dallnsteiner
                             (3rd time)
1720 - 1721 
               Johann Christoph Wild (3rd time)
1721 - 1722 
               Ruprecht Siegmund Häberl (3rd time)
1722 – 24 Apr 1722         Johann Christoph Dallnsteiner
                             (4th time)
24 Apr 1722 - 1723         Christian Zimmermann (1st time)
1723 – 1724 
              Johann Georg Bölgel (1st time)
1724 - 1725 
              Paulus Memminger
1725 – 1726  
              Heinrich Johann Plato
1726 – 1727 
              Johann Georg Bölgel  (2nd time)
1727 – 1728 
               Paul Memminger
1728 – 1729 
               Michael Reutinger
1729 – 1730 
               Christian Zimmermann (2nd time)
1730 – 1732 
               Georg Gottlieb Harrer (1st time)
1732 - 1733  
              Christian Zimmermann (3rd time)
1733 – 1734  
              Georg Gottlieb Harrer (2nd time)
1734 - 1735  
              Johann Wilhelm Adler (1st time)
1735 - 1737  
              Georg Gottlieb Harrer (3rd time)
1737 – 1738  
             Georg Matthias Selpert (1st time)
1738 – 1739  
              Johann Wilhelm Adler (2nd time)
1739 - 1740  
              Johann Ulrich Bösner
1740 – 1741 
              Georg Gottlieb Harrer (4th time)
1741 – 1742 
              Johann Georg Glätzel (1st time)
1742 – 1744 
              Georg Matthias von Selpert
                             (2nd time)
1744 – 1745 
              Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (1st time)
1745 – 1746  
              Johann Eduard Habrecht
1746 – 1747 
               Georg Matthias von Selpert
                             (3rd time)
1747 – 1748
                Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (1st time)
1748 – 1749 
               Johann Georg Glätzel (2nd time)
1749 - 1750 
               Georg Matthias von Selpert
                             (4th time)
1750 - 1751 
               Gottfried Christian Mämminger
                             (1st time)
1750 - 1751 
               Johann Friedrich Bart
1751 – 1752 
               Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (2nd time)
1752 - 1753 
               Johann Georg Glätzel (3rd time)
1753 - 1754 
               Gottfried Christian Mämminger
                             (2nd time)
1754 - 1755 
               Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (2nd time)
1755 – 1756 
               Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (3rd time)
1756 – 1757
               Johann Georg Glätzel (4th time)
1757 – 1758 
               Gottfried Christian Mämminger
                             (3rd time)
1758 – 1759
               Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (4th time)
1759 – 1760 
               Johann Georg Glätzel (5th time)
1760 - 1761
                Gottfried Christoph Mämminger
                             (4th time)
1761 – 1762                Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (5th time)
1762 - 1763                Johann Georg Glätzel (6th time)
1763 – 1764                Gottfried Christoph Mämminger
                             (5th time)
1764 - 1765                Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (3rd time)
1765 – 1766                Johann Heinrich Rostock
1766 - 1767                Gottfried Christoph Mämminger
                             (6th time)
1767 – 1768                Johann Christoph Wendler
1768 – 1769                Johann Ludwig Grimm (1st time)
1769 - 1770                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (1st time)
1770 - 1771                Johann Georg Glätzel (7th time)
1771 - 1772                Johann Ludwig Grimm (2nd time)
1772 - 1773                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (2nd time)
1773 - 1774                Ludwig Cornelius Ritter
1774 - 1779                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (3rd time)
1779 - 1780                Michael Friedrich Wild
1780 - 1781                Johann Eduard Habrecht (1st time)
1781 - 1782                Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (1st time)
1782 - 1783                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (4th time)
1783 – 1785                Johann Emanuel Wild (1st time)
1785 – 1786                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (5th time)
1786 - 1787                Hieronymus Mämminger
1787 - 1788                Johann Eduard Habrecht (2nd time)
1788 - 1789                Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (2nd time)
1789 – 1790                Johann Emanuel Wild (2nd time)
1790 – 1791                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (6th time)
1791 – 1792                Siegmund Georg Ulrich Bösner
1792 – 1793                Johann Eduard Habrecht (3rd time)
1793 - 1794                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (7th time)
1794 - 1795                Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (3rd time)
1795 – 1798                Vacant
1798 – 1800                Johann Georg Plato
1800 – 1802                Johann Eduard Habrecht (4th time)
1802 – 26 Nov 1802         Georg Septimus Dietrichs (8th time)

- Line 3 –
1699 - 1700 
               Georg Elsperger (4th time)
1700 – 1701 
               Johann Christoph Wendler (3rd time)
1701 – 1702 
              Esaias Feischel (1st time)
1702 – 1703
               Georg Elsperger (5th time)
1703 – 1704 
               Johann Christoph Wendler (4th time)
1704 – 1705 
               Esaias Feischel (2nd time)
1705 – 1706 
               Georg Elsperger (6th time)
1706 - 1707 
               Johann Christoph Wendler (5th time)
1707 - 1709 
               Emanuel Harrer (1st time)
1709 - 1710 
               Johann Christoph Wild (1st time)
1710 - 1711
               Emanuel Harrer (2nd time)
1711 - 1712
               Ruprecht Siegmund Häberl
1712 - 1713 
              Johann Christoph Wendler (6th time)
1713 - 1714 
               Johann Christoph Dallnsteiner
1714 - 1715 
              Johann Christoph Wild (2nd time)
1715 - 1716
                Paulus Memminger (1st time)
1716 - 1717 
               Christian Zimmermann (1st time)
1717 - 1718 
               Johann Georg Bölgel (1st time)
1718 - 1719 
               Paulus Memminger (2nd time)
1719 - 1720 
              Christian Zimmermann (2nd time)
1720 - 1721 
               Johann Georg Bölgel (2nd time)
1721 - 1722
                Paulus Memminger (3rd time)
1722 - 1723 
               Heinrich Johann Plato
1723 – 1724 
              Christian Zimmermann (3rd time)
1724 - 1725 
              Johann Christoph Wild (3rd time)
1725 – 1726 
               Michael Reutinger (1st time)
1726 – 1727 
               Georg Gottlieb Harrer
1727 – 1728 
               Johann Christoph Wild (4th time)
1728 – 1729 
               Paul Memminger (1st time)
1729 – 1730 
               Michael Reutinger (2nd time)
1730 – 1732
                Christian Zimmermann (4th time)
1732 - 1733 
               Paul Memminger (2nd time)
1733 – 1734 
               Christian Zimmermann (5th time)
1734 - 1735  
              Johann Ulrich Bösner
1735 - 1736  
              Johann Wilhelm Adler
1736 – 1737 
              Johann Albrecht Wendler (1st time)
1737 – 1738 
               Georg Gottlieb Harrer (1st time)
1738 – 1739 
               Georg Matthias Selpert
1739 - 1740 
               Johann Georg Bart (1st time)
1740 – 1741
               Johann Albrecht Wendler (2nd time)
1741 – 1742 
               Georg Gottlieb Harrer (2nd time)
1742 – 1744 
               Johann Georg Glätzel (1st time)
1744 – 1745  
              Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (1st time)
1745 – 1746 
               Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (1st time)
1746 – 1747 
               Johann Georg Glätzel (2nd time)
1747 – 1748 
               Johann Georg Bart (2nd time)
1748 – 1749 
               Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (2nd time)
1749 - 1750  
              Johann Georg Glätzel (3rd time)
1750 - 1751 
              Gottfried Christian Mämminger
                             (1st time)
1751 – 1752  
              Johann Georg Bart (3rd time)
1752 - 1753  
              Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (3rd time)
1753 - 1754 
              Georg Oesterlein
1754 - 1755 
              Gottfried Christoph Mämminger
                             (2nd time)
1755 – 1756  
              Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (2nd time)
1756 – 1757 
               Christoph Siegmund Koch (1st time)
1757 – 1758 
               Johann Georg Gritsch (1st time)
1758 – 1759
               Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (3rd time)
1759 – 1760 
               Christoph Siegmund Koch (2nd time)
1760 - 1761 
               Johann Georg Gritsch (2nd time)
1761 – 1762                Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (4th time)
1762 - 1763                Christoph Siegmund Koch (3rd time)
1763 – 1764                Johann Georg Gritsch (3rd time)
1764 - 1765                Johann Ludwig Grimm
1765 – 1766                Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (5th time)
1766 - 1767                Johann Georg Glätzel (3rd time)
1767 – 1768                Gottfried Christoph Mämminger
                             (3rd time)
1768 – 1770                Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (6th time)
1770 - 1771                Ludwig Cornelius Ritter
1771 - 1773                Johann Christoph Wendler
1773 - 1774                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (1st time)
1774 - 1778                Siegmund Georg Ulrich Bösner
1778 - 1779                Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (1st time)
1779 - 1780                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (2nd time)
1780 - 1781                Michael Friedrich Wild
1781 - 1782                Johann Eduard Habrecht (1st time)
1782 - 1785                Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (2nd time)
1785 - 1786                Johann Emanuel Wild (1st time)
1786 - 1787                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (3rd time)
1787 - 1789                Hieronymus Mämminger
1789 - 1790                Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (3rd time)
1790 – 1791                Johann Emanuel Wild (2nd time)
1791 – 1793                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (4th time)
1793 - 1794                Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (4th time)
1794 - 1795                Johann Eduard Habrecht (2nd time)
1795 – 1798                Vacant
1798 – 1801                Christoph Andreas Mämminger
1801 - 1802                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (5th time)
1802 – 26 Nov 1802         Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (5th time)
- Line 4 -
1699 - 1700 
               Jonas Paul Sebald (4th time)
1700 – 1701 
               Johann Jakob Fuchs (4th time)
1701 – 1702 
               Johann Jakob von Berg (4th time)
1702 – 1703 
               Johann Paulus Sebald (5th time)
1703 – 1704
                Johann Jakob Fuchs (5th time)
1704 – 1705  
              Johann Jakob von Berg (5th time)
1705 – 1706 
              Johann Paulus Sebald (6th time)
1706 - 1707 
              Georg Heinrich Braun
1707 - 1709 
               Johann Christoph Wendler
1709 - 1710 
               Georg Elsperger (2nd time)
1710 - 1711
               Johann Christoph Wild (1st time)
1711 - 1712
               Emanuel Harrer
1712 - 1714
               Ruprecht Siegmund Häberl (1st time)
1714 - 1715
               Johann Christoph Dallnsteiner
                             (1st time)
1715 - 1716 
               Johann Christoph Wild (2nd time)
1716 - 1717 
               Ruprecht Siegmund Häberl (2nd time)
1717 - 1718 
               Johann Christoph Dallnsteiner
                             (2nd time)
1718 - 1719 
               Johann Christoph Wild (3rd time)
1719 - 1720
                Ruprecht Siegmund Häberl (3rd time)
1720 - 1721 
              Johann Christian Dallnsteiner
                             (3rd time)
1721 - 1722 
               Johann Christoph Wild (4th time)
1722 - 1723 
               Paulus Memminger (1st time)
1723 – 1724 
              Heinrich Johann Plato
1724 - 1725 
              Johann Georg Bölgel
1725 – 1726  
              Paulus Memminger (2nd time)
1726 – 1727 
              Christian Zimmermann (1st time)
1727 – 1728 
               Georg Gottlieb Harrer
1728 – 1729 
               Johann Christoph Wild (5th time)
1729 – 1730 
               Paul Memminger (1st time)
1730 – 1731 
               Michael Reutinger
1731 - 1732 
               Paul Memminger (2nd time)
1732 - 1733  
              Johann Ulrich Bösner (1st time)
1733 – 1734  
              Paul Memminger (3rd time)
1734 - 1735  
              Christian Zimmermann (2nd time)
1735 - 1737  
              Johann Ulrich Bösner (2nd time)
1737 – 1738 
              Johann Albrecht Wendler
1738 – 1739 
               Georg Gottlieb Harrer
1739 - 1740  
              Georg Matthias von Selpert
                             (1st time)
1740 – 1742 
               Johann Georg Bart (1st time)
1742 – 1743 
               Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (1st time)
1743 – 1744 
              Johann Georg Bart (2nd time)
1744 – 1745 
              Georg Matthias von Selpert
                             (2nd time)
1745 – 1746 
              Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (1st time)
1746 – 1747 
              Johann Eduard Habrecht
1747 – 1748 
              Georg Matthias von Selpert
                             (3rd time)
1748 – 1749 
               Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (2nd time)
1749 - 1750 
               Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (2nd time)
1750 - 1751 
               Johann Georg Glätzel (1st time)
1751 – 1753 
               Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (3rd time)
1753 - 1754
               Johann Georg Glätzel (2nd time)
1754 - 1755 
               Georg Oesterlein
1755 – 1756 
               Gottfried Christian Mämminger
                             (1st time)
1756 – 1757 
               Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (3rd time)
1757 – 1758 
               Johann Georg Glätzel (3rd time)
1758 – 1759
                Gottlieb Christoph Mämminger
                             (2nd time)
1759 – 1760
               Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (4th time)
1760 - 1761                Johann Georg Glätzel (4th time)
1761 – 1762                Gottfried Christoph Mämminger
                             (3rd time)
1762 - 1763                Georg Albrecht Gumpelzheimer
                             (5th time)
1763 – 1764                Johann Georg Glätzel (5th time)
1764 - 1765                Gottfried Christoph Mämminger
                             (4th time)
1765 – 1766                Johann Ludwig Grimm (1st time)
1766 - 1767                Friedrich Ludwig Häberl (4th time)
1767 – 1768                Johann Georg Glatzel (6th time)
1768 – 1769                Johann Christoph Wendler
1769 - 1770                Johann Ludwig Grimm (2nd time)
1770 - 1771                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (1st time)
1771 - 1772                Johann Georg Glätzel (7th time)
1772 - 1777                Johann Ludwig Grimm (3rd time)
1777 - 1778                Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (1st time)
1778 - 1780                Siegmund Georg Ulrich Bösner
                             (1st time)
1780 - 1781                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (2nd time)
1781 - 1782                Siegmund Georg Ulrich Bösner
                             (2nd time)
1782 - 1785                Johann Eduard Habrecht (1st time)
1785 - 1786                Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (2nd time)
1786 - 1787                Johann Emanuel Wild
1787 - 1788                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (3rd time)
1788 - 1790                Johann Eduard Habrecht (2nd time)
1790 – 1793                Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (3rd time)
1793 - 1794                Johann Eduard Habrecht (3rd time)
1794 - 1795                Georg Septimus Dietrichs (4th time)
1795 – 1798                Vacant
1798 – 1802                Johann Barthol Gumpelzheimer
                             (4th time)
1802 – 26 Nov 1802         Johann Eduard Habrecht (4th time)

Governor

26 Nov 1802 -  1 Dec 1802  Karl Christian Ernst Graf von        (b. 1767 - d. 1849)
                             Benzel-Sternau
Landeskommissar
 1 Dec 1802 - 30 Dec 1802  Joseph Benedikt Graf von Thurn       (b. 1744 - d. 1825)
                             und Valsassina
Administrator
 9 May 1810 - 22 May 1810  Jean Dominique de Compans            (b. 1769 - d. 1845)


Remiremont: see under France provinces


Reuss
1099                       The ruling house is founded by Heinrich "der Fromme,"
                             appointed Vogt ("advocate") to administer royal domain of
                             Gera.
c.1303                     Heinrich, founder of the junior Plauen line, whose mother
                             was a Russian princess, adopts the byname "der Reusse"
                             (i.e., the Russian), Reuss gradually becoming the dynastic
                             name.
1564                       Split into three lines, one of which is extinct 1616
 5 Sep 1673                All ruling members of the dynasty become Reichsgrafen
                            (counts, immediate vassals of the king); although the
                             dynasty is already split into the "senior line" (Ältere
                             Linie) and the "junior line" (Jüngere Linie), the common
                             style, with only the distinction of the initial word, is
                             Älterer/Jüngerer Linie Graf Reuss, Graf und Herr von Plauen,
                             Herr von Greiz, Kranichfeld, Gera, Schleiz und Lobenstein.
 4 Apr 1919                Two lines united as People's State of Reuss (Volksstaat
                             Reuss)(see German states since 1918).


Reuss-Schleiz (Junior Line)

[Reuss-Gera, Reuss Junior
                Line c.1802-1918 (Germany)]
                 1802 - 1918
 

Map of Reuss Junior Line
National Anthem
"Heil unserm Fürsten, Heil"
(Hail to our Prince, Hail!)

Text of National Anthem
(to 1918)
Constitution
Capital: Gera
Population: 144,570 (1905)
 
 5 Sep 1673                The dynastic line is divided into Reuss-Schleiz, Reuss-
                             Gera, and Reuss-Lobenstein.
12 Dec 1678                Reuss-Lobenstein split into Reuss-Lobenstein, Reuss-
                             Hirschberg (extinct 29 Oct 1711), and Reuss-Ebersdorf.
11 Oct 1790                Reuss-Lobenstein becomes principality (Fürstentum Reuss-
                             Lobenstein); style: Jüngerer Linie Fürst Reuss zu
                             Lobenstein, Graf und Herr von Plauen, etc. (s.a.)
26 Apr 1802                Reuss-Schleiz and Reuss-Gera are unified into Reuss-Schleiz
                             und Gera.
  9 Apr 1806                Reuss-Ebersdorf becomes principality (Fürstentum Reuss-
                             Ebersdorf); style: Jüngerer Linie Fürst Reuss zu Ebersdorf,
                             Graf und Herr von Plauen, etc. (s.a.).
 9 Apr 1806                Reuss-Schleiz und Gera becomes principality (Fürstentum
                             Reuss-Schleiz-Gera); style: Jüngerer Linie regierender
                             Fürst Reuss zu Schleiz (und Gera), Graf und Herr von
                             Plauen, etc. (s.a.).
 1 Oct 1848                Reuss-Schleiz-Gera, Reuss-Ebersdorf, and Reuss-Lobenstein
                             combine into Fürstentum Reuss Jüngere Linie; style: Jüngerer
                             Linie regierender Fürst Reuss, Graf und Herr von Plauen,
                             Herr von Greiz, Kranichfeld, Gera, Schleiz und Lobenstein.
Nov 1918                   Free State of Reuss Junior Line (Freistaat Reuss Jüngere
                             Linie)(see German states since 1918).

 

Reuss-Schleiz

[Reuss-Schleiz (Germany)]

Counts
28 Mar 1692 - 28 Jul 1726  Heinrich XI                        (b. 1669 - d. 1726)
28 Jul 1726 -  6 Dec 1744  Heinrich I                         (b. 1695 - d. 1744)
 6 Dec 1744 - 25 Jun 1784  Heinrich XII                       (b. 1716 - d. 1784)
25 Jun 1784 - 26 Apr 1802  Heinrich XLII                      (b. 1752 - d. 1818)


Reuss-Gera

[Reuss-Gera (Germany)]

Counts
23 Mar 1686 - 25 Nov 1735  Heinrich XVIII                     (b. 1677 - d. 1735)
25 Nov 1735 - 13 Mar 1748  Heinrich XXV                       (b. 1681 - d. 1748)
13 Mar 1748 - 26 Apr 1802  Heinrich XXX                       (b. 1727 - d. 1802)


Reuss-Hirschberg

Count
12 Dec 1678 - 29 Oct 1711  Heinrich VIII                      (b. 1652 - d. 1711)


Reuss-Lobenstein

[Reuss-Lobenstein
                  (Germany)]

Counts
12 Dec 1678 - 24 May 1710  Heinrich III                       (b. 1648 - d. 1710)
24 May 1710 - 12 May 1739  Heinrich XV                        (b. 1674 - d. 1739)
12 May 1739 -  6 May 1782  Heinrich II                        (b. 1702 - d. 1782)
 6 May 1782 - 11 Oct 1790  Heinrich XXXV                      (b. 1738 - d. 1805)
Princes
11 Oct 1790 - 30 Mar 1805  Heinrich XXXV                      (s.a.)
30 Mar 1805 -  7 May 1824  Heinrich LIV (acting to 5 Jul 1806)(b. 1767 - d. 1824)
 7 May 1824 -  1 Oct 1848  Heinrich LXXII                     (b. 1797 - d. 1853)
                            (personal union with Reuss-Ebersdorf)


Reuss-Ebersdorf

[Reuss-Ebersdorf
                  (Germany)]

Counts
12 Dec 1678 - 20 Jun 1711  Heinrich X                         (b. 1662 - d. 1711)
20 Jun 1711 - 22 May 1747  Heinrich XXIX                      (b. 1699 - d. 1747)
22 May 1747 - 13 May 1779  Heinrich XXIV                      (b. 1724 - d. 1779)
13 May 1779 -  9 Apr 1806  Heinrich LI                        (b. 1761 - d. 1822)
Princes
 9 Apr 1806 - 10 Jul 1822  Heinrich LI                        (s.a.)
10 Jul 1822 -  1 Oct 1848  Heinrich LXXII                     (s.a.)
                            (from 7 May 1824 personal union with Reuss-Lobenstein)


Reuss-Schleiz-Gera and Reuss Junior Line

[Reuss-Schleiz-Gera, Reuss
                  Junior Line 1848-1918 (Germany)]

Count
26 Apr 1802 -  9 Apr 1806  Heinrich XLII                      (s.a.)
Princes
 9 Apr 1806 - 17 Apr 1818  Heinrich XLII                      (s.a.)
17 Apr 1818 - 19 Jun 1854  Heinrich LXII                      (b. 1785 - d. 1854)
19 Jun 1854 - 11 Jul 1867  Heinrich LXVII                     (b. 1789 - d. 1867)
11 Jul 1867 - 29 Mar 1913  Heinrich XIV                       (b. 1832 - d. 1913)
29 Mar 1913 - 11 Nov 1918  Heinrich XXVII                     (b. 1858 - d. 1928)

Ministers of state (until 1848 common government for Reuss-Lobenstein,
Reuss-Ebersdorf, and Reuss-Schleiz-Gera)
1825 - 1839                Gustav Adolph von Strauch          (b. 1790 - d. 1839)
1840 - 1855                Hermann Robert Bretschneider
      (b. 1796 - d. 18..)
                             (from 1842, Hermann Robert von
                             Bretschneider)                    
1856 - 1862                Eduard von Geldern                 (b. 1806 - d. 1866)
1862 - 1877                Andreas Paul Adolph von Harbou     (b. 1809 - d. 1877)
1877 - 1892                Emil von Beulwitz                  (b. 1821 - d. 1893)
1892 - 1896                Christian August Anton Vollert     (b. 1826 - d. 1897)
1896 - 1902                Walter Engelhardt
 1 Oct 1902 -  7 Nov 1918  Karl Franz Ernst von Hinüber       (b. 1854 - d. 1929)
 7 Nov 1918 - 10 Nov 1918  Paul Ruckdeschel                   (b. 1864 - d. 1942)



Reuss-Greiz  (Senior Line)
[Reuss-Plauen ältere Linie (Germany)]                         to 1820
 
[Reuss-Greiz, Reuss Senior Line 1820-1918
                      (Germany)]                      1820 - 1918
 
Map of Reuss Senior Line National Anthem
"Die Reussenhymne" or "Gott, erhalt'
 in Deiner Gnaden Unsern Fursten
"
('Reuss Hymn' or 'God, Save in Your
 Mercy Our Prince')
Text of National Anthem
(1860-1918)
Constitution
Capital: Griez
Population: 70,590 (1905)
 
 5 Sep 1673                The dynastic line is divided into Reuss-Untergreiz, Reuss-
                             Burgk (merged into Reuss-Untergreiz 13 Oct 1697), Reuss-
                             Rothental (merged into Reuss-Untergreiz 22 Feb 1698),
                             and Reuss-Obergreiz (split into Reuss-Obergreiz and
                             Reuss-Dölau 1694, reunited 17 Nov 1722).
17 Mar 1768                Reuss-Untergreiz and Reuss-Obergreiz combine to re-form
                             Reuss-Greiz, encompassing the whole senior-line polity.
12 May 1778                Polity elevated to rank of principality (Fürstentum Reuss
                             Ältere Linie); style: Älterer Linie souveräner Fürst Reuss,
                             Graf und Herr von Plauen, Herr von Greiz, Kranichfeld,
                             Gera, Schleiz und Lobenstein.
Nov 1918                   Free State of Reuss Senior Line (Freistaat Reuss Ältere
                             Linie)(see German states since 1918).


Reuss-Untergreiz

[Reuss-Plauen ältere
                    Linie (Germany)]

Counts
 3 Mar 1675 - 14 Apr 1733  Heinrich XIII                      (b. 1672 - d. 1733)
                           - jointly with -
 3 Mar 1675 - 20 Jun 1682  Heinrich XIV                       (b. 1674 - d. 1682) 
14 Apr 1733 - 17 Mar 1768  Heinrich III                       (b. 1701 - d. 1768)


Reuss-Obergreiz

[Reuss-Obergreiz (Germany)]

Counts
18 Mar 1681 - 21 Oct 1697  Heinrich VI                        (b. 1649 - d. 1697)
                           - jointly with the following two -
18 Mar 1681 -  9 Oct 1690  Heinrich XV                        (b. 1676 - d. 1690)
18 Mar 1681 -  6 Mar 1698  Heinrich XVI                       (b. 1678 - d. 1698)
                            (from 1694 Reuss-Dölau)
21 Oct 1697 -  7 Sep 1714  Heinrich I                         (b. 1693 - d. 1714)
                           - jointly with -
21 Oct 1697 - 17 Nov 1722  Heinrich II                        (b. 1696 - d. 1722)
                            (from 6 Mar 1698 in personal union with Reuss-Dölau)
21 Oct 1697 -  4 Feb 1717  Henriette Amalie Freiin von        (b. 1668 - d. 1732)
                             Friesen (f) -Regent (for Heinrich I and Heinrich II)
17 Nov 1722 - 17 Mar 1723  Heinrich IX                        (b. 1718 - d. 1723)
17 Nov 1722 - 17 Mar 1723  Sophie Charlotte Gräfin von        (b. 1697 - d. 1748) 
                             Bothmer (f) -Regent (1st time)
17 Mar 1723 - 17 Mar 1768  Heinrich XI                        (b. 1722 - d. 1800)
17 Nov 1723 - 18 Mar 1743  Sophie Charlotte Gräfin von        (s.a.) 
                             Bothmer (f) -Regent (2nd time)


Reuss-Greiz, later Reuss Senior Line

[Reuss-Greiz ältere Linie (Germany)]                   to 1820
 
[Reuss-Greiz, Reuss Senior Line 1820-1918
                      (Germany)]               1820 - 1918
 

Count
17 Mar 1768 - 12 May 1778  Heinrich XI                        (s.a.)
Princes
12 May 1778 - 28 Jun 1800  Heinrich XI                        (s.a.)
28 Jun 1800 - 29 Jan 1817  Heinrich XIII                      (b. 1747 - d. 1817)
29 Jan 1817 - 31 Oct 1836  Heinrich XIX                       (b. 1790 - d. 1836)
31 Oct 1836 -  8 Nov 1859  Heinrich XX                        (b. 1794 - d. 1859)
 8 Nov 1859 - 19 Apr 1902  Heinrich XXII                      (b. 1846 - d. 1902)
 8 Nov 1859 - 28 Mar 1867  Princess Karoline (f) -Regent      (b. 1819 - d. 1872)
19 Apr 1902 - 11 Nov 1918  Heinrich XXIV                      (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
15 Oct 1908 - 11 Nov 1918  Heinrich XXVII -Regent             (b. 1858 - d. 1928)

Government and Konsistorial Presidents
1782 - 1841                Franz Christian Ferdinand von Grün (b. 1758 - d. 1841)
1841 - Jun 1848            Ludwig Freiherr von und zu         (b. 1794 - d. 1872)
                             Mannsbach
 1 Jul 1848 -  6 May 1861  Franz Eduard Otto                  (b. c.1780 - d. c.1865)
1861 - 26 Jan 1870         Hugo Moritz Herman                 (b. 1809 - d. 1870)
 1 Jun 1870 - 30 Sep 1874  Otto Theodor Meusel                (b. 1832 - d. 1906)
1874 - 1888                Albert Friedrich Wilhelm Faber     (b. 1817 - d. ....)
1888 - 13 Apr 1892         Alfred August Mortag               (b. c.1825 - d. 1892)
1893 - 17 Sep 1900         Theodor von Dietel                 (b. 1830 - d. 1900)
1901 - 12 Nov 1918         Ernst August von Meding            (b. 1855 - d. 1928) 



Rheda

c.1190                     Lordship of Rheda (Herrschaft Rheda)
1606                       County of Rheda (
Grafschaft Rheda).
                             under Bentheim-Tecklenburg dynasty.
 1 May 1808                Annexed to Berg.
1815                       Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Graf von Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda)
25 Feb 1674 - 29 Aug 1704  Johann Adolf                       (b. 1637 - d. 1704)
29 Aug 1704 - 13 Dec 1710  Friedrich Moritz                   (b. 1653 - d. 1710)
13 Dec 1710 -  2 Jun 1768  Moritz Kasimir I                   (b. 1701 - d. 1768)
 2 Jun 1768 -  4 Nov 1805  Moritz Kasimir II                  (b. 1735 - d. 1805)
 4 Nov 1805 - 20 Apr 1806  Moritz Kasimir III                 (b. 1764 - d. 1806)
20 Apr 1806 -  1 May 1808  Emil Friedrich Karl                (b. 1765 - d. 1837)



Rheina-Wolbeck
[Rheina-Wolbeck
                  (Germany) 1803-1806]
                 1803 - 27 Jul 1806
23 Nov 1802                 Principality of Rheina-Wolbeck 
                              (Fürstentum Rheina-Wolbeck).
26 Jul 1806                 Annexed to Berg.
 1 May 1809                 Annexed to France.
25 Nov 1813 - 25 Jun 1815   Allied administration.
25 Jun 1815                 Annexed to Hanover.
17 Dec 1824                 Incorporated into Prussia.

Princes (title Fürst zu Rheina-Wohlbeck
23 Nov 1802 - 20 Mar 1803   Wilhelm Joseph Alexander Herzog    (b. 1732 - d. 1803)
                              von Looz-Corswarem 
20 Mar 1803 - 26 Jul 1806   Joseph Arnold                      (b. 1770 - d. 1827)



Rietberg

1237                       County of Rietberg (Grafschaft Rietberg)
                             immediate from 1353.
 1 Jan 1758                Under the Kaunitz dynasty.
28 Aug 1807                Annexed to Kingdom of Westphalia.
1813 - 25 May 1815         Allied administration.
25 May 1815                Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Graf von Rietberg)
10 Jun 1687 - 15 Mar 1690  Franz Adolf Wilhelm                 (b. 1651 - d. 1690)
15 Mar 1690 -  1 Jan 1758  Marie Ernestine Franziska -Countess (b. 1687 - d. 1758)
 1 Jan 1758 - 27 Jun 1794  Wenzel Anton Graf von Kaunitz       (b. 1711 - d. 1794)
27 Jun 1794 - 19 May 1797  Ernst Christoph                     (b. 1737 - d. 1797)
19 May 1797 - 28 Aug 1807  Dominicus Andreas Graf von          (b. 1739 - d. 1812)
                             Questenberg



Rottenmünster (Rothenmünster)

1126                       Benedictine Abbey of Rottenmünster (Stift Rottenmünster)
1442                       Abbesses also Princesses of the Empire.
1802                       Occupied by Württemberg.
27 Apr 1803                Secularized and annexed to Württemberg.

Princess-Abbesses (title Fürstäbtissin zu Rottenmünster)
1650 - 1658                Susanna von Pflummern              (b. 1588 - d. 1664)
1658 - 1687                Ursula Scherlin
1687 - 1725                Maria Williburg Frey
1725 - 1733                Magdalena Schneider
1733 - 1748                Barbara von Pflummern
1748 - 1762                Thesselina Eberle
1762 - 1777                Magdalena Mayr
1777 - 1796                Maria Barbara Barxel
1796 - 1802                Maria Juliana Maier                (b. 17.. - d. 1826) 


Rottweil

[Rottweil free city flag]

1401                       Imperial Free City of Rottweil (Freie und Reichsstadt Rottweil)
1463                       Treaty of military cooperation with the Swiss Confederation.
1519 - 1632                Associate member (Zugewandte Orte) of Swiss Confederation with
                             all 13 cantons.
1632                       Treaty renewed only with Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden,
                             Zug, Solothurn and Fribourg.
19 Nov 1634 -  2 Dec 1634  French occupation.
10 Sep 1802                Annexed to Württemberg.               

Mayors (title Bürgermeister)(annual rotation)
1700? - 1709?              Johann Waibel
1701 - 1729                Ignaz Moser
bf.1710                    Johann Wilhelm Herderer
c.1710 - c.1736            Caspar Ignaz Herderer                 (b. 1665 - d. 1736)
1730 - 1737                Joseph Schrof
1731 - 1737                Anton Lindau
1738                       Anastasius Göbel
1739 - c.1755              Joseph Matthauer
1764                       Judas Thadäus Herderer
1776?                      Uhl
1781                       Gassner
1800 - 1802                Johann Baptist Hofer                 (b. 1759 - d. 1838)


Rügen: see under Swedish Pomerania
Sabbioneta: see Italian states

Saint Gall (Sankt Gallen): see Swiss Cantons
Saint Gerold: see Vorarlberg under Austrian lands



Salm

 
[Salm-Salm
                1386-1803 (Germany)]

1019                       County of Salm (Grafschaft Salm-Salm)
1086                       County of Salm-Kyrburg (from 21 Feb 1742 Principality of
                             Salm-Kyrburg).
1165                       Divided into Lower Salm (lineage of the lords of Reifferscheidt)
                             and Upper Salm (lineage of the "Wild-und Rheingrafen").
1263                       Salm-Dhaun separated from Upper Salm; which from 25 Dec 1499 -
                             1574 part of Salm; from 10 Jun 1750 part of Salm-Grumbach).
1574                       Upper Salm divided into branches of Salm-Salm (from 8 Jan 1623,
                             Principality of Salm-Salm) and Salm-Grumbach.
1639                       Salm-Reifferscheid separated from Lower-Salm.
13 Sep 1693                Salm-Reifferscheid divided into the branches of 
                             Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedbur and Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck.
 9 Mar 1801                Salm-Dhaun, Salm-Dyck, Salm-Grumbach, and Salm-Reifferscheid 
                             are annexed by France.
25 Feb 1803 -  2 Aug 1806  Former Count of Salm-Grumbach is made Count of Salm-Horstmar.
13 Dec 1810                Salm-Kyrburg and Salm-Salm annexed by France (from 27 Apr 
                             1811, part of département of Lippe).
1813 - 1815                Allied administration.
1815                       Annexed to Prussia.
 

Salm-Dhaun

1263                       County of Salm-Dhaun (Grafschaft Salm-Dhaun)
25 Dec 1499 - 1574         Part of Salm
10 Jun 1750                Part of Salm-Grumbach.
 9 Mar 1801                Annexation by France.
1813 - 1815                Allied administration.
1815                       Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Wild- und Rheingraf von Salm zu Dhaun)
26 Jun 1693 - 26 Mar 1733  Karl                         (b. 1675 - d. 1733)
26 Jun 1693 - 11 Sep 1693  Anna Katharina Gräfin von    (b. 1653 - d. 1731)
                             Nassau-Ottweiler (f) -Regent
26 Mar 1733 - 13 Sep 1742  Johann Philipp II            (b. 1724 - d. 1742)
26 Mar 1733 - 13 Sep 1738  Luise Gräfin von Nassau-     (b. 1686 - d. 1773)
                             Ottweiler (f) -Regent
13 Sep 1742 - 24 Apr 1748  Christian Otto               (b. 1680 - d. 1748)
24 Apr 1748 - 27 Jan 1750  Johann Friedrich             (b. 1727 - d. 1750)
27 Jan 1750 - 23 Feb 1750  Karl Leopold Ludwig          (b. 1748 - d. 1750)
27 Jan 1750 - 23 Feb 1750  Karoline Friederike von      (b. 1733 - d. 1783)
                             Salm (f) -Regent (2nd time)
23 Feb 1750 - 10 Jun 1750  Friedrich Wilhelm            (b. 1750 - d. 1750)
23 Feb 1750 - 10 Jun 1750  Karoline Friederike von      (s.a.)
                             Salm (f) -Regent (1st time)


Salm-Kyrburg

[Salm-Salm and Salm-Horstmar
                1803-1811 (Germany)]
             1803 - 13 Dec 1810

25 Dec 1499                County of Salm-Kyrburg (Grafschaft Salm-Kyrburg)
16 Nov 1688 - 1738         Part of Salm-Salm.
21 Feb 1742                Principality of Salm-Kyrburg (Fürstentum Salm-Kyrburg).
13 Dec 1810                Annexation by France.

27 Apr 1811                Incorporation into French département of Lippe.
1813 - 1815                Allied administration.
1815                       Annexed to Prussia.

Co-Regents
29 Dec 1696 - 15 Oct 1716  Heinrich Gabriel Joseph     (b. 1674 - d. 1716)
15 Oct 1716 - 21 Feb 1742  Johann XI Dominic Albert    (b. 1708 - d. 1778)
                           - jointly with -
15 Oct 1716 - 1738         Philipp Joseph              (b. 1709 - d. 1779)
Counts (title Wild-und Rheingraf zu Kyrburg)
1738 - 21 Feb 1742         Johann XI Dominic Albert    (s.a.)
                           - jointly with -
1738 - 21 Feb 1742         Philipp Joseph              (s.a.)
Princes (title Reichsfürst zu Salm-Kyrburg, Fürst zu Ahaus und Bocholt, 
Wild-und Rheingraf, Graf von Renneberg)
21 Feb 1742 -  2 Jun 1778  Johann XI Dominic Albert    (s.a.)
                           - jointly with -
21 Feb 1742 -  7 Jun 1779  Philipp Joseph              (s.a.)
 7 Jun 1779 - 25 Jul 1794  Friedrich III               (b. 1745 - d. 1794)
25 Jul 1794 - 13 Dec 1810  Friedrich IV                (b. 1789 - d. 1859)


Salm-Grumbach

1574                       County of Salm-Grumbach (Grafschaft Salm-Grumbach)
 9 Mar 1801                Annexation by France.
25 Feb 1803 -  2 Aug 1806  Former Count made Count of Salm-Horstmar (s.b.).
1813 - 1816                Allied administration.
1816                       Part of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
1834                       Annexed to Prussia

Counts (title Wild- und Rheingraf von Salm zu Grumbach)
16 Nov 1668 - 25 Aug 1719  Leopold Philipp Wilhelm        (b. 1642 - d. 1719)
15 Aug 1719 - Jun 1727     Karl Ludwig Philipp            (b. 1678 - d. 1727)
Jun 1727 - 11 Jul 1763     Karl Walrad Wilhelm            (b. 1701 - d. 1763)
11 Jul 1763 - 23 Sep 1799  Karl Ludwig Wilhelm Theodor    (b. 1720 - d. 1799)
23 Sep 1799 - 1801         Wilhelm Friedrich Karl August  (b. 1799 - d. 1865)
13 Sep 1799 - 1801         Friederike Gräfin zu           (b. 1767 - d. 1849)
                             Sayn-Wittgenstein-
                             Hohenstein (f) -Regent


Salm-Salm

[Salm-Salm and Salm-Horstmar
                1803-1811 (Germany)]
             1803 - 13 Dec 1810

1574                       County of Salm-Salm (Grafschaft Salm-Salm)
 8 Jan 1623                Principality of Salm-Salm (Fürstentum Salm-Salm)
13 Dec 1810                Annexation by France.
27 Apr 1811                Incorporation into French département of Lippe.
1813 - 1815                Allied administration.
1815                       Annexed to Prussia.

Princes (title Fürst und Rheingraf von Salm zu Salm, Wildgraf von Daun und Kyrburg,
Rheingraf von Stein, etc.)
23 Dec 1663 - 10 Nov 1710  Karl Theodor Otto                 (b. 1645 - d. 1710)
23 Dec 1663 - 27 Jul 1666  .... -Regent 
10 Nov 1710 - 23 Nov 1738  Ludwig Otto                       (b. 1674 - d. 1738)
23 Nov 1738 -  4 Feb 1770  Nicholas Leopold                  (b. 1707 - d. 1770)
                             (acting to 14 Jan 1739)
 4 Feb 1770 - 29 Jul 1778  Ludwig Otto Karl                  (b. 1721 - d. 1778)
14 Sep 1773 - 29 Jul 1778  Marie Louise Eleonore Landgräfin  (b. 1729 - d. 1800)
                             von Hessen (f) -Regent (1st time)
29 Jul 1778 - 13 Dec 1810  Konstantine Alexander Joseph      (b. 1773 - d. 1828)
29 Jul 1778 - 22 Nov 1783  Marie Louise Eleonore Landgräfin  (s.a.)
                             von Hessen (f) -Regent (2nd time)
                           + Wilhelm Florentin Johann Felix  (b. 1745 - d. 1810)
                             Bischof von Doornik -Regent


Salm-Reifferscheid

1163                       County of Upper Salm
1455                       County of Salm-Reifferscheid (Grafschaft Salm-Reifferscheid)
 9 Mar 1801                Annexation by France.
1813 - 1815                Allied administration.
1815                       Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Altgraf von Salm Reifferscheid zu Bedbur
16 Jul 1678 -  4 Jun 1734  Franz Wilhelm I                 (b. 1672 - d. 1734)
16 Jul 1678 - 14 Aug 1693  Ernestine Barbara Dorothea      (b. 1654 - d. 1698)
                             Sibylle Grafin zu Löwenstein-
                             Wertheim-Rochefort (f) -Regent
 4 Jun 1734 - 13 Jul 1755  Karl Anton Joseph               (b. 1697 - d. 1755)
13 Jul 1755 - 27 Feb 1798  Siegmund                        (b. 1735 - d. 1798)
13 Jul 1755 - 13 Jun 1756  Maria Franziska Gräfin          (b. 1702 - d. 1778)
                             Esterházy (f) -Regent
27 Feb 1798 -  9 Mar 1801  Franz Wilhelm II                (b. 1772 - d. 1831)


Salm-Dyck

10..                       Lordship of Salm-Dyck (Herrschaft Salm-Dyck).
1475 - 13 Sep 1639         Part of Salm-Reifferscheid.
13 Sep 1693                County of Salm-Dyck (Grafschaft Salm-Dyck)
 9 Mar 1801                Annexation by France.
1813 - 1815                Allied administration.
1815                       Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Altgraf von Salm Reifferscheid zu Dyck)
11 Jun 1684 - 16 Jul 1727  Franz Ernst                     (b. 1659 - d. 1727)
16 Jul 1727 - 10 Oct 1727  August Eugen Bernhard           (b. 1706 - d. 1767)
16 Jul 1727 - 10 Oct 1727  Anna Franziska Fürstin von      (b. 1683 - d. 1776)
                             Thurn und Taxis (f) -Regent 
 5 Oct 1767 - 17 Aug 1775  Johann Franz Wilhelm            (b. 1714 - d. 1775)
17 Aug 1775 -  9 Mar 1801  Joseph Franz Maria              (b. 1773 - d. 1861)
17 Aug 1775 -  6 Jan 1776  Auguste Gräfin von Waldburg-    (b. 1743 - d. 1776)
                             Zeil-Wurzach (f) -Regent
 6 Jan 1776 -  9 Mar 1801  .... -Regent


Salm-Horstmar
[Salm-Salm and
                  Salm-Horstmar 1803-1811 (Germany)]
        25 Feb 1803 - 2 Aug 1806
1269                        Incorporated into the diocese of Münster.
18 Aug 1802                 County of Salm-Horstmar (Grafschaft Salm-Horstmar) created 
                              for the former count of Salm-Grumbach.
 2 Aug 1806                 Annexed to Berg.
13 Dec 1810                 Annexation by France.
1813 - 25 May 1815          Allied administration.
25 May 1815                 Annexed to Prussia.

Count (title Wild- und Rheingraf von Salm zu Horstmar)
18 Aug 1802 -  2 Aug 1806   Wilhelm Friedrich Karl August  (b. 1799 - d. 1865)
18 Aug 1802 -  2 Aug 1806   Friederike Gräfin zu           (b. 1767 - d. 1849)
                              Sayn-Wittgenstein-
                              Hohenstein (f) -Regent


Sargans: see under Swiss cantons

Salzburg Archbishopric/Electorate: see Austrian lands
Savoy: see Sardinia-Piedmont under Italian states
Sax: see under Swiss Cantons

Saxe-Lauenburg: see Lauenburg


Saxon duchies

 1 Jan 1249                The defunct office of Landgraf von Thüringen is revived by
                             the king and conferred upon Heinrich "der Erlauchte" of the
                             Wettin dynasty.
19 May 1547                The ruler of the Albertine line of dukes of Saxony abandons
                             the style of Landgrave and continues as Duke of Saxony.
21 Feb 1566                Division into Saxe-Gotha and Saxe-Weimar.

Note: All monarchs in this section belong to the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty. Every polity in this account is a Duchy of Saxe-X (Herzogtum Sachsen-X) and its ruler is styled Herzog von Sachsen, Herzog zu Sachsen-X. The only exception is the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, later styled Grand Duchy of Saxony (Grossherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar
-Eisenach, Grossherzogtum Sachsen), after 1815.

Saxe-Altenburg

[Saxe-Altenburg to 1832 (Germany)]                         to 1832 
 
[Saxe-Altenburg 1826/32 -1918 (Germany)]                      1832 - 1918  

Map of Saxe-Altenburg
National Anthem
"Heil unserm Herzog, Heil"
(Hail to our Duke, Hail!) 
Text of National Anthem
Constitution
Capital: Altenburg
Population: 206,500 (1905)

13 Nov 1602                Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg
26 May 1672 - 11 Feb 1825  In personal union with Saxe-Gotha
12 Nov 1826                Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg restored in
                             exchange for Saxe-Hildburghausen.
Nov 1918                   Free State of Saxe-Altenburg (Freistaat Saxe-Altenburg)
                             (see German states since 1918). 

Dukes
26 May 1672 - 11 Feb 1825  the dukes of Saxe-Gotha
12 Nov 1826 - 29 Sep 1834  Friedrich                          (b. 1763 - d. 1834)
29 Sep 1834 - 30 Nov 1848  Joseph                             (b. 1789 - d. 1868)
30 Nov 1848 -  3 Aug 1853  Georg                              (b. 1796 - d. 1853)
 3 Aug 1853 -  7 Feb 1908  Ernst I                            (b. 1826 - d. 1908)
 7 Feb 1908 - 13 Nov 1918  Ernst II                           (b. 1871 - d. 1955)

Chancellors
1682 - 1700                Johann Caspar von Hendrich         (b. 1635 - d. 1700)
1700 - 1705                Georg Dietrich Pflugk              (b. 1640 - d. 1705)
1706 - 1731                Heinrich Hildebrand von Einsiedel  (b. 1658 - d. 1731)
1731 - 1738                Johann Georg von Geissmar          (b. 1682 - d. 1749)
1738 - 1742                Siegmund Ehrenfried von Oppel      (b. 1687 - d. 1757)
1743 - 11 Nov 1750         Ernst Friedrich Freiherr von       (b. 1696 - d. 1756)
                             Seckendorff 
11 Nov 1750 - 1766         Albrecht Anton von Rüxleben        (b. 1705 - d. 1770)
1766 - 1782                Johann Freiherr von Rothkirch und  (b. 1710 - d. 1782)
                             Trach 
1783 - 1789                Friedrich Karl Adam von            (b. 1738 - d. 1789)
                             Schwarzenfels (acting to 1786)
1789 - 30 Nov 1826         Friedrich Carl Adolf von           (b. 1751 - d. 1831)
                             Trützschler 
Ministers of state
 1 Dec 1826 - Sep 1830     Friedrich Carl Adolf von           (s.a.)
                             Trützschler 
Sep 1830 - 25 May 1848     Johann Heinrich Ernst Edler von    (b. 1788 - d. 1863)
                             Braun 
25 May 1848 -  9 Nov 1848  Gustav Adolf Edler von der Planitz (b. 1802 - d. 1869)
 9 Nov 1848 -  1 Dec 1848  Karl Louis Graf von Beust          (b. 1811 - d. 1888)
                             (1st time) 
 1 Dec 1848 - 22 Aug 1849  Hans Conon von der Gabelentz       (b. 1807 - d. 1874)
22 Aug 1849 -  2 Feb 1853  Karl Louis Graf von Beust          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
 2 Feb 1853 - Jun 1867     Karl August Alfred von Larisch     (b. 1819 - d. 1897)
Jun 1867 - 1879            Friedrich Leopold Wolf Ludwig      (b. 1826 - d. 1899) 
                             Wendelin von Gerstenbergk, Edler
                             von Zech 
1880 - 22 Aug 1891         Hugo Heinrich Alfred von Leipziger (b. 1823 - d. 1896)
22 Aug 1891 - Aug 1904     Georg Heinrich von Helldorf        (b. 1834 - d. 1907)
1904 -  1 Dec 1912         Friedrich Arthur von Borries       (b. 1853 - d. 1923)
 1 Dec 1912 - Jul 1915     Robert von Scheller-Steinwartz     (b. 1865 - d. 1921)
Jul 1915 -  9 Nov 1918     Waldemar Philip Paul Alexander     (b. 1865 - d. 1938) 
                             von Wussow 


Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
 
[Saxe-Coburg-Gotha flag 1826-1918 (Germany)]                       1826 - 1918
 
[Saxe-Coburg-Gotha semi-official flag
                      c.1888-1918 (Germany)]         c.1888 - 1918 Semi-official flag
 
Map of Saxe-Coburg
and Gotha
National Royal Anthem
"Heil unserm Herzog, Heil!"
(Hail to our Duke, Hail!) 
National Anthem
"Der Coburger Marsch"
(The Coburger March)
Constitution
Capital: Coburg
(Summer Capital: Gotha)
Population: 242,292 (1905)

12 Nov 1826                Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Saxe-Gotha enter into
                             personal union, styled Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
13 Nov 1918                Free State of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
14 Nov 1918                Union dissolved into separate republics of Saxe-Coburg and
                             Saxe-Gotha (see German states since 1918).

Dukes
12 Nov 1826 - 29 Jan 1844  Ernst I                            (b. 1784 - d. 1844)
29 Jan 1844 - 22 Aug 1893  Ernst II                           (b. 1818 - d. 1893)
22 Aug 1893 - 30 Jul 1900  Alfred                             (b. 1844 - d. 1900)
30 Jul 1900 - 14 Nov 1918  Carl Eduard                        (b. 1884 - d. 1954)
30 Jul 1900 - 19 Jul 1905  Ernst von Hohenlohe-               (b. 1863 - d. 1950)
                             Langenberg -Regent

Ministers of state
12 Nov 1826 - 1826         Albrecht Anton Adolph Hofmann      (b. 1758 - d. 1837)
1826 - 21 Jan 1840         Christoph Anton Ferdinand Freiherr (b. 1785 - d. 1840)
                             von Carlowitz 
Jan 1840 - Oct 1840        Dietrich Carl August Freiherr von  (b. 1793 - d. 1867)
                             Stein (1st time) 
Oct 1840 -  1 Mar 1846     Georg Ferdinand Freiherr von Lepel (b. 1779 - d. 1873)
 1 Mar 1846 -  1 Dec 1849  Dietrich Carl August Freiherr von  (s.a.)
                             Stein (2nd time) 
 1 Dec 1849 - Mar 1888     Camillo Richard von Seebach        (b. 1808 - d. 1894)
                            (from 1855, Camillo Richard 
                             Freiherr von Seebach)
Mar 1888 - 14 Nov 1891     Gisbert Gustav Bogislaw Karl von   (b. 1841 - d. 1913)
                             Bonin-Brettin
14 Nov 1891 - Nov 1900     Carl Friedrich von Strenge         (b. 1843 - d. 1907)
Nov 1900 - 19 May 1905     Philipp Otto Hentig                (b. 1852 - d. 1934)
19 May 1905 -  5 May 1914  Ernst Friedrich Hermann von        (b. 1862 - d. 1935)
                             Richter 
 5 May 1914 -  1 May 1919  Hans Barthold von Bassewitz        (b. 1867 - d. 1949)


Saxe-Coburg (-Saalfeld)

[Saxe-Coburg to 1826]

 6 Nov 1572                (de jure 14 Dec 1596) Duchy of Saxe-Coburg.
26 Jul 1633                Extinct, divided between Saxe-Eisenach and Saxe-Weimar.
 5 Mar 1680                Duchy of Saxe-Coburg.
16 Aug 1699                Extinct.
29 Jul 1735                The joint rulers of the non-sovereign line of Saxe-Saalfeld
                             establish the (sovereign) Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
27 Jan 1807 - 28 Jul 1807  Occupied by France.
12 Nov 1826                Personal union with Saxe-Gotha; the union which is
                             styled Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Nov 1918                   De facto separation from Gotha.

Dukes
29 Jul 1735 -  4 Sep 1745  Christian Ernst                    (b. 1683 - d. 1745)
                           - jointly with -
29 Jul 1735 - 16 Sep 1764  Franz Josias                       (b. 1697 - d. 1764)
16 Sep 1764 -  8 Sep 1800  Ernst Friedrich                    (b. 1724 - d. 1800)
 8 Sep 1800 -  9 Dec 1806  Franz Friedrich Anton              (b. 1750 - d. 1806)
 9 Dec 1806 - 27 Jan 1807  Ernst I (1st time)                 (b. 1784 - d. 1844)
28 Jul 1807 - 12 Nov 1826  Ernst I (2nd time)                 (s.a.)

Directing Councillor
1735 - 1756                Johann Friedrich Gruner            (b. 1688 - d. 1756)
Secret Councillor
1756 - 1758                Christoph Siegmund von Hendrich    (b. 1711 - d. 1760)
Chancellors
1758 - 1780                Wilhelm Friedrich von Beulwitz     (b. 1722 - d. 1780)
1780 - Apr 1796            Johann Melchior Heuschkel          (b. 1719 - d. 1796)
                             (acting to 1781)
Apr 1796 - 30 Apr 1802     Georg Friedrich Schnetter          (b. 1745 - d. 1811)
Ministers directing the State ministry
1801 - 26 Jan 1808         Karl Theodor von Kretschmann       (b. 1762 - d. 1820)
26 Jan 1808 -  4 Apr 1808  Johann Ernst von Gruner (acting)   (b. 1757 - d. 1822)
Presidents of the State ministry
 4 Apr 1808 - Jun 1822     Johann Ernst von Gruner            (s.a.)
Jun 1822 - 30 Nov 1826     Albrecht Anton Adolph Hofmann      (b. 1758 - d. 1837)
                             (acting from 1 May 1822) 


Saxe-Eisenach

 6 Nov 1572                (de jure 14 Dec 1596) Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.
 2 Nov 1638                Extinct, incorporated into Saxe-Weimar.
22 Sep 1641                Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach
Sep 1662                   Saxe-Eisenach divided into Saxe-Jena and Saxe-Eisenach.
1698                       Saxe-Jena and Saxe-Eisenach reunited by the ruler of
                             Saxe-Jena, re-establishing Saxe-Eisenach.

Dukes
10 Nov 1698 -  4 Jan 1729  Johann Wilhelm II                  (b. 1666 - d. 1729)
 4 Jan 1729 - 26 Jul 1741  Wilhelm Heinrich                   (b. 1691 - d. 1741)
Commissioner for Weimar
26 Jul 1741 - 28 Aug 1748  Joachim Christoph von Moltke       (b. 1699 - d. 1781)
Director of the Weimar State adminsistration
28 Aug 1748 -  2 Dec 1749  Joachim Christoph von Moltke       (s.a.)
State Director for Weimar
 2 Dec 1749 - 11 Nov 1750  Albrecht Anton von Rüxleben        (b. 1705 - d. 1770)
Governor
11 Nov 1750 - 10 Jan 1756  Heinrich Graf von Bünau            (b. 1697 - d. 1762)

Secret Councillor and Vice-Chancellor
1697 - 1701                Johann Wilhelm Schröter            (b. 1653 - d. 1714)
Presidents of government
1701 - 1714                Johann Heinrich Leonardi           (b. 1646 - d. 1714)
1714 - 1729                Christian von Griesheim            (b. 1668 - d. 1737)
1729 - 1744                Johann Hartmann Gärtner von        (b. 1674 - d. 1744)
                             Grüneck
Chancellors
1744 - 1749                Bartholomäus Kellner               (b. 1666 - d. 1752)
                             (acting to 1748)
1749 - 1750                Vacant
1750 - 10 Jan 1756         Karl Ernst von Rehdiger            (b. 1692 - d. 1766)
10 Jan 1756 - 1781         Johann Christian von Göckel        (b. 1713 - d. 1781)
1781 - 1806                Johann Ludwig von Mauchenheim,     (b. 1739 - d. 1806)
                             gen. von Bechtoldsheim 
1806 - 1814                Johann Christian von Damnitz       (b. 1747 - d. 1818)
1814 - 1829                Christian August Thon              (b. 1754 - d. 1829)
1829 - 1836                Georg Friedrich Konrad Ludwig von  (b. 1780 - d. 1838)
                             Gerstenbergk, gen. Müller
1837 - 30 Jun 1850         Gustav Leopold Konstantin Wittich  (b. 1783 - d. 1857)


Saxe-Gotha

[Saxe-Gotha to 1826]

21 Feb 1566                Duchy of Saxe-Gotha
 6 Nov 1572                (de jure 14 Dec 1596) divided into Saxe-Coburg and
                             Saxe-Eisenach.
22 Sep 1641                Duchy of Saxe-Gotha
25 May 1672                In personal union with Saxe-Altenburg.
 5 Mar 1680                Divided into Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Meiningen,
                           Saxe-Hildburghausen, plus three non-sovereign lines
                             (Saxe-Römhild, Saxe-Eisenberg, Saxe-Saalfeld).
11 Feb 1825                Ruling lineage extinct.
12 Nov 1826                Duchy restored in personal union with Saxe-Coburg, the
                             union styled Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Nov 1918                   De facto separation from Saxe-Coburg
                             see German states since 1918).

Dukes
 5 Mar 1680 - 12 Aug 1691  Friedrich I                        (b. 1646 - d. 1691)
12 Aug 1691 - 23 Mar 1732  Friedrich II                       (b. 1676 - d. 1732)
12 Aug 1691 - Dec 1693     Bernhard I Herzog von Sachsen,     (b. 1649 - d. 1706)
                             Fürst von Meiningen -Regent
                           - jointly with -
12 Aug 1691 - Dec 1693     Heinrich Herzog von Sachsen,       (b. 1650 - d. 1710)
                             Fürst zu Römhild -Regent
23 Mar 1732 - 10 Mar 1772  Friedrich III                      (b. 1699 - d. 1772)
10 Mar 1772 - 20 Apr 1804  Ernst II                           (b. 1745 - d. 1804)
20 Apr 1804 - 17 May 1822  Emil Leopold August                (b. 1772 - d. 1822)
17 May 1822 - 11 Feb 1825  Friedrich IV                       (b. 1774 - d. 1825)

Leiter des Geheimen Ratskollegiums
1680 - 1689                Ernst Ludwig Avemann               (b. 1609 - d. 1689)
1689 - 1726                Johann Friedrich Bachoff Freiherr  (b. 1643 - d. 1726)
                             von Echt
1726 - 1736                Johann Friedrich Bachoff Freiherr  (b. 1679 - d. 1736)
                             von Echt 
1736 - 1748                Christian von Uffel                (b. 1687 - d. 1748)
1748 - 20 Mar 1757         Siegmund Ehrenfried von Oppel      (b. 1687 - d. 1757)
20 Mar 1757 - 28 Nov 1763  Christoph Dietrich von Keller      (b. 1699 - d. 1766)
28 Nov 1763 -  1 Mar 1770  Albrecht Anton von Rüxleben        (b. 1705 - d. 1770)
 1 Mar 1770 - 1790         Friedrich Karl Freiherr Ludwig     (b. 1728 - d. 1815)
                             Freiherr von Liechtenstein 
1790 - 24 Apr 1815         Sylvius Friedrich Ludwig Freiherr  (b. 1728 - d. 1815)
                             von Frankenburg 
24 Apr 1815 - Apr 1817     Johann Wilhelm von Thümmel         (b. 1744 - d. 1824)
Apr 1817 - 12 Nov 1826     Friedrich Karl Adolf von           (b. 1751 - d. 1831) 
                             Trützschler
Apr 1817 - 1823            Friedrich August von Minkwitz      (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
                             (acting for Trützschler) 
1823 - 12 Nov 1826         Johann Karl von der Becke          (b. 1756 - d. 1830)
                             (acting for Trützschler)
Chancellor
12 Nov 1826 - 1829         Friedrich Christian Alexander von  (b. 1779 - d. 1835)
                             Seebach
Directing presidents
1829 - 1835                Ernst Ludwig Karl von Seebach      (b. 1778 - d. 1848)
1835 - 1846                Dietrich Freiherr von Stein        (b. 1793 - d. 1867)
State director
1846 - 31 Dec 1857         Ernst von Wangenheim               (b. 1797 - d. 1860)


Saxe-Hildburghausen

[Saxe-Hildburghausen, to 1815]
                       to 1815
[Saxe-Hildburghausen 1815-1826 (Germany)]
                     1815 - 1826

 5 Mar 1680                Duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen
12 Nov 1826                Personal union with Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen,
                             in exchange for Saxe-Altenburg.

Dukes
 5 Mar 1680 - 17 Oct 1715  Ernst                              (b. 1655 - d. 1715)
17 Oct 1715 -  9 Mar 1724  Ernst Friedrich I                  (b. 1681 - d. 1724)
 9 Mar 1724 - 13 Aug 1745  Ernst Friedrich II                 (b. 1707 - d. 1745)
 9 Mar 1724 - 17 Dec 1728  Sophie Albertine Gräfin von        (b. 1683 - d. 1742)
                             Erbach (f) -Regent
13 Aug 1745 - 23 Sep 1780  Ernst Friedrich III                (b. 1727 - d. 1780)
13 Aug 1745 - 10 Jun 1748  Caroline Gräfin von Erbach-        (b. 1700 - d. 1758)
                             Fürstenau (f) -Regent
23 Sep 1780 - 12 Nov 1826  Friedrich                          (b. 1763 - d. 1834)
13 Sep 1780 -  4 Jan 1787  Joseph Maria Friedrich -Regent     (b. 1702 - d. 1787)

Heads of government
1699 - 1708                Georg Christoph von Hessberg       (b. 1647 - d. 1711)
1708 - 1709                Gottfried von Ruland               (b. 16.. - d. 1709)
1709 - 1721                Tobias Sutorius Erzherzog          (b. 1660 - d. 1731)
                             Edler von Carlestein 
1721 - 1737                Nikolaus Heinrich Panzerbieter     (d. 1749)
1737 - 1747                Johann Karl von Hessberg           (b. 1689 - d. 1750)
1747 - 1778                Christian Friedrich Marshall von   (b. 1697 - d. 1778)
                             Herrengosserstädt
1779 - 1789                Konrad Friedlieb von Lilienstern   (b. 1727 - d. 1789)
Chancellors
1789 - 1801                Johann Christoph Brunnquell        (b. 1723 - d. 1801)
1801 - Jul 1806            Justus Siegfried von Koppenfels    (b. 1749 - d. 1816)
                             (Head of government)
Jul 1806 - 14 Feb 1807     Johann Ulrich Röder                (b. 1740 - d. 1816)
Geheimes Ratskollegium
14 Feb 1807 - 29 May 1807  Karl August Freiherr von           (b. 1767 - d. 1845)
                             Lichtenstein
Directors of the State Ministry in Hildburghausen
29 May 1807 - 28 Nov 1809  Karl August Freiherr von           (s.a.)
                             Lichtenstein 
28 Nov 1809 - 24 Apr 1810  Karl Ludwig Friedrich August von   (b. 1772 - d. 1844)
                             Baumbach 
Presidents of the State Ministry in Hildburghausen
24 Apr 1810 - 11 Jun 1818  Karl Ludwig Friedrich August von   (s.a.)
                             Baumbach 
11 Jun 1818 - 14 Jul 1825  Johann Christian Wagner            (b. 1747 - d. 1825)
14 Jul 1825 - 12 Nov 1826  Karl Johann Heinrich Ernst         (b. 1788 - d. 1863)
                             Erzerherzog Edler von Braun
21 Nov 1826 - 31 Mar 1829  Gottlieb Karl Hieronymi            (b. 1768 - d. 1840)


Saxe-Meiningen

[Saxe-Meiningen to 1818 (Germany)]
                   to 12 Sep 1818 
[Saxe-Meiningen 1818-1918 (Germany)]      12 Sep 1818 - 1918 (confirmed 1835)
Map of Saxe-Meiningen
Hear National Anthem
"Vaterlandsgesang der
Sachsen-Meininger"
Text of National Anthem
Constitution
Capital: Meiningen
Population: 268,859 (1905)

 5 Mar 1680                Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen
12 Nov 1826                Personal and administrative union with Saxe-
                             Hildburghausen; while the ducal style is invariably
                             Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and Hildburghausen, the polity
                             is usually officially styled Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen.
12 Nov 1918                Free State of Saxe-Meiningen (see German states since 1918).

Dukes (jointly 27 Apr 1706 - 21 Jul 1782) 
 5 Mar 1680 - 27 Apr 1706  Bernhard I                         (b. 1649 - d. 1706)
27 Apr 1706 - 24 Nov 1724  Ernst Ludwig I                     (b. 1672 - d. 1724)
27 Apr 1706 - 10 Mar 1746  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1679 - d. 1746)
27 Apr 1706 - 27 Jan 1763  Anton Ulrich                       (b. 1687 - d. 1763)
24 Nov 1724 - 24 Feb 1729  Ernst Ludwig II                    (b. 1709 - d. 1729)
24 Nov 1724 - 24 Feb 1729  Friedrich II Herzog von Sachsen-   (b. 1676 - d. 1732)
                             Gotha -Regent
24 Nov 1724 - 28 Mar 1743  Carl Friedrich                     (b. 1712 - d. 1743)
24 Nov 1724 - 23 Mar 1732  Friedrich II Herzog von Sachsen-   (s.a.)
                             Gotha -Regent
23 Mar 1732 - 18 Aug 1733  Friedrich III Herzog von Sachsen-  (b. 1699 - d. 1772)
                             Gotha -Regent
28 Mar 1743 - 10 Mar 1746  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1679 - d. 1746)
10 Mar 1746 - 27 Jan 1763  Anton Ulrich                       (b. 1687 - d. 1763)
27 Jan 1763 - 21 Jul 1782  August Friedrich                   (b. 1754 - d. 1782)
27 Jan 1763 - 24 Dec 1803  Georg I                            (b. 1761 - d. 1803)
27 Jan 1763 - 19 Nov 1775  Charlotte Amalie von Hessen-       (b. 1730 - d. 1801)
                             Philippstal (f) -Regent
                             (for Georg I to 4 Feb 1782)
24 Dec 1803 - 20 Sep 1866  Bernhard II                        (b. 1800 - d. 1882)
24 Dec 1803 - 17 Dec 1821  Luise Eleonore von                 (b. 1763 - d. 1837)
                             Hohenlohe (f) -Regent
20 Sep 1866 - 25 Jun 1914  Georg II                           (b. 1826 - d. 1914)
25 Jun 1914 - 10 Nov 1918  Bernhard III                       (b. 1851 - d. 1928)

Geheimer Ratsdirektor
1699 - 1734                Johann Christoph Freiherr von      (b. 1666 - d. 1734)
                             Wolzogen
Government Councillors
1734 - 1735                Johann Jakob Grimm                 (d. 1749)
1735 - 10 Mar 1746         Heinrich von Hahn                  (d. 1759)
Leiter des Geheimen Ratskollegiums
10 Mar 1746 - 1758         Andreas Simson von Biechling       (b. 1686 - d. 1758)
1758 - 1762                Johann Nadler                      (b. 1688 - d. 1762)
1762 - 1770                Justus Hermann von Pfaffenrath     (b. c.1710 - d. 1780)
1770 -  2 Jan 1779         Adolf Gottlieb von Eyben           (b. 1741 - d. 1811)
 2 Jan 1779 - 1792         Martin Christian Grimm             (b. 1727 - d. 1792)
1792 - 1807                Franz Christian Freiherr Eckbrecht (b. 1729 - d. 1807) 
                             von Dürckheim 
1807 - 31 Mar 1829         Christian Ferdinand von Könitz     (b. 1756 - d. 1832)
Leiter des Landesministeriums (Leaders of the State ministry)
 1 Apr 1829 - Jan 1832     Christian Ferdinand von Könitz     (s.a.)
Jan 1832 - Jun 1840        Friedrich von Krafft (1st time)    (b. 1777 - d. 1858)
Jun 1840 - Dec 1843        Karl August Friedrich Adolf von    (b. 1796 - d. 1875)
                             Fischern
Dec 1843 -  1 Nov 1847     Friedrich von Krafft (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1847 - 14 Sep 1848  Friedrich Karl Anton von Werthern  (b. 1804 - d. 1864)
Ministers of State
14 Sep 1848 - 24 Oct 1849  Hans Karl Haubold Freiherr von     (b. 1797 - d. 1860)
                             Spesshardt 
24 Oct 1849 - 12 May 1854  Rudolf Hermann Freiherr von        (b. 1800 - d. 1861)
                             Wechmar
12 May 1854 - Sep 1861     Andreas Paul Adolph von Harbou     (b. 1809 - d. 1877)
Sep 1861 -  1 Oct 1864     Anton Ferdinand Freiherr von       (b. 1820 - d. 1892)
                             Krosigk (1st time)
 1 Oct 1864 - 27 Jul 1865  Vacant
27 Jul 1865 - 18 Aug 1866  Friedrich Fürchtegott von          (b. 1818 - d. 1889)
                             Uttenhoven
18 Aug 1866 - 20 Sep 1866  Ernst Gustav Gottlieb Louis        (b. 1801 - d. 1887)
                             von Buck
20 Sep 1866 - 1873         Anton Ferdinand Freiherr von       (s.a.)
                             Krosigk (2nd time)
1873 - 1890                Albrecht Otto von Giseke           (b. 1822 - d. 1890)
1890 - 1902                Johann Wilhelm Friedrich von Heim  (b. 1835 - d. 1912)
1902 -  5 Oct 1912         Rudolf Freiherr von Ziller         (b. 1832 - d. 1912)
14 Oct 1912 - 12 Nov 1918  Karl Schaller                      (b. 1846 - d. 1922)


Saxe-Weimar

21 Feb 1566                Duchy of Saxe-Weimar
23 Nov 1602                Divided into Saxe-Altenburg and Saxe-Weimar.
22 Sep 1641                Divided into Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Eisenach.
26 Jul 1741                Personal union with Saxe-Eisenach; the polities jointly
                             often being styled Saxe-Weimar und Eisenach.
20 Sep 1809                Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach merged into
                             Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.

Dukes
25 May 1683 - 26 Aug 1728  Wilhelm Ernst                      (b. 1662 - d. 1728)
                           - jointly with -
25 May 1683 - 20 Jun 1707  Johann Ernst III (in Kapellendorf) (b. 1664 - d. 1707)
20 Jun 1707 - 19 Jan 1748  Ernst August I                     (b. 1688 - d. 1748)
                            (at Kapellendorf to 26 Aug 1728)
19 Jan 1748 - 28 May 1758  Ernst August II                    (b. 1737 - d. 1758)
19 Jan 1748 - 1748         Friedrich III, Herzog von          (b. 1699 - d. 1772)
                             Sachsen-Gotha -Regent
1748 -  2 Jun 1755         Franz Josias Herzog von Sachsen-   (b. 1697 - d. 1764)
                             Saalfeld -Regent
28 May 1758 - 20 Sep 1809  Carl August                        (b. 1757 - d. 1828)
28 May 1758 - 1758         Karl Herzog von Braunschweig-      (b. 1713 - d. 1780)
                             Woffenbüttel -Regent
1758 -  3 Sep 1775         Anna Amalia von Braunschweig-      (b. 1739 - d. 1807)
                             Wolffenbüttel (f) -Regent

Chief Ministers
29 Dec 1755 - Sep 1759     Heinrich Graf von Bünau            (b. 1697 - d. 1762)
Sep 1759 - 1762            Karl Ernst von Rehdinger           (b. 1692 - d. 1766)
1762 -  3 Mar 1800         Jakob Friedrich Freiherr von       (b. 1731 - d. 1814)
                             Fritsch 
 3 Mar 1800 - 20 Sep 1809  Christian Gottlob von Voigt        (b. 1743 - d. 1819)


Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
 
[Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach 1813-1897
                          (Germany)]
           13 Dec 1813 - 29 Jan 1897 
 
[Grand Duchy of
                          Saxony 1897-1918 (Germany)]
                29 Jan 1897 - 1918
 
Map of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Hear National Anthem
"Weimars Volkslied"
(Weimar's People's Song)
Text of National Anthem
(1857-1918)
Constitution
Capital: Weimar
Population: 387,892 (1905)

20 Sep 1809                Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
21 Apr 1815                Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
1877                       Restyled Grand Duchy of Saxony, but preceding style
                             continues in some official use.
 9 Nov 1918                Free State of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (see German states since 1918).

Duke
20 Sep 1809 - 21 Apr 1815  Carl August                        (b. 1757 - d. 1828)
Grand Dukes
21 Apr 1815 - 14 Jun 1828  Carl August                        (s.a.)
14 Jun 1828 -  8 Jul 1853  Carl Friedrich                     (b. 1783 - d. 1853)
 8 Jul 1853 -  5 Jan 1901  Carl Alexander                     (b. 1818 - d. 1901)
 5 Jan 1901 -  9 Nov 1918  Wilhelm Ernst                      (b. 1876 - d. 1923)

Senior Minister of the Secret Council
20 Sep 1809 - 31 Dec 1815  Christian Gottlob von Voigt        (b. 1743 - d. 1819)
President of the State ministry
 1 Jan 1816 - 22 Mar 1819  Christian Gottlob von Voigt        (s.a.)
Ministers of State
22 Mar 1819 - Sep 1843     Karl Wilhelm Freiherr von Fritsch  (b. 1769 - d. 1853)
Sep 1843 - 15 Sep 1870     Christian Bernhard von Watzdorf    (b. 1804 - d. 1870)
22 Mar 1819 - 13 Mar 1848  Ernst Christian August Freiherr    (b. 1781 - d. 1852)
                             von Gersdorff
14 Mar 1848 - 30 Sep 1848  Oskar von Wydenbrugk               (b. 1815 - d. 1876)
1871 - 12 Dec 1882         Gustav Thon                        (b. 1805 - d. 1882)
1882 - 1890                Gottfried Theodor Stichling        (b. 1814 - d. 1891)
1890 - 1899                Rudolph Gabriel Freiherr von Gross (b. 1822 - d. 1907)
 1 Jun 1899 -  8 Nov 1918  Karl Friedrich Otto Rothe          (b. 1848 - d. 1921)



Saxony

[Duchy then
                          Kingdom of Saxony to 1815 (Germany)]
                1806 - 16 Jun 1815
 
[kingdom of
                          Saxony (Germany)]
           16 Jun 1815 - 9 Nov 1918
 
Map of Saxony Hear National Anthem
"Sachsen hymne"
(Saxon Hymn)
Text of National Anthem
(1890-1918)
Constitution
(4 Sep 1831; in German)
Capital: Dresden Population: 4,202,216 (1905)

Note: Saxony begins as an ethnic dukedom in the 9th century. It gradually becomes 
territorial, and shifts geographically from present-day Niedersachsen to present-day Sachsen. This account begins with the confirmation of electoral status of the duke.

 7 Apr 1180                The old duchy of Saxony is reduced to the area around
                             Wittenberg and given to the Askanien dynasty.
25 Dec 1356                The Golden Bull confirms that the Duke of Saxony is an
                             elector, and makes his land indivisible; style of ruler:
                             Herzog von Sachsen, Erzmarschall und Kurfürst des Heiligen
                             Römischen Reichs (Duke of Saxony, Archmarshal and
                             Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire).
27 Nov 1422                Alrecht III, last of the Askanien dynasty dies, Saxony
                             under imperial administration.
 6 Jan 1423                Saxony is enfeoffed to the Wettin dynasty, Markgraf of Meissen.
 7 Sep 1464                Dukes Ernst and Albrecht IV "der Beherzte" rule jointly,
                             Ernst being elector.
11 Nov 1485                The Herzogtum Sachsen is divided between Albrecht and Ernst,
                             Ernst retaining the (indivisible) electorate; thus the dynasty
                             splits into the Ernestine line and the Albertine line.
19 May 1547                The Ernestine line is deprived of the electorate; it goes
                             on to establish the Saxon duchies in Thuringia.
 4 Jun 1547                The electorate is conferred on the Albertine line.
27 Jun 1697 -  5 Oct 1763  In personal union with the Kingdom of Poland.
11 Dec 1806                Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen) proclaimed.
 8 Jul 1807 - 18 Feb 1813  In personal union with the Duchy of Warsaw (Poland).
28 Oct 1813 -  8 Jun 1815  Provisional Allied administration.
18 May 1815                The king is forced to recognize the loss of the northern
                             and western areas (58% of Saxony) to Prussia.
13 Nov 1918                Free State of Saxony (see German states since 1918).
Dukes and Electors 
 7 May 1694 -  1 Feb 1733  Friedrich August I "der Starke"    (b. 1670 - d. 1733)
 1 Feb 1733 -  5 Oct 1763  Friedrich August II                (b. 1696 - d. 1763)
 5 Oct 1763 - 17 Dec 1763  Friedrich Christian                (b. 1722 - d. 1763)
17 Dec 1763 - 11 Dec 1806  Friedrich August III               (b. 1750 - d. 1827)
                             "der Gerechte"
King
11 Dec 1806 -  5 May 1827  Friedrich August I "der Gerechte"  (s.a.)
                            (28 Oct 1813 - 8 Jun 1815 imprisoned by Allies)
Governors-general
28 Oct 1813 -  8 Nov 1814  Prince Nikolay Grigorievich        (b. 1778 - d. 1845)
                             Repnin-Volkonsky (Russia)
 8 Nov 1814 -  8 Jun 1815  Eberhard Friedrich Christoph       (b. 1744 - d. 1826)
                             Ludwig Freiherr von der 
                             Recke (Prussia)
Kings
 5 May 1827 -  6 Jun 1836  Anton I                            (b. 1755 - d. 1836)
 6 Jun 1836 -  9 Aug 1854  Friedrich August II                (b. 1797 - d. 1854)
 9 Aug 1854 - 29 Oct 1873  Johann I                           (b. 1801 - d. 1873)
29 Oct 1873 - 19 Jun 1902  Albert I                           (b. 1828 - d. 1902)
19 Jun 1902 - 15 Oct 1904  Georg I                            (b. 1832 - d. 1904)
15 Oct 1904 - 13 Nov 1918  Friedrich August III               (b. 1865 - d. 1932)

Ministers of State 
1695 - 15 Nov 1715         Otto Heinrich von Friesen          (b. 1654 - d. 1717)
15 Nov 1715 -  4 Feb 1721  Georg von Werthern                 (b. 1663 - d. 1721) 
Leading Cabinet Ministers
170. - 1712                August Ferdinand Reichsgraf von    (b. 1662 - d. 1712)
                             Pflugk 
1705 - 30 Apr 1728         Jakob Heinrich Graf Flemming       (b. 1667 - d. 1728)
                             (1st time)

1707 - 1711                Woldemar August von Löwendahl      (b. 1660 - d. 1740)
1710 -  4 Feb 1721         Georg Graf von Werthern            (b. 1663 - d. 1721)
1721 - 1728                Jakob Heinrich Graf Flemming       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1725 - 30 Oct 1731         François Joseph Wicardel, marquis  (d. 1735) 
                             de Fleury et de Beaufort 
1727 - 1729                Heinrich Friedrich von Friesen     (b. 1681 - d. 1739)
1729 - 1733                Karl Heinrich Graf von Hoym        (b. 1694 - d. 1736)
1733 -  5 Feb 1738         Alexander Joseph Graf Sulkowsky    (b. 1695 - d. 1762)
Ministers of War and Interior
Feb 1738 - 28 Oct 1763     Heinrich Graf Brühl                (b. 1700 - d. 1763)
1763 - 1766                Johann Georg Graf von Einsiedel    (b. 1730 - d. 1811)
1766 - 26 Mar 1777         Leopold Nikolaus von Ende          (b. 1715 - d. 1792)
26 Mar 1777 -  2 Oct 1777  Karl Graf von Osten-Sacken (acting)(b. 1715 - d. 1794)
 2 Oct 1777 - 1790         Johann Adolf Graf von Loss         (b. 1731 - d. 1806)
1790 - 30 Dec 1798         Christian Gotthelf Gutschmid       (b. 1721 - d. 1798)
1799 - 16 Mar 1804         Dietrich August Reichsgraf von     (b. 1733 - d. 1804)
                             Sinzendorf
Mar 1804 - 180.            Georg Wilhelm Graf von Hopfgarten  (b. 1739 - d. 1813)
14 May 1813 - 13 Sep 1830  Detlev Graf Einsendel              (b. 1773 - d. 1861)
13 Sep 1830 -  1 Dec 1831  Bernard August Freiherr von        (b. 1779 - d. 1854)
                             Lindenau 
Prime ministers
 1 Dec 1831 - Sep 1843     Bernard August Freiherr von        (s.a.)
                             Lindenau 
Sep 1843 - 13 Mar 1848     Julius Traugott Jakob von          (b. 1792 - d. 1866)
                             Könneritz
Minister-presidents
16 Mar 1848 - 24 Feb 1849  Alexander Karl Hermann Braun       (b. 1807 - d. 1868)
24 Feb 1849 -  2 May 1849  Gustav Friedrich Held              (b. 1804 - d. 1857)
 2 May 1849 - 28 Oct 1858  Ferdinand Zschinsky                (b. 1797 - d. 1858)
                            (from 1856, Ferdinand von Zschinsky) 
28 Oct 1858 - 15 Aug 1866  Ferdinand Freiherr von Beust       (b. 1809 - d. 1886)
Oct 1866 -  1 Oct 1871     Johann Paul Freiherr von
                             Falkenstein                      (b. 1801 - d. 1882)
 1 Oct 1871 -  1 Nov 1876  Richard Reichsfreiherr von Friesen (b. 1808 - d. 1884)
 1 Nov 1876 - 25 Mar 1891  Georg Friedrich Alfred von Fabrice (b. 1818 - d. 1891)
                            (from 1884, Georg Friedrich 
                             Alfred Graf von Fabrice) 
25 Mar 1891 - 23 Dec 1891  Karl Friedrich Wilhelm von Gerber  (b. 1823 - d. 1891)
Dec 1891 - 12 Feb 1895     Julius Hans von Thümmel            (b. 1824 - d. 1895)
1895 - 15 Jun 1901         Heinrich Rudolf Schurig            (b. 1835 - d. 1901)
Jun 1901 - 30 Apr 1906     Karl Georg Levin von
                             Metzsch-Reichenbach              (b. 1836 - d. 1927)
30 Apr 1906 -  1 Dec 1910  Conrad Wilhelm von Rüger           (b. 1837 - d. 1916)
 1 Dec 1910 - 26 Jul 1912  Viktor Alexander von Otto          (b. 1852 - d. 1912)
26 Jul 1912 - 21 May 1914  Max Clemens Lothar Freiherr von
                             Hausen                           (b. 1846 - d. 1922)
21 May 1914 - 26 Oct 1918  Heinrich Gustav Beck               (b. 1857 - d. 1933)  Con
26 Oct 1918 - 13 Nov 1918  Karl Rudolf Heinze (1st time)      (b. 1865 - d. 1928)  NLP

Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative; NLP = Nationalliberale Partei (National Liberal Party, 1867-1918)



Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg

1174                       County of Wittgenstein.
1361                       County of Sayn-Wittgenstein (Grafschaft Sayn-Wittgenstein)
 2 Jul 1605                Divided into the Counties of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg
                             and Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein.
 4 Sep 1792                Principality of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg
12 Jul 1806                Annexed to Hesse-Darmstadt.
1816                       Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Graf zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg)
25 Nov 1694 -  5 Jun 1741  Casimir                                 (b. 1687 - d. 1641)
25 Nov 1694 - 31 Jan 1708  Hedwig Sophie Grafin zu Lippe-          (b. 1669 - d. 1738)
                             Brake (f) -Regent
 5 Jun 1741 - 12 Feb 1773  Ludwig Ferdinand                        (b. 1712 - d. 1773)
12 Feb 1773 -  4 Sep 1792  Christian Heinrich                      (b. 1753 - d. 1800)
Princes (title Fürst zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, Herren zu Vallendar
und Neumagen)
 4 Sep 1792 -  4 Oct 1800  Christian Heinrich                      (s.a.)
 4 Oct 1800 - 12 Jul 1806  Friedrich Albrecht Ludwig Ferdinand     (b. 1777 - d. 1851)


Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein

 2 Jul 1605                County of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein.
21 Jun 1801                Principality of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein. 
12 Jul 1806                Annexed to Hesse-Darmstadt.
1816                       Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Graf zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein)
25 Jan 1683 - 23 Nov 1723  Heinrich Albrecht                       (b. 1658 - d. 1723)
23 Nov 1723 - 27 Aug 1735  August                                  (b. 1664 - d. 1735)
27 Aug 1735 -  9 Jun 1756  Karl Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1708 - d. 1756)
 9 Jun 1756 - 27 Mar 1796  Johann Ludwig                           (b. 1740 - d. 1796)
27 Mar 1796 - 20 Jun 1801  Friedrich Karl                          (b. 1766 - d. 1837)
Prince (title Fürst zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein)
20 Jun 1801 - 12 Jul 1806  Friedrich Karl                          (s.a.)


Schaffhausen: see Swiss Cantons


Schaumburg-Lippe

[Schaumburg-Lippe, c.1860-c.1880]                      c.1860 - c.1880 [Schaumburg-Lippe c.1880-1918]                       c.1880 - 1918 

Map of Schaumburg-Lippe
National Anthem
"Schaumburg-Lipper-Lied"
(Schaumburg Lippe Song) 
Text of National Anthem
Constitution
Capital: Bückeburg
Population: 44,992 (1905)

21 Dec 1290                County of Schaumburg (Grafschaft Schaumburg)
15 Nov 1640                Under Lippe-Alverdissen.
19 Jul 1647                County of Schaumburg-Lippe (Grafschaft Schaumburg-Lippe)
                             permanently separated from Lippe.
18 Apr 1807                Raised to the rank of principality (Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe).
16 Nov 1918                Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe (see German states since 1918).

Counts (title Graf zu Schaumburg, Graf und Edler Herr zur Lippe, etc.)
19 Jul 1647 - 20 Apr 1681  Philipp I                          (b. 1601 - d. 1681)
20 Apr 1681 - 13 Jun 1728  Friedrich Christian                (b. 1655 - d. 1728)
13 Jun 1728 - 24 Sep 1748  Albrecht Wolfgang                  (b. 1699 - d. 1748)
24 Sep 1748 - 10 Sep 1777  Wilhelm                            (b. 1724 - d. 1777)
10 Sep 1777 - 13 Feb 1787  Philipp II                         (b. 1723 - d. 1787)
13 Feb 1787 - 18 Apr 1807  Georg Wilhelm                      (b. 1784 - d. 1860)
13 Feb 1787 -  9 Nov 1799  Juliane Wilhelmine Louise          (b. 1761 - d. 1799)
                             Landgräfin von Hessen-
                             Philippsthal (f) -Co-regent
13 Feb 1787 - 1807         Johann Ludwig Reichsgraf von       (b. 1736 - d. 1811)
                             Wallmoden-Gimborn -Regent
                             (co-regent; from 9 Nov 1799 regent)
Princes (title Fürst von Schaumburg-Lippe)
18 Apr 1807 - 21 Nov 1860  Georg I Wilhelm                    (s.a.)
21 Nov 1860 -  8 May 1893  Adolf I Georg                      (b. 1817 - d. 1893)
 8 May 1893 - 29 Apr 1911  Georg II                           (b. 1846 - d. 1911)
29 Apr 1911 - 16 Nov 1918  Adolf II                           (b. 1883 - d. 1936)

Chairmen of the government
27 Mar 1810 - 1815         Günther Heinrich Freiherr von      (b. 1765 - d. 1843)
                             Berg
1816 - 1824                Heinrich Christoph Spring          (b. 1782 - d. 1826)
1824 -  7 Feb 1827         Karl Anton König                   (d. 1827)
1827 - 24 Jul 1833         Christoph Ferdinand Krieger        (b. 1763 - d. 1833)
1833 - 1839                Georg Joachim Langerfeldt          (b. 1778 - d. 1858)
1839 - 1871                Eduard Freihe
rr von Lauer-         (b. 1796 - d. 1871)
                             Münchhofen
1871 - 1885                Vacant
1885 - 1893                Heinrich Spring                    (b. 1821 - d. 1896)
Ministers of state

1893 - 1895                Heinrich Spring
                    (s.a.)
1895 - 19 Nov 1897         Martin Georg Anton von Wegnern     (b. 1855 - d. 1897)
1898 -  4 Dec 1918         Friedrich Rudolf Ernst Freiherr    (b. 1858 - d. 1942)
                             von Feilitzsch


Schellenberg: see Liechtenstein


Schleswig-Holstein
 
[Denmark]
 1440 - 1696; 31 Jul 1845 - 8 Sep 1849,
         22 Jul 1852 - 16 Feb 1865
 
[Duchy
                      of Schleswig and Holstein 1696-c.1714,1848-49]
               1696 - c.1714,
  21 Oct 1848 - 8 Sep 1849 (provisional)

 
[Schleswig-Holstein independentist flag,
                      1843-45]
       1843 - 31 Jul 1845 Independentist flag
 
[Duchy
                      of Schleswig truce flag for Schleswig ships
                      1849-1852]
   8 Sep 1849 - 22 Jul 1852 Schleswig Truce
[Duchy of Holstein truce flag for Holstein
                      ships 1851-1852]
   5 Mar 1851 - 22 Jul 1852 Holstein Truce
[Schleswig-Holstein provisional merchant flag
                      1865-66]
   16 Feb 1865 - 23 Aug 1866 (provisional)

945                        Schleswig largely under Danish rule.
1106                       County of Holstein (Grafschaft Holstein) founded within
                             the Duchy of Saxony.
1115                       Duchy of Schleswig (Hertogdømmet Slesvig) established
                             for (initially) a junior line of the Danish royal family
                             (Skjoldunger dynasty).
 7 Apr 1180                County of Holstein independent.
Nov 1201 - 1225            Holstein under Danish rule.
15 Aug 1386                From here on Schleswig and Holstein are in personal union;
                             Schleswing remains under Danish rule, Holstein an
                             imperial fief.
14 Feb 1474                County of Holstein, Dithmarschen, Wagrien and Stormarn
                             united as Duchy of Holstein (Herzogtum Holstein); from here 
                             on Schleswig and Holstein are in personal union.
1490                       The combined polities are split into Segebergscher Anteil
                             and Gottorpscher Anteil (Segeberg Portion and Gottorp
                             Portion), but they are governed as a whole by the rulers
                             of the two lines ruling in alternation.
13 Apr 1523                Portions reunited.
1544                       The combined polities are split as before, the lines being
                             styled Schleswig-Holstein-Segeberg and Schleswig-Holstein-
                             Gottorp, the government being shared as before from 1581.
14 Nov 1640                County of Holstein-Pinneberg (Grafschaft Holstein-Pinneberg) is
                             annexed to the Danish royal domain in Holstein upon the death of
                             the last male ruler of Holstein-Schauenburg dynasty.
 4 Sep 1721                The part of Schleswig ruled by the Gottorp line is annexed

                             by the Segeberg line (i.e., the kings of Denmark).
 
9 Apr 1726                County of Rantzau (Freie Reichsgrafschaft Rantzau) is annexed
                             to the Danish royal domain in Holstein.
 
1 Jul 1773                The part of Holstein ruled by the Gottorp line is ceded to

                             the Segeberg line in exchange for Oldenburg, thus reuniting
                             Schleswig and Holstein under the kings of Denmark, while
                             remaining respectively an appendage of Denmark and a member
                             of the Holy Roman Empire and later of the German
                             Confederation.
28 Jan 1848 - 15 Nov 1863  Numerous effected or attempted changes in the status of
                             each of the two polities with respect to Denmark and with
                             respect to each other.
24 Mar 1848 - 22 Oct 1848  Provisional government at Kiel, Holstein.
15 Nov 1863                With the death of Frederik VII the direct Oldenburg
                             dynastic line ends; Denmark and Schleswig are inherited by
                             the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (formerly non-
                             sovereign) line, while Holstein falls into dispute between
                             this line and the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-
                             Augustenburg (formerly non-sovereign) line.
30 Oct 1864                King Christian IX (Glücksburg) cedes his rights to both
                             polities to Prussia and Austria jointly (Convention of
                             Vienna); Austria subsequently supports the claims of
                             Friedrich VIII (Augustenburg) and summons the estates of
                             Holstein to this end in Jun 1866.
 7 Jun 1866                Prussian forces invade, and generalized war among the
                             German states ensues.
23 Aug 1866                Both polities are recognized as being under Prussian rule
                             (Convention of Prague).
24 Jan 1867                Both polities are incorporated into Prussia.

Schleswig-Holstein-Segeberg

[Denmark]

Dukes
1544 -  1 Jul 1773          the kings of Denmark


Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp
[Duchy of
                  Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Civil Ensign 1696-1720
                  (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany)]
             29 Jul 1696 - c.1714
Dukes
 6 Jan 1695 - 19 Jun 1702  Friedrich IV                       (b. 1671 - d. 1702)
19 Jun 1702 - 18 Jun 1739  Karl Friedrich                     (b. 1700 - d. 1739)
                            (from 4 Sep 1721 in Holstein only)
 9 Jun 1702 - 19 Apr 1718  Christian August -Regent           (b. 1673 - d. 1726)
18 Jun 1739 - 17 Jul 1762  Karl Peter Ulrich                  (b. 1728 - d. 1762)
                            (later Emperor Peter III of Russia;
                             in Holstein only)
18 Jun 1739 - 1745         Adolf Friedrich, bischof von       (b. 1710 - d. 1771)
                             Lübeck -Regent
1745 - 1751                Friedrich August -Regent           (b. 1711 - d. 1785)
17 Jul 1762 -  1 Jul 1773  Paul                               (b. 1754 - d. 1801)
                            (later Emperor Paul I of Russia;
                             in Holstein only)
1751? -  7 Sep 1763        Georg Ludwig -Regent               (b. 1719 - d. 1763)

Schleswig and Holstein

Dukes
 1 Jul 1773 - 30 Oct 1864  the kings of Denmark
Governors (Statholder)
 7 Dec 1697 - 1708         Frederik Graf Ahlefeldt            (b. 1662 - d. 1708)
1708 - 1712                Christian Ditlev greve Rantzau     (b. 1670 - d. 1721)
                             (acting)
1712 -  7 Sep 1722         Carl Graf Ahlefeldt                (b. 1670 - d. 1722)
1722 - 1730                Vacant
1730 - 26 Mar 1731         Karl August von Brandenburg-       (b. 1663 - d. 1731)
                             Kulmbach                    
26 Mar 1731 - 23 Jun 1762  Friedrich Ernest von Brandenburg-  (b. 1703 - d. 1762)
                             Kulmbach   
20 Sep 1762 -  5 Jun 1768  Friedrich Ludwig Freiherr von      (b. 1697 - d. 1771)
                             Dehn
Oct 1768 - 17 Aug 1836     Karl Landgraf zu Hessen            (b. 1744 - d. 1836)
17 Aug 1836 - 26 Mar 1842  Karl Friedrich Landgraf zu
                             Hessen
26 Mar 1842 - 18 Aug 1846  Friedrich Emil August von          (b. 1800 - d. 1865)
                             Schleswig-Holstein-Augustenburg-
                             Noer
14 Sep 1846 - 24 Mar 1848  Ludwig Nikolaus von Scheele        (b. 1796 - d. 1874)
                             (chairman of the government)

Danish Ministers for Holstein and Lauenburg
(M
inisteriet for Hertugdømmerne Holsten og Lauenborg)
27 Jan 1852 - 12 Dec 1854  Heinrich Anna von Reventlow-       (b. 1798 - d. 1869)
                             Criminil
12 Dec 1854 - 17 Apr 1857  Ludwig Nikolaus von Scheele        (s.a.)
17 Apr 1857 - 13 May 1857  Christian Carl Lundbye             (b. 1812 - d. 1873)
13 May 1857 -  2 Dec 1859  Iver Johan Unsgaard                (b. 1798 - d. 1872)
 2 Dec 1859 -  8 Feb 1860  Carl Eduard Rotwitt                (b. 1812 - d. 1860)
 8 Feb 1860 - 24 Feb 1860  Regnar Westenholz                  (b. 1815 - d. 1866)
24 Feb 1860 - 30 Mar 1861  Harald Iver Andreas Raasløff       (b. 1810 - d. 1893)
30 Mar 1861 - 31 Dec 1863  Carl Christian Hall                (b. 1812 - d. 1888)
31 Dec 1863 - 11 Jul 1864  Ditlev Gothard Monrad              (b. 1811 - d. 1887)
11 Jul 1864 - 16 Nov 1864  Christian Albrecht Bluhme          (b. 1794 - d. 1866)

Holstein 1848-1867

24 Mar 1848 - 22 Oct 1848  Provisional government at Kiel.
1848 -  1 Mar 1852         German Confederation administration.
23 Dec 1863 -  7 Dec 1864  German Confederation administration.
24 Dec 1863 - 23 Aug 1866  Friedrich VIII rules in contention (see below).
 7 Dec 1864 - 15 Sep 1865  Joint Austro-Prussian administration.
15 Sep 1865                Under Austrian administration.
12 Jun 1866                Occupied by Prussia.
24 Jan 1867                Annexed to Prussia.

President of the Provisional Government
24 Mar 1848 - 22 Oct 1848  Wilhelm Hartwig Beseler            (b. 1806 - d. 1884)
President of the Common government
22 Oct 1848 - 26 Mar 1849  Theodor Graf von Reventlow-        (b. 1801 - d. 1873)
                             Jersbeck
Governors
26 Mar 1849 - 11 Jan 1851  Wilhelm Hartwig Beseler            (s.a.)
26 Mar 1849 -  1 Feb 1851  Friedrich Graf von Reventlou-      (b. 1797 - d. 1874)
                             Preetz
Federal Commissioners
 2 Feb 1851 -  1 Mar 1852  Wilhelm von Thümen (Prussia)       (b. 1792 - d. 1856)
 2 Feb 1851 -  1 Mar 1852  Alexander Graf Mensdorff-Pouilly   (b. 1813 - d. 1871)
                             (Austria)
 2 Feb 1851 -  1 Mar 1852  Heinrich Anna von Reventlow-       (b. 1798 - d. 1869)
                             Criminil (Schleswig-Holstein)
Oberpräsident
1853 - 1864                Carl Theodor August Freiherr von   (b. 1811 - d. 1892)
                             Scheel-Plessen                        
Federal Commissioner
23 Dec 1863 -  7 Dec 1864  Eduard von Könneritz               (b. 1802 - d. 1875)
Civil Commissioners for Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg
 7 Dec 1864 - 15 Sep 1865  Konstantin Freiherr von Zedlitz-   (b. 1821 - d. 1889)
                             Neukirch (Prussia)
 7 Dec 1864 - 23 Dec 1864  Carl Ramon Soter Freiherr von      (b. 1817 - d. 1890)
                             Lederer (Austria)
23 Dec 1864 - 15 Sep 1865  Anton Freiherr Halbhuber von       (b. 1809 - d. 1886)
                             Festwill (Austria)
Governor for Holstein
15 Sep 1865 - 12 Jun 1866  Ludwig Karl Wilhelm Freiherr von   (b. 1814 - d. 1874)
                             Gablenz (Austria)
Oberpräsident
12 Jun 1866 - 24 Jan 1867  Carl Theodor August Freiherr von   (s.a.)
                             Scheel-Plessen (Prussia)


Schleswig 1848-1867

1848 - 25 Aug 1849         German Confederation administration.
 1 Feb 1864 -  7 Dec 1864  Occupied by Prussia.
 7 Dec 1864 - 15 Sep 1865  Joint Austro-Prussian administration (see Holstein).
15 Sep 1865                Prussian administration.
24 Jan 1867                Annexed to Prussia.

State Administrators
1848 - 25 Aug 1849         the administrators of Holstein
25 Aug 1849 - 13 Jul 1850  Botho Heinrich Graf zu Eulenburg   (b. 1804 - d. 1879)
                             auf Wicken
13 Jul 1850 -  9 Mar 1851  Frederik Ferdinand Tillisch        (b. 1801 - d. 1889)
Danish Ministers for Schleswig (Ministeriet for Hertugdømmet Slesvig)
 5 Mar 1851 - 13 Jul 1851  Frederik Ferdinand Tillisch        (s.a.)
13 Jul 1851 - 27 Jan 1852  Carl Emil Bardenfleth              (b. 1807 - d. 1857)
27 Jan 1852 - 12 Dec 1854  Carl greve Moltke                  (b. 1798 - d. 1866)
12 Dec 1854 - 13 Dec 1854  Peter Georg Bang                   (b. 1797 - d. 1861)
13 Dec 1854 - 18 Feb 1856  Harald Iver Andreas Raasløff       (b. 1810 - d. 1893)
18 Feb 1856 - 18 Jun 1856  Carl Christian Hall                (b. 1812 - d. 1888)
18 Jun 1856 -  2 Dec 1859  Friedrich Hermann Wolfhagen        (b. 1818 - d. 1894)
                             (1st time)
 2 Dec 1859 - 24 Feb 1860  Carl Frederik Axel Bror baron      (b. 1822 - d. 1873)
                             von Blixen-Finecke
24 Feb 1860 - 31 Dec 1863  Friedrich Hermann Wolfhagen        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
31 Dec 1863 - 24 Jan 1864  Carl Frederik Simony               (b. 1806 - d. 1872)
24 Jan 1864 - 18 Nov 1864  Christian Gottfried Vilhelm        (b. 1813 - d. 1888)
                             Johannsen  
Military governor
 1 Feb 1864 -  8 Feb 1864  Friedrich Heinrich Ernst von       (b. 1787 - d. 1877)
                            Wrangel (Prussia)
Civil Commissioners
 8 Feb 1864 -  7 Dec 1864  Konstantin Freiherr von Zedlitz-   (b. 1821 - d. 1889)
                             Neukirch (Prussia)
14 Feb 1864 - 26 Jul 1864  Friedrich Graf Revertera von       (b. 1827 - d. 1904)
                             Salandra (Austria)
26 Jul 1864 -  7 Dec 1864  Carl Ramon Soter Freiherr von      (b. 1817 - d. 1890)
                             Lederer (Austria)
 7 Dec 1864 - 15 Sep 1865  the commissioners of Holstein
Governor
15 Sep 1865 - 15 Jun 1866  Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel      (b. 1809 - d. 1885)
                             (Prussia)
President of the Schleswig government
15 Jun 1866 -  1 Oct 1868  Konstantin Freiherr von Zedlitz-   (s.a.)
                             Neukirch (Prussia)


Holstein in rebellion

[Holstein 1863-1866]

Duke
24 Dec 1863 - 23 Aug 1866  Friedrich VIII                     (b. 1829 - d. 1880)



Schwarzburg 

1160                       County of Schwarzburg (Grafschaft Schwarzburg) founded.
21 Nov 1599                Divided into County of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and
                             County of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.

Schwarzburg-Arnstadt

1340                       County of Schwarzburg-Arnstadt
29 Aug 1669 - 20 Jul 1681  Part of Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen.
26 May 1709                Principality of Schwarzburg-Arnstadt
                             (Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Arnstadt).
30 Dec 1716                Incorporated into Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen.

Count (title Graf von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen zu Arnstadt)
20 Jul 1681 - 26 May 1709  Anton Günther II                   (b. 1653 - d. 1716)
Prince (title Fürst von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen zu Arnstadt)
26 May 1709 - 30 Dec 1716  Anton Günther II                   (s.a.)


Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
 
[Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Civil Flag
                          c.1815-1866 (Germany)]
                    c.1815 - 1866 
 
[Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Civil Flag
                          1866-1920 (Germany)]
                       1866 - 1918 
 
[Prince of
                          Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt's Banner until 1918]
       to 1918 Prince's banner
 
Map of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
National Anthem
"Schwarzburglied"
 (The Schwarzburg Song)

Text of National Anthem
Constitution
Capital: Rudolstadt
Population: 96,830 (1905)

15 Apr 1711                Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
                             (Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt)
28 Mar 1909                Upon the extinction of the Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
                             princely line, personal union with Schwarzburg-
                             Sondershausen (ruler styled Fürst zu Schwarzburg).
23 Nov 1918                Free State of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (Freistaat
                             Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt)(see German states since 1918).

Counts (title Graf zu Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt)
 4 Nov 1646 - 15 Dec 1710  Albrecht Anton                     (b. 1641 - d. 1710)
 4 Nov 1646 -  2 Mar 1662  Aemilia Antonia Gräfin von         (b. 1614 - d. 1670)
                             Oldenburg (f) -Regent 
15 Dec 1710 - 15 Apr 1711  Ludwig Friedrich I                 (b. 1667 - d. 1718)
                             (co-ruler from 1707)
Princes (title Fürst zu Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt)

15 Apr 1711 - 24 Jun 1718  Ludwig Friedrich I                 (s.a.)
24 Jun 1718 -  1 Sep 1744  Friedrich Anton                    (b. 1692 - d. 1744)
 1 Sep 1744 - 10 Jul 1767  Johann Friedrich                   (b. 1721 - d. 1767)
10 Jul 1767 - 29 Aug 1790  Ludwig Günther IV                  (b. 1708 - d. 1790)
29 Aug 1790 - 13 Apr 1793  Friedrich Karl                     (b. 1736 - d. 1793)
13 Apr 1793 - 28 Apr 1807  Ludwig Friedrich II                (b. 1767 - d. 1807)
28 Apr 1807 - 28 Jun 1867  Friedrich Günther                  (b. 1793 - d. 1867)
28 Apr 1807 -  6 Nov 1814  Karoline Louise Landgräfin von     (b. 1771 - d. 1854)
                             Hessen-Homburg (f) -Regent
28 Jun 1867 - 26 Nov 1869  Albrecht                           (b. 1798 - d. 1869)
26 Nov 1869 - 19 Jan 1890  Georg Albrecht                     (b. 1838 - d. 1890)
19 Jan 1890 - 22 Nov 1918  Günther Viktor                     (b. 1852 - d. 1925)

Chancellors
23 Mar 1667 - 24 Aug 1701  Ahasver Fritsch                    (b. 1629 - d. 1701)
24 Aug 1701 - 11 Oct 1723  Georg Ulrich von Beulwitz          (b. 1661 - d. 1723)
                             (acting to 1702)
11 Oct 1723 - 13 Mar 1744  Friedrich Christian von            (b. 1679 - d. 1748)
                             Reitzenstein
13 Mar 1744 - 17 Apr 1761  Christoph Leopold von Hertenberg   (b. 1692 - d. 1761)
                             (acting to 13 Nov 1750)
17 Apr 1761 -  7 Jun 1777  Christian Ulrich von Ketelhodt     (b. 1701 - d. 1777) 
                             (acting to 27 May 1761)
27 Aug 1777 - 20 Nov 1785  Johann Wilhelm Ludwig von Holleben (b. 1715 - d. 1785)
20 Nov 1785 - 14 Jan 1814  Carl Gerth von Ketelhodt           (b. 1738 - d. 1814)
14 Jan 1814 -  9 Mar 1829  Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig von       (b. 1755 - d. 1829)
                             Beulwitz
 9 Mar 1829 - 20 Apr 1836  Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von     (b. 1766 - d. 1836)
                             Ketelhodt 
 7 May 1836 -  6 Jul 1836  Friedrich Michael Bamberg          (b. 1765 - d. 1836)
13 Jul 1836 - 24 Nov 1845  Philipp Christian Wilhelm Hönniger (b. 1782 - d. 1845)
24 Nov 1845 - 11 Mar 1848  Karl August Ludwig Freiherr von    (b. 1798 - d. 1849)
                             Ketelhodt (acting to 9 Jan 1846)
11 Mar 1848 -  1 Jul 1850  Julius Heinrich Reinhard von Röder (b. 1798 - d. 1881)
                             (acting to 29 Dec 1848)
Vorsitzende des Gesamtministeriums
 1 Jul 1850 - 19 Dec 1851  Julius Heinrich Reinhard von Röder (s.a.)
19 Dec 1851 -  1 May 1858  Jacob Hermann von Bertrab          (b. 1818 - d. 1887)
President of the government
 1 May 1858 -  1 Apr 1868  Jacob Hermann von Bertrab          (s.a.)
Ministers of State
 1 Apr 1868 -  2 Dec 1887  Jacob Hermann von Bertrab          (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1887 -  1 Apr 1888  Ludwig Albert von Holleben (acting)(b. 1825 - d. 1902)
 1 Apr 1888 -  1 Apr 1903  Wilhelm Friedrich von Starck       (b. 1835 - d. 1913)
 1 Apr 1903 - 23 Nov 1918  Franz Ernst Wilhelm Karl Freiherr  (b. 1854 - d. 1923)
                             von der Recke 


Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
 
[Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Civil Flag
                          c.1815-1920 (Germany)]
                    c.1815 - 1918 
 
[Prince of
                          Schwarzburg-Sondershausen's Banner until
                          1918]
       to 1918 Prince's banner
 
Map of Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen
National Anthem
"Heil unserm Fürsten, Heil!"
(Hail to our Prince, Hail!)

Text of National Anthem
Constitution
Capital: Sonderhausen
Population: 85,177 (1905)

13 Sep 1697                Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
                             (Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Sondershausen).
28 Mar 1909                Upon the extinction of the princely line, personal union with
                             Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (ruler styled Fürst zu Schwarzburg).
23 Nov 1918                Free State of Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen
                             (see German states since 1918).

Princes (title Fürst zu Schwarzburg-Sondershausen)
13 Sep 1697 - 20 Dec 1716  Anton Günther II                   (b. 1653 - d. 1716)
                           - jointly with -
13 Sep 1697 - 19 May 1721  Christian Wilhelm                  (b. 1647 - d. 1721)
10 May 1721 - 28 Nov 1740  Günther XXVI                       (b. 1678 - d. 1740)
28 Nov 1740 -  6 Nov 1758  Heinrich XXXVIII                   (b. 1689 - d. 1758)
 6 Nov 1758 - 14 Oct 1794  Christian Günther III              (b. 1736 - d. 1794)
14 Oct 1794 - 19 Aug 1835  Günther Friedrich Karl I           (b. 1760 - d. 1837)
19 Aug 1835 - 17 Jul 1880  Günther Friedrich Karl II          (b. 1801 - d. 1889)
17 Jul 1880 - 28 Mar 1909  Karl Günther                       (b. 1830 - d. 1909)
28 Mar 1909 - 22 Nov 1918  Günther Viktor                     (b. 1852 - d. 1925)

Chief of the Privy Council
1810 - 30 Apr 1820         Ludwig Wilhelm Adolph von Weise    (b. 1751 - d. 1820)
Ministers of State
1820 - 1835                Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Adolph von  (b. 1780 - d. 1851)
                             Weise 
1835 - 24 Sep 1841         Günther Heinrich Otto Christian    (b. 1775 - d. 1853) 
                             von Ziegler 
24 Sep 1841 -  9 Jan 1846  Christian Wilhelm Friedrich Caspar (b. 1773 - d. 1846)
                             von Kauffberg 
1846 -  2 Jan 1848         Karl Eschwin Albert von Holleufer  (b. 1803 - d. 1874)
1848                       Wilhelm Hülsemann
18 Mar 1848 -  4 Jan 1852  Günther Friedrich Chops            (b. 1801 - d. 1875)
 7 Jan 1852 - 23 May 1855  Friedrich Schönemann (acting)      (b. 1801 - d. 1874)
1855 - 1862                Oskar Ferdinand Benno Joachim von  (b. 1822 - d. 1882) 
                             Elsner 
1862 - 1877                Gustav Adolf von Keyser            (b. 1807 - d. 1901)
 8 May 1877 - 16 Jul 1880  Hans Hermann Freiherr von Berlepsch(b. 1843 - d. 1926)
23 Jul 1880 -  4 Oct 1886  Otto Reinhardt                     (b. 1826 - d. 1915)
 4 Oct 1886 - 29 Mar 1889  Karl Rudolf von Wolffersdorff      (b. 1817 - d. 1889)
29 Mar 1889 -  1 Jul 1909  Christian Ludwig Hermann Petersen  (b. 1844 - d. 1909)
 1 Jul 1909 - 25 Nov 1918  Franz Ernst Wilhelm Karl Freiherr  (b. 1854 - d. 1923)
                             von der Recke


Schwyz: see Swiss Cantons
Seborga: see Italian states
Sieben Zehenden: see Valais under Swiss Cantons
Silesia (Schlesien): see Czech Republic and Prussian provinces

Sitten (Sion): see Valais under Swiss Cantons
Solothurn: see Swiss Cantons
Sonnenberg: see Vorarlberg under Austrian lands

Spanish Netherlands: see Belgium


Speyer (Speier)

[Bishopric of Speyer]

610                        Bishopric of Speyer (or Speier)(Hochstift Speyer).
1794                       Occupied by France.
 9 Mar 1801                Annexed to France (some lands to Baden 1802-1814).
1813 - 1815                Allied administration.
1815                       Part of Bavaria.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof von Speyer)
16 Jul 1675 -  6 Jan 1711  Johann Hugo von Orsbeck                (b. 1634 - d. 1711)
26 Feb 1711 - 30 Nov 1719  Heinrich Hartard Freiherr von          (b. 1633 - d. 1719)
                             Rollingen
30 Nov 1719 - 20 Aug 1743  Kardinal Damian Hugo Philipp           (b. 1676 - d. 1743)
                             Anton Graf von Schönborn 
14 Nov 1743 - 20 Apr 1770  Franz Christoph Cardinal von Hutten    (b. 1706 - d. 1770)
                             zu Stolzenfels
29 May 1770 - 26 Feb 1797  Damian August Philipp Karl Graf von    (b. 1721 - d. 1797)
                             Limburg-Styrum
22 Apr 1797 -  9 Mar 1801  Philipp Franz Wilderich Nepomuk Graf   (b. 1739 - d. 1810)
                             von Walderdorf


Stablo-Malmedy: see Stavelot-Malmédy under Belgium

Steinfurt (Bentheim-Steinfurt)

c.1129                     Lordship of Steinfurt (Herrschaft Steinfurt).
26 Apr 1495                County of Steinfurt (Grafschaft Steinfurt).
13 Dec 1530 - 10 Feb 1643  County of Bentheim passes to Steinfurt.
12 May 1804                County of Bentheim annexed to Steinfurt.
 1 Aug 1806                Steinfurt annexed to Prussia, Bentheim to Berg.
13 Dec 1810                Annexed to France.
Oct 1813 - 25 May 1815     Prussian administration.
25 May 1815                Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Graf von Bentheim und zu Steinfurt)
26 Aug 1693 - 10 Mar 1713  Ernst                                  (b. 1661 - d. 1713)
10 Mar 1713 -  7 Jun 1733  Friedrich Belgicus Karl                (b. 1703 - d. 1733)
10 Mar 1713 - 24 Nov 1724  Isabella Justina van Hoorn (f) -Regent (b. 1661 - d. 1734)
 7 Jun 1733 - 30 Jun 1780  Karl Paul Ernst                        (b. 1729 - d. 1780)
30 Jun 1780 -  1 Aug 1806  Ludwig I Wilhelm Geldricus Ernst       (b. 1756 - d. 1817)



Sternstein

11 Oct 1623                Princely County of Sternstein (Gefürstete Grafschaft Sternstein).
12 Jul 1806                Annexed to Bavaria.

Princely Counts (title Fürst Lobkowitz, Gefürstete Graf von Sternstein)
1689 - 13 Oct 1715         Ferdinand August                   (b. 1655 - d. 1715)
13 Oct 1715 - 21 Dec 1735  Philip Hyazinth                    (b. 1680 - d. 1735)
21 Dec 1735 - 14 Jan 1784  Ferdinand                          (b. 1724 - d. 1784)
14 Jan 1784 - 12 Jul 1806  Joseph Franz Maximilian            (b. 1772 - d. 1816)



Stolberg

10..                       County of Stolberg (Grafschaft Stolberg)
19 Mar 1548                Split between a Harz line (Stolberg-Stolberg) and a Rhenish line
                             with the possessions in Rochefort (Stolberg-Rochefort) and
                             Königstein im Taunus (Stolberg-Königstein).
1631                       Stolberg-Stolberg inherited by members of the Rhenish line.
31 May 1645                Stolberg-Stolberg is divided between a senior Stolberg-Wernigerode
                             line and a junior Stolberg-Stolberg line.
 7 Apr 1704                Stolberg-Rossla split from Stolberg-Stolberg.
27 Apr 1803               Stolberg-Stolberg and Stolberg-Rossla annexed to kingdom of Saxony.
28 Aug 1807                Stolberg-Wernigerode annexed to Kingdom of Westphalia.
21 Jun 1815                Stolberg-Wernigerode annexed to Prussia.
 

Stolberg-Rossla

 7 Apr 1704                County of Stolberg-Rossla (Grafschaft Stolberg-Rossla) split
                             from Stolberg-Stolberg
27 Apr 1803                Annexed to kingdom of Saxony.
21 Jun 1815                Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Graf zu Stolberg-Rossla)
22 May 1669 -  7 Apr 1704  Christoph Ludwig I       (b. 1634 - d. 1704)
                             (in Ortenburg)
 7 Apr 1704 - 17 Jun 1739  Justus Christian         (b. 1676 - d. 1739)
17 Apr 1739 -  8 Mar 1768  Friedrich Botho          (b. 1714 - d. 1810)
 8 Mar 1768 - 1776         Heinrich                 (b. 1747 - d. 1810)
1776 - 27 Apr 1803         Johann Wilhelm           (b. 1748 - d. 1826)


Stolberg-Stolberg

10..                       County of Stolberg (Grafschaft Stolberg)
31 May 1645                Stolberg-Stolberg is divided between a senior Stolberg-Wernigerode
                             line and a junior Stolberg-Stolberg line.
 7 Apr 1704                County of Stolberg-Stolberg (Grafschaft Stolberg-Stolberg)
1738                       Under the suzerainty of the Electorate of Saxony.
27 Apr 1803                Annexed to kingdom of Saxony.
1815                       Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Graf zu Stolberg Stolberg)
 7 Apr 1704 - 22 Aug 1738  Christoph Friedrich       (b. 1672 - d. 1738)
22 Aug 1738 - 20 Aug 1761  Christoph Ludwig II       (b. 1703 - d. 1761)
20 Aug 1761 - 27 Apr 1803  Karl Ludwig               (b. 1742 - d. 1815)


Stolberg-Wernigerode

 9th cent.                 County of Wernigerode (Grafschaft Wernigerode)
 3 Jun 1429                Personal union with Stolberg-Stolberg.
 7 Aug 1538                County of Stolberg-Wernigerode (Grafschaft Stolberg-Wernigerode)
31 May 1645                Stolberg-Stolberg is divided between a senior Stolberg-Wernigerode
                             line and a junior Stolberg-Stolberg line.
1714 - 1807                Under Prussian administration.
28 Aug 1807                Annexed to Kingdom of Westphalia.
28 Oct 1813 - 21 Jun 1815  Allied administration.
21 Jun 1815                Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Graf zu Stolberg und zu Wernigerode)
 4 Apr 1672 - 27 Aug 1710  Ludwig Christian             (b. 1658 - d. 1710)
 4 Apr 1672 - 26 Sep 1679  .... -Regent
 4 Apr 1672 -  9 Nov 1710  Ernst (in Isenburg)          (b. 1650 - d. 1710)
27 Aug 1710 - 25 Oct 1771  Christian Ernst              (b. 1691 - d. 1771)
 9 Nov 1710 - 14 Sep 1748  Heinrich August (in Schwarza)(b. 1697 - d. 1748)
25 Oct 1771 - 24 Oct 1778  Heinrich Ernst II            (b. 1727 - d. 1778)
24 Oct 1778 - 28 Aug 1807  Christian Friedrich          (b. 1746 - d. 1824)



Strasbourg (Strassburg) Bishopric

Strasbourg (Strassburg)
                Bishopric

c.530                      Bishopric of Strassburg (Hochstift Strassburg) re-established.
1272 - 1681                Strasbourg an Imperial Free City (Freistadt Strassburg).
1444 - 1789                Residence of the Bishop in Zabern.
24 Oct 1648                Territories on the left bank of the Rhine River
                             annexed to France.
30 Sep 1681                City of Strasbourg (Strassburg) annexed to France.
20 Sep 1697                Annexation of Strasbourg  recognized by the Holy Roman Empire
                             in Treaty of Ryswick.
1789                       Residence of the Bishop moved to Ettenheim.
1789/92                    French territories confiscated.
27 Apr 1803                Territories on the right side of the Rhine (Ettenheim)
                             annexed by Baden.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischöfe zu Strassburg/Prince-évêque de Strasbourg)
 8 Jun 1682 - 10 Apr 1704  Wilhelm Egon Cardinal von Fürstenberg   (b. 1629 - d. 1704)
10 Apr 1704 - 19 Jul 1749  Armand-Gaston-Maximilien Cardinal de    (b. 1674 - d. 1749)
                             Rohan de Soubise
                            (co-adjutor 28 Feb 1701 - 10 Apr 1704)
19 Jul 1749 - 28 Jun 1756  François-Armand-Auguste Cardinal de     (b. 1717 - d. 1756) 
                             Rohan-Soubise-Ventadour
                            (co-adjutor 21 May 1742 - 19 Jul 1749)
23 Sep 1756 - 11 Mar 1779  Louis-César-Constantin Cardinal de      (b. 1697 - d. 1779)
                             Rohan-Guémené-Montbazon
11 Mar 1779 - 29 Nov 1801  Louis-René-Edouard Cardinal de Rohan-   (b. 1734 - d. 1803)
                             Guéménée
 9 Apr 1802 - 27 Apr 1803  Jean-Pierre Saurine                     (b. 1733 - d. 1813)


Styria (Steiermark): see Austrian Lands


Swedish Pomerania
[Flag of Sweden]
        21 Apr 1631 - 14 Jan 1814
1170                        Duchy of Pomerania (Herzogtum der Pommerellen)
1168 - 1259                 Island of Rügen under Danish rule.
1627 - 1630                 Occupied by Imperial forces.
21 Apr 1631                 Occupied by Sweden
24 Oct 1648                 Swedish possessions confirmed by the Treaty of Westpahlia 
                              (West Pomerania, including Stettin, and the island of Rügen;
                              the archbishopric [but not the city] of Bremen and the 
                              adjoining bishopric of Verden; Wismar; and the island of Pöl.
 6 Jun 1653                 Hither Pomerania or Farther Pomerania (Hinterpommern) ceded to
                              Brandenburg-Prussia.
1659 - Jun 1660             Occupied by Brandenburg (excluding only Stralsund and Stettin).
17 Dec 1677 -  3 Dec 1679   Occupied by Denmark, Brandenburg and Imperial forces.
23 Dec 1715 -  3 Jul 1720   Occupied by Denmark and Prussia.
21 Jan 1719                 Swedish Pomerania south of Peene River and east of River
                              Peenestrom are ceded to Prussia (including Usedom, Wollin,
                              and Stettin).
 3 Jul 1720                 The parts of Swedish Pomerania occupied by Denmark are restored
                              to Sweden (Wismar, Rügen and coastal area around Stralsund).
20 Aug 1807 -  1 Apr 1810   Occupied by France (Rügen remains under Swedish rule).
 9 Jan 1812 -  9 Mar 1813   Occupied by France (Rügen remains Swedish).
14 Jan 1814                 Ceded to Denmark by Sweden in exchange for Norway; Denmark
                              does not take formal possession.
23 Oct 1815                 Denmark cedes the territory to Prussia in exchange 
                              for the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg. 

Envoys in Stettin
21 Apr 1631 - 22 Aug 1632   Claes Carlsson greve Horn                (b. 1583 - d. 1632)
1633 - Nov 1638             Sten Svantesson Bielke                   (b. 1598 - d. 1638)
Envoy in Wolgast
163. - 1637                 Volkmar Wolfgang von Putbus              (b. 1583 - d. 1637)
Governors (in Stettin and Wolgast)
1638 - 163.                 Axel Lillie till Löfsta slott            (b. 1603 - d. 1662)
                            + Johan Nilsson Lilljehök                (b. 1598 - d. 1642)
Governors-general of Swedish Pomerania
Nov 1638 - 10 May 1641      Johan Banér                              (b. 1596 - d. 1641)
Nov 1641 - 1648             Lennart Torstenson af                    (b. 1603 - d. 1651)
                              Forstena-Slägten
1648                        Arvid Forbus                             (b. 1598 - d. 1665)
1648 - 1650                 Carl Gustaf Wrangel af Salmis (1st time) (b. 1613 - d. 1676)
1650 - 1652                 Johan Axelsson Oxenstierna               (b. 1611 - d. 1657)
1652 - 1654                 Axel Lillie till Löfsta slott            (s.a.)
1655                        Arvid Wittenberg                         (b. 1606 - d. 1657)
1656 -  5 Dec 1657          Johan Axelsson Oxenstierna               (b. 1611 - d. 1657)
1657 - 25 Jun 1676          Carl Gustaf Wrangel af Salmis (2nd time) (s.a.)
1659 - 1660                 Christoph Albrecht von                   (b. 1621 - d. 1677)
                              Dohna -Brandenburg commander
1676 - 1687                 Otto Wilhelm greve Königsmarck af        (b. 1639 - d. 1688)
                              Stegeholm und Westerwik
1678 - 1679                 Georg Freiherr von                       (b. 1606 - d. 1695)
                              Derfflinger -Brandenburg governor
1687 - 1697                 Nils Thuresson Bjelke                    (b. 1644 - d. 1716)
1698 - 1713                 Jürgen greve von Mellin                  (b. 1633 - d. 1713)
1713 - 23 Dec 1715          Johan August greve Meyerfelt (1st time)  (b. 1664 - d. 1749)
23 Dec 1715 -  9 Sep 1719   Frantz Joachim von                       (b. 1666 - d. 1719)
                              Dewitz -Danish governor    
1719 -  7 Nov 1721          Jobst von Scholten -Danish governor      (b. c.1644 - d. 1721)
1721 - 1748                 Johan August greve Meyerfelt (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1748 - 1766                 Axel von Löwen                           (b. 1695 - d. 1772)
1766 - 1772                 Hans Henrik von Liewen d.y.              (b. 1704 - d. 1781)
1772 - 1776                 Fredrik Karl greve Sinclair              (b. 1723 - d. 1776)
1776 - 1791                 Fredrik Wilhelm greve von Hessenstein    (b. 1735 - d. 1808)
1792 - 1796                 Erik Ruuth                               (b. 1746 - d. 1820)
1796 - 1800                 Philip Bernhard Julius friherre von      (b. 1732 - d. 1805)
                              Platen
1800 - 1807                 Johan Henric von Essen (1st time)        (b. 1755 - d. 1820) 
French Governors
1807                        Guillaume Marie Anne Brune               (b. 1763 - d. 1815)
1807 - 1808                 Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor              (b. 1770 - d. 1849)
1808 - Mar 1810             Jacques Lazare de Savettier de Candras   (b. 1768 - d. 1812)
1812 -  9 Mar 1813          Joseph Morand                            (b. 1757 - d. 1813) 
Governors-general
1809 - 1814                 Johan Henric von Essen (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1814 - 23 Oct 1815          Wilhelm Malte Fürst zu Putbus            (b. 1783 - d. 1854)  


Rügen Island

Landvögte (state advocates)
1630 - 1632                 Arend von Bohlen-Glasitz
1632 - 1642                 Eckard von Usedom                        (b. 1580 - d. 1646)
1642 - 1664                 Ernst von Berglasen-Teschvitz            (d. 1666)
1664 - 1694                 Wilken von Berglasen-Teschvitz
1694 - 1698                 Johan Karl von der Lancken-Zurkwitz      (b. 1656 - d. 1701)
1699 - 1706                 Jakob von Wewezar                        (d. 1706)
1706 - 1711                 Arend Christoph von Bohlen-Bohlendorf    (d. 1711)
1711 - 1716                 Hermann Alexander von Wolffradt          (b. 1689 - d. 1734)
                              (1st time)
1716 – 1718                 Johann Jansson von
                              Silberstern -Danish Amtmann
1718 – 1721                 Christoph August von John -Danish Amtmann
1721 - 1734                 Hermann Alexander von Wolffradt          (s.a.)
                              (2nd time)
1734 - 1736                 Vacant
1736 - 1759                 Bogislaw Georg von Platen                (d. 1759)
1760 - 1785                 Carl Gustaf von Wolffradt                (b. 1717 - d. 1794)
1785 - 1805                 Karl Friedrich von Usedom                (b. 1756 - d. 1805)
1805 - 1815                 Karl Ludwig Adolf von Bohlen


Tarasp: see under Swiss Cantons

Teutonic Order: see under Religious Organizations
Thoren: see Thorn under Netherlands
Thurgau (Thurgovia): see Swiss Cantons

Ticino: see Swiss Cantons
Toggenburg: see under Swiss Cantons
Toul: see France provinces

Trieste (Stadt und Gebiet Triest): see under Italy

Trent (Trient): see Italian states


Trier (Treves)

[Trier]

50                         Bishopric of Treves (Stift Trier) founded, according to legend.
c.800                      Raised to Archbishopric of Treves (Erzstift Trier)
                             (314 according to some chronicles).
25 Dec 1356                Golden Bull codifies Archchancellor office and electoral status.
1673 - 1675                Occupied by France.
1688 - 1698                Occupied by France.
1705 - 1714                Occupied by France.
1735 - 1737                Occupied by France.
Aug 1794 - 1797            Under French occupation.
27 Oct 1797                Ceded to France by Treaty of Campo Formio.
 9 Mar 1801                Parts annexed to France as part of the département of Sarre
                             (see under Germany).
27 Apr 1803                Final Act (enactment of Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 
                             25 Feb 1803) abolishes the electoral principality of Trier.
 5 Jan 1814 - 1815         Allied administration.
1815                       Former territories annexed to Nassau.
20 Sep 1866                Annexed to Prussia.

Archbishops¹
13 Jul 1676 -  6 Jan 1711  Johann VIII Hugo, Freiherr von Orsbeck    (b. 1634 - d. 1711)
 6 Jan 1711 -  4 Dec 1715  Karl Joseph Ignaz Herzog von Lothringen   (b. 1680 - d. 1715)
20 Feb 1716 -  7 Apr 1729  Franz Ludwig Pfalzgraf bei Rhein,         (b. 1664 - d. 1732)
                             Herzog von Neuburg 
 2 May 1729 - 18 Jan 1756  Franz Georg Graf von Schönborn            (b. 1682 - d. 1756)
18 Feb 1756 - 12 Jan 1768  Johann Philipp Graf von Walderdorff       (b. 1701 - d. 1768)
10 Feb 1768 - 25 Apr 1802  Clemens Wenceslaus August Hubert Franz    (b. 1739 - d. 1812)
                             Xaver Herzog von Sachsen 
25 Apr 1802 - 27 Apr 1803  Vacant

 ¹Full title: Archbishop of Treves and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire for Gaul and the Kingdom of Arles and Prince-Elector (Erzbischof von Trier und des Heiligen Römischen Reichs Erzkanzler für Gallien und das Arelatsche Königreich und Kurfürst).


Tyrol (Tirol): see Austrian Lands


Ulm

[Ulm free city]

854                         First mentioned as Ulma.
1181                        Imperial City of Ulm (Reichsstadt Ulm). 
 9 Feb 1331 - 1356/9        Pledged to Graisbach.
1702 - 1704                 Occupied by Bavaria.
1799 - 1801                 Austrian occupation.
1801 - 1802                 French occupation.
 2 Sep 1802                 Annexed by Bavaria.
28 Feb 1810                 Annexed by Württemberg.

First Mayors (title Erster Bürgermeister)
1760 - 1767                 Philipp Wolph Schad
1767 - 1769                 Johann Browy Seutter
1769 - 1771                 Johann Conrad Seutter
1771 - 1772                 Christoph Erhard Besserer
1772 - 1773                 Christoph Heinrich von Besserer II
                              (1st time)
1773 - 1791                 Albrecht Baldinger
1791 - 1792                 Mark Theodor Freiherr von Welfer
1792 - 1794                 Johann Conrad von Kraft
1794 - 1796                 Albrecht Friedrich von Baldinger
1796 - 1801                 Karl Friedrich von Neubroner      (b. 1733 - d. 1804)
1801 - 1802                 Christoph Heinrich von Besserer II
                              (2nd time)


Uri: see Swiss Cantons
Uznach: see under Swiss Cantons
Vaduz: see Liechtenstein

Valais: see Swiss Cantons
Vaud: see Swiss Cantons
Verden: see Bremen-Verden
Verdun: see Metz under France provinces

Vorarlberg: see Austrian Lands
Vorderösterreich: see Austrian Lands


Waldeck-Pyrmont
[Waldeck-Pyrmont (Germany)]
                      c.1830 - 1918
 
Map of Waldeck-Pyrmont
Hear National Anthem
"Mein Waldeck "
(My Waldeck)
Text of National Anthem
(1890-1918)
Constitution
Capital: Arolsen
Population: 59,135 (1905)
 
1180                       County of Waldeck established, with many divisions
                             beginning 16 Feb 1397.
1625                       The Waldeck-Eisenberg branch acquires the County of Pyrmont.
17 Jun 1682                The ruler of the Waldeck-Eisenberg branch assumes the style
                             Fürst zu Waldeck, Graf von Pyrmont.
29 Nov 1692                All branches reunited; style: Graf von Waldeck und Pyrmont.
 6 Jan 1712                Waldeck raised to rank of principality.
1805                       Waldeck and Pyrmont separated, both ranked as principalities.
24 Sep 1812                Reunited as Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont
                             (Fürstentum zu Waldeck und Pyrmont).
13 Nov 1918                Free State of Waldeck-Pyrmont (see German states since 1918).


Counts (title Graf von Waldeck und Pyrmont)
29 Nov 1692 - 12 Dec 1706  Christian Ludwig                   (b. 1635 - d. 1706)
12 Dec 1706 -  6 Jan 1712  Friedrich Anton Ulrich             (b. 1676 - d. 1728)
Princes (title Fürst zu Waldeck, Graf von Pyrmont)
 6 Jan 1712 -  1 Jan 1728  Friedrich Anton Ulrich             (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1728 - 17 May 1728  Christian Philipp                  (b. 1701 - d. 1728)
17 May 1728 - 29 Aug 1763  Karl August Friedrich              (b. 1704 - d. 1763)
29 Aug 1763 - 24 Sep 1812  Friedrich I                        (b. 1743 - d. 1812)
                            (from 1805, only Fürst zu Waldeck)
29 Aug 1763 - 25 Oct 1766  Christiane Henriette Pfalzgräfin   (b. 1725 - d. 1816) 
                             von Birkenfeld (f) -Regent
Princes (title Fürst zu Waldeck und Pyrmont)
1805 -  9 Sep 1813         Georg                              (b. 1747 - d. 1813)
                            (to 24 Sep 1812, Prinz zu Waldeck, Fürst zu Pyrmont)
 9 Sep 1813 - 15 May 1845  Georg Friedrich Heinrich           (b. 1789 - d. 1845)
15 May 1845 - 12 May 1893  Georg Viktor                       (b. 1831 - d. 1893)
15 May 1845 - 14 Jan 1852  Emma von Anhalt-Bernburg-
                             Schaumburg-Hoym (f) -Regent      (b. 1802 - d. 1858)
12 May 1893 - 13 Nov 1918  Friedrich II                       (b. 1865 - d. 1946)

Prime ministers
1812 - 1832                Christian Wilhelm Kreusler         (b. 1774 - d. 1834)
1814 - 1823                Rudolf Carl Christian von Preen    (b. 1756 - d. 1841)
1824 - 1838                Burchard Christian von Spilcker    (b. 1770 - d. 1834)
1832 - 1848                Theodor Friedrich Neumann          (b. 1783 - d. 1867)
1838 - 1843                Georg Christian August Varnhagen
1843 - 1848                Ludwig Hagemann
Mar 1848 - 24 Jul 1848     Karl Wilhelm von Stockhausen       (b. 1804 - d. 1899)
Jul 1848 - 1849            Karl Wilhelm Gleisner (acting)     (b. 1803 - d. 1873)
Mar 1849 - 1851            Ludwig Wolrad Friedrich Wilhelm    (b. 1793 - d. 1862)
                             Schumacher
Feb 1851 - 31 Dec 1867     Karl August Ludwig Winterberg      (b. 1812 - d. 1872)
Prussian State directors
 1 Jan 1868 - 1872         Julius Adalbert von Flottwell      (b. 1829 - d. 1909)
1872 - 1881                Karl Albert Friedrich Hugo von     (b. 1833 - d. 1912) 
                             Sommerfeld
1881 - 1884                Jesko Franz Edwald von Puttkamer   (b. 1841 - d. 1918)
1884 - 1886                Ernst von Saldern                  (b. 18.. - d. 1886)
Oct 1886 - 1907            Ernst Friedrich Johannes von       (b. 1839 - d. 1907)
                             Saldern
1907 - 1908                Leo Marquard Freiherr von Lützow   (b. 1856 - d. 1908)
1908 - 1914                Ernst Reinhold Gerhard von         (b. 1861 - d. 1928)
                             Glasenapp  
1914 -  1 Sep 1920         Karl Hermann Friedrich Wilhelm     (b. 1867 - d. 1940) 
                             von Redern



Wallmoden-Gimborn

1683                       Lordship of Gimborn and Neustadt (Reichsherrschaft Gimborn
                             und Neustadt
).
17 Jan 1783                Sold to Count of Wallmoden, becomes County of Wallmoden-Gimborn
                             (
Grafschaft Wallmoden-Gimborn).
12 Jul 1806                Annexed to Berg.
27 Apr 1811                Annexed to France; part of département Lippe.
                             (see under Germany).
1815                       Annexed to Prussia.

Lords (title Reichsherr von Gimborn und Neustadt)
1683 - 22 Oct 1703         Ferdinand Wilhelm Eusebius            (b. 1652 - d. 1703)
22 Oct 1703 - 11 Jun 1732  Adam Franz Karl                       (b. 1680 - d. 1732)
11 Jun 1732 - 17 Feb 1782  Joseph Adam Johann                    (b. 1722 - d. 1782)
17 Feb 1782 - 17 Jan 1783  Johann I Nepomuk Anton                (b. 1742 - d. 1789)
Counts (title Reichsgraf von Wallmoden-Gimborn)
17 Jan 1783 - 1806         Johann II Ludwig Graf von Wallmoden   (b. 1736 - d. 1811)



Wartenberg

....                       County of Wartenberg (Grafschaft Wartenberg)
1794                       Lands east of Rhine annexed by France.
1803                       Count is given the former Rot an der Rot abbey,
                             (County of Wartenberg-Roth).
12 Jul 1806                Annexed to Kingdom of Westphalia
; Rot an der Rot is annexed
                             by Württemburg.
1814                       Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Graf zu Wartenberg; from 1803 Wartenberg-Roth)
 1 Sep 1675 -  4 Apr 1730  Ferdinand Marquard                    (b. 1673 - d. 1730)
 4 Apr 1730 -  8 May 1784  Freidrich Karl                        (b. 1725 - d. 1784)
 8 May 1784 - 12 Jul 1806  Ludwig                                (b. 1752 - d. 1818)



Weingarten

1053                       Benedictine Abbey of Weingarten
1268                       Abbots become Princes of the Empire, but
                             under Austrian protection.
25 Feb 1803                Mediatized and given to the Prince of Oranje-Nassau as
                             Lordship of Weingarten, part of Nassau-Orange-Fulda.
12 Jul 1806                Annexed to Württemberg.

Prince-Abbots (title Fürstabt zu Weingarten)
1697 - 10 May 1730         Sebastian Hyller                   (b. 1667 - d. 1730)
1730 - 13 Nov 1738         Alfons II Jobst                    (b. 1684 - d. 1738)
1738 - 1745                Placidus Renz                      (b. 1692 - d. 1748)
1745 -  6 Dec  1784        Dominikus II Schnitzer             (b. 1704 - d. 1784)
1784 - 25 Feb 1803         Anselm Rittler                     (b. 1737 - d. 1804)



Werden-Helmstädt

809                        Benedictine Abbey of Werden founded.
827                        Benedictine Abbey of Helmstädt founded.
877                        Abbots also Princess of the Empire.
1803                       Annexed to Prussia.
1806                       Annexed to Berg.
1808                       Annexed to Kingdom of Westphalia.
1814                       Restored to Prussia.

Prince-Abbots (title Fürstabt zu Werden und Helmstädt)
1670 - 17 Apr 1706         Ferdinand von Erwitte-Welschenbeck (b. 1628 - d. 1706)
1706 - 1718                Cölestin von Geismar               (b. 1666 - d. 1718)
1719 - 1727                Theodor Thier                      (b. 1674 - d. 1727)
1727 - 1728                Simon von Bischopink zu Telgte
1728 - 1757                Benedikt von Geismar               (b. 1680 - d. 1757)
1757 - 1774                Anselm von Sonius
1775 - 1780                Johann VI Hellersberg              (b. 1716 - d. 1780) 
1780 -  6 Mar 1798         Bernhard II Birnbaum               (b. 1730 - d. 1798)
1798 - 1802                Beda Cornelius Savels              (b. 1755 - d. 1828) 


Werdenberg: see under Swiss Cantons


Westphalia
[Kingdom of Westphalia
                  1807-1813 (Germany)]
            8 Dec 1807 - 29 Oct 1813

Map of Kingdom
of Westphalia
Capital: Kassel
Constitution
(7 Dec 1807)
Population: 2,612,000 (1807)


28 Aug 1807                The Electorate of Hesse, and Prussian lands are taken
                             by Napoléon I to form the Kingdom of Westphalia
                             (Königreich Westphalen), which is subdivided into départements.
13 Dec 1810                Incorporation of Westphalian départements of Elbe-Inférieure, 
                             Nord, Weser, and part of Aller into the French départements of 
                             Bouches-de-l'Elbe and Bouches-du-Weser; Weser is divided
                             between départements of Bouches-du-Weser and Ems-Supérieur.
30 Sep 1813 -  6 Oct 1813  Allied (Russian) occupation of Kassel.
29/30 Oct 1813             Kingdom of Westphalia dissolved.

Governors-general
Oct 1806 - 18 Nov 1806     Herman Willem Daendels             (b. 1762 - d. 1818)
Nov 1806 - Feb 1807        Louis-Henri Loison                 (b. 1771 - d. 1816)
Feb 1807 - Aug 1807        Simon Canuel                       (b. 1767 - d. 1841)
King (title König von Westfalen)
28 Aug 1807 - 29 Oct 1813  Hieronymus Napoleon                (b. 1784 - d. 1860)
                            (Jérôme Boneparte)(arrived 7 Dec 1807)
28 Aug 1807 -  7 Dec 1807  Regency
                           - Joseph Jérôme Siméon             (b. 1749 - d. 1842)
                           - Jacques-Claude, comte Beugnot    (b. 1761 - d. 1828)
                           - Jean-Baptiste-Moïse Jollivet     (b. 1753 - d. 1818)
                           - Joseph Lagrange                  (b. 1763 - d. 1836)

Intendant
1806 - Dec 1807            Joseph-Mathias Fririon             (b. 1752 - d. 1821)
President of the Council of ministers
 7 Dec 1807 - 29 Oct 1813  Joseph Jérôme Siméon               (s.a.)


Westphalian Départements 1808-1813

Aller

Prefects
Sep 1810 - Mar 1811         Georg Freiherr von Scheele         (b. 1771 - d. 1849)
1811 - 1813                
Johann August Wilhelm Frantz       (b. 1769 - d. 1852)

Elbe

Prefects
1808 - May 1812             Philip Ernst Alexander Graf von    (b. 1762 - d. 1820)
                              der
Schulenburg-Emden
May 1812 - 1814             Joseph Legras de Bercagny          (b. 1763 - d. 1833)

Fulda

Prefects
Jan 1808 - Jul 1808        August Wilhelm Karl Graf von       (b. 1752 - d. 1824)
                              Hardenberg

25 Jul 1808 - Jun 1812     Georg Johann Gerhard August von    (b. 1771 - d. 1847)
                             Reimann
Jul 1812 - May 1813        Friedrich Freiherr von Reineck
May 1813 - Fall 1813       Joseph Claude Marie Piautaz        (b. 1774 - d. 1825)

Harz

Prefects
Jan 1808 - 26 May 1809     Samuel Gottfried Borsche           (b. 1767 - d. 1821)
Jun 1809 - 19 Sep 1809     August Heinrich Polycarp von
       (b. 1783 - d. 1840)
                             Trott zu Solz            
Sep 1809 - Aug 1813        Burchhard Leberecht von Bülow      (b. 1771 - d. 1816)
Aug 1813 - Nov 1813        August Heinrich Kuhlmeyer          (b. 1781 - d. 1865)

Leine

Prefects
10 Jan 1808 - 25 Oct 1808
  Friedrich Freiherr von Hövel       (b. 1766 - d. 1826)
Oct 1808 - Mar 1811        Johann August Wilhelm Frantz       (b. 1770 - d. 1852)
Apr 1811 - 1813            Daniel Heinrich Delius             (b. 1773 - d. 1832)

Niederelbe (Elbe-Inférieure)

31 Dec 1810 - 1813         Annexed to France.

Prefect
 1 Mar 1810 - 31 Dec 1810  Christian Otto von Schrader

Nord (Elbe-und Weser-Mündung)

31 Dec 1810 - 1813         Annexed to France.

Prefects
1810 - 31 Dec 1810         Heinrich August Meyer

Oker

Prefects
 6 Jan 1808 - 26 Apr 1812  Friedrich Christian Ludwig
        (b. 1748 - d. 1812)
                             Henneberg
May 1812 -  6 Nov 1813     Georg Johann Gerhard August von
   (b. 1771 - d. 1847)
                             Reimann

Saale

Prefects
Jan 1808 - 1813            Wilhelm Christian Gossler          (b. 1756 - d. 1835)

Werra

Prefects
1807 - Oct 1808            Georg Johann Gerhard August von    (b. 1771 - d. 1847)
                             Reimann
Oct 1808 - Aug 1809        Friedrich Ludwig von Berlepsch     (b. 1749 - d. 1818)
Sep 1809 - 1813
           August Heinrich Polycarp von       (b. 1783 - d. 1840)
                             Trott zu Solz      

Weser

 1 Jan 1811 - 1813         Annexed to France.

Prefects
Jan 1808 - 1809            Philipp Franz Wilhelm von Pestel   (b. 1767 - d. 1835)
1809 - 31 Dec 1810         Daniel Heinrich Delius             (b. 1773 - d. 1832)


Wickrath (Wykradt): see Quadt und Wickrath


Wied
 
[Wied (Germany)
                          1462-1784]
                    1462 - 1784
[Wied-Neuwied
                          (Germany) 1784-1806]
                  1784 - 12 Jul 1806

1093                       County of Wied (Grafschaft Wied)
1243 – 1462                Wied united with Isenburg as Isenburg-Wied.
1631                      
Partitioned between itself and Wied-Dierdorf.
1698                       Partitioned between Wied-Neuwied and Wied-Runkel.
29 May 1784                Principality of Wied-Neuwied (Fürstentum Wied-Neuwied)
12 Jul 1806                Annexed to Nassau.
1815                       Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Graf zu Wied)
 3 May 1698 - 17 Sep 1737  Friedrich Wilhelm               (b. 1684 - d. 1737)
17 Sep 1737 - 29 May 1784  Johann Friedrich Alexander      (b. 1706 - d. 1791)
Princes (title Fürst zu Wied in Neuwied)
29 May 1784 -  7 Aug 1791  Johann Friedrich Alexander      (s.a.)
 7 Aug 1791 -  1 Mar 1802  Friedrich Karl                  (b. 1741 - d. 1809)
 1 Mar 1802 - 12 Jul 1806  Johann August Karl              (b. 1779 - d. 1863)


Wied-Runkel

[Principality of Wied-Runkel]

1698                       County of Wied-Runkel (Grafschaft Wied-Runkel).
29 May 1791
                Principality of Wied-Runkel (Fürstentum Wied-Runkel).
12 Jul 1806                Annexed to Nassau.
1815                       Annexed to Prussia.

Counts (title Graf zu Wied)
1698 - 19 Dec 1706         Maximilian Heinrich             (b. 1681 - d. 1706)
19 Dec 1706 - 18 May 1762  Johann Ludwig Adolf             (b. 1705 - d. 1762)
18 May 1762 - 29 May 1791  Christian Ludwig                (b. 1732 - d. 1791)
Princes (title Fürst zu Wied-Runkel)
29 May 1791 - 31 Oct 1791  Christian Ludwig                (s.a.)
31 Oct 1791 - 12 Jul 1806
 Karl Ludwig Friedrich Alexander (b. 1763 - d. 1824)



Wismar
 
[Wismar
                          6-striped 1700 and 1750 (Mecklenburg-Hither
                          Pomerania, Germany)]
                 Wismar City Flag 
[Flag of Sweden]
       12 Jan 1632 - 19 Aug 1803

1229                       Wismar received its civic rights in Mecklenburg.
1356 - 15th cent.          Wismar a member of Hanseatic League.
12 Jan 1632                Occupied by Sweden.
24 Oct 1648                Swedish possession confirmed by the Treaty of Westphalia as
                             City and Lordship of Wismar (Stadt und Herrschaft Wismar).
14 Dec 1675 - 23 Nov 1680  Danish occupation.
20 Apr 1716 - 12 Aug 1719  Danish occupation.
12 Aug 1719 -  1 Mar 1721  Hanoverian occupation.
14 Apr 1802                The tribunal of Wismar is replaced by that of Stralsund.
26 Jun 1803                Mortgaged to Mecklenburg-Schwerin, under a 100 year lease under
                             Swedish sovereignty, by Treaty of Malmö.
19 Aug 1803                Wismar handed over to Mecklenburg-Schwerin
 4 Aug 1903                Sweden renounces all rights to Wismar.
22 Aug 1903                Definitive incorporation into Mecklenburg-Schwerin/Germany.

Lords
24 Oct 1648 - 19 Aug 1803  the kings of Sweden
Swedish Commandants
12 Jan 1632 - 1633         Erik Eriksson Ryning                 (b. 1592 - d. 1654)
1633                       Wilhelm von Calcheim gen. Lohausen   (b. 1584 - d. 1640) 
1633                       Bilefelt
1633 - 1636                Wilhelm von Salzburg
1636 - 15 Feb 1641         Jon Pedersson Lilliesparre af        (b. 1595 - d. 1641)
                             Fylleskog
15 Feb 1641 - Mar 1652     Erik Hansson Ulfsparre af Borxvik    (b. 1599 - d. 1652)
                             (acting to 30 Aug 1641)
Mar 1652 - May 1653        Joachim von Volckmann (1st time)     (b. 1608 - d. 1662)
May 1653 - 1654            Göran (Jürgen) Paijkull              (b. 1605 - d. 1657)
1654 - 1655                Joachim von Volckmann (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1655 - 1656                Jerfeldt (acting)
1656 - 1657                Berndt Taube (acting)                (b. 1592 - d. 1666)
Swedish governors
1657 - Nov 1661            Conrad von Marderfelt (Mardefelt)    (b. c.1610 - d. 1688)
                             (1st time)
1661 - 1663                ....
1663 - 1664                Antonius von Steinberg               (d. 1675)
Sep 1664 - 1668            Conrad von Marderfelt (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1668 - Aug 1674            Vacant
 4 Aug 1674 - 1675         Carl Gustaf Wrangel af Salmis        (b. 1613 - d. 1676)
Danish governors
14 Dec 1675 - 1677         Hans Walter                          (b. 1618 - d. 1677)
19 Jan 1677 - Jun 1679     Johan Vogt
14 Jun 1679 - 1679         Johan Anton Elnberger                (b. 1637 - d. 1695)
Swedish governors
1679 - 30 Jul 1680         Otto Johann Grothusen (Grotthuss)    (b. 1655 - d. 1697)
                             (1st time)
1680 - 1681                Otto Wilhelm greve Königsmarck von   (b. 1639 - d. 1688)
                             Stegeholm und Westerwik 
27 May 1681 - 1683         Bernhard Christian Wangelin          (d. 1686)
25 May 1683 - 1689         Otto Johann Grothusen (2nd time)     (s.a.)
28 Feb 1690 -  3 Jun 1693  Fredrik von Buchwaldt                (b. 1628 - d. 1693)
13 Jun 1693 - 1696         Jürgen greve Mellin                  (b. 1633 - d. 1713)
20 Aug 1696 - 1698         Nils Carlsson greve Gyllenstierna    (b. 1648 - d. 1720)
                             af Fogelvik 
14 Jul 1698 - 25 Apr 1701  Bernhard von Liewen                  (b. 1651 - d. 1703)
25 Apr 1701 - 1704         Magnus Palmquist (acting)            (b. 1660 - d. 1729)
 9 Jan 1704 - 1709         Hans Isak Ridderhielm                (b. 16.. - d. 1709)
1709 - 1710                Nils Posse (acting)
19 Mar 1710 - Aug 1710     Mauritz greve Vellingk               (b. 1651 - d. 1727)
30 Aug 1710 - Jan/Feb 1712 Hans Reinhold Johan von Fersen       (b. 1683 - d. 1736)
1712 - end 1712            Ernst Detlof von Krassow (acting)    (b. 1660-  d. 1714)
13 May 1713 - 1714         Gustaf Adam Taube af Kudding         (b. 1673 - d. 1732)
1715 - 1716                Martin Schoultz von Ascheraden       (b. 1660 - d. 1730)
                             (acting)
20 Apr 1716 - 1719?        Mogens Krag -Danish governor         (b. 1673 - d. 1724)
Hanoverian Oberlanddrost
12 Aug 1719 -  1 Mar 1721  Joachim Friedrich von Löhe
Commandants
11 Dec 1720 - 1724         Johan Karlsson
1724 -  2 Oct 1736         Johan Svanfelt                       (d. 1736)
1736 - 17..                Weismantel
1762 - Dec 1771            Johan von Böhnen                     (b. 1726 - d. 1775)
21 Jun 1773 - 1802         Karl Ludvig von Hintzenstern         (b. 1736 - d. 1811)
 7 Oct 1799 - Apr 1802     Nils Anton Augustin Barck -Governor  (b. 1760 - d. 1822)
1802 - 19 Aug 1803         Vacant

Tribunal Presidents
1685 - 1710                Johan Scheringsson Rosenhane         (b. 1642 - d. 1710) 
1710 - 1719                Gustaf von Faltzburg                 (b. 1650 - d. 1719) 
1719 - 1721                Cordt Balthasar von Tessin (acting)  (b. 1652 - d. 1726)
 4 Jan 1721 - 19 Mar 1721  Ludwig Fahlström                     (b. 1655 - d. 1721)
1722 - 1727                Fredrik Christoffer Dohna            (b. 1664 - d. 1727)  
1727 - 26 Sep 1732         Johan Lillienstedt                   (b. 1655 - d. 1732)
1733 - 1763                Moritz Ulrich von Putbus             (b. 1699 - d. 1769)
1763 - 1769                Jacob Philip von Schwerin            (b. 1719 - d. 1779) 
1769 -  7 Mar 1782         Carl Otto von Höpken                 (b. 1715 - d. 1782)
1782 - 1799                Thure Leonhard Klinckowström         (b. 1735 - d. 1821)
 7 Oct 1799 - Apr 1802     Nils Anton August Barck              (s.a.)


Wittgenstein: see Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg


Worms

614                        Bishopric of Worms (Hochstift Worms)
 9 Mar 1801                Territories east of the Rhine annexed to France.
27 Apr 1803                Remaining territories west of the Rhine annexed
                             to Hesse-Darmstadt.
1815                       Former French areas annexed by Hesse-Darmstadt.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Worms)
 8 Jun 1694 - 18 Apr 1732  Franz Ludwig Pfalzgraf am Rhein zu      (b. 1664 - d. 1732)
                             Neuburg
17 Jun 1732 - 18 Jan 1756  Franz Georg Graf von Schönborn          (b. 1682 - d. 1756)
18 Jan 1756 -  4 Jun 1763  Johann Friedrich Karl Graf von Ostein   (b. 1689 - d. 1763)
20 Jul 1763 - 12 Jan 1768  Johann Philipp Graf von Waldendorff     (b. 1701 - d. 1768)
 1 Mar 1768 - 11 Jul 1774  Emmerich Joseph Freiherr von Breidbach  (b. 1707 - d. 1774)
                             zu Bürresheim
26 Jul 1774 -  4 Jul 1802  Friedrich Karl Joseph Freiherr von      (b. 1719 - d. 1802)
                             Erthal
25 Jul 1802 - 27 Apr 1803  Karl Theodor Freiherr von Dalberg       (b. 1744 - d. 1817)



Württemberg
 

[Württemberg
                          merchant flag 18th cent - c.1805]
        18h cent - c.1805 Merchant flag
[Württemberg Civil flag
                          c.1805-1817]
               c.1805 - 30 Dec 1817
[Württemberg
                          Flag 1817-1918 (Germany)]
             30 Dec 1817 - 1918 Civil flag
Map of Württemburg Hear National Anthem
"Württemberg hymne"
(Württemberg Hymn)
Text of National Anthem
(to 1918)
Constitution
(25 Sep 1819; in German)
Capital: Stuttgart
Population: 2,300,000 (1905)

c.1083                     Lordship (style Herrschaft Württemberg).
1135                       County of Württemberg (Grafschaft Württemberg).
21 Jul 1495                Duchy of Württemberg (Herzogtum Württemberg).
15 Oct 1519 -  6 Feb 1520  Incorporated into Swabian League (Schwäbischer Bund).
29 Apr 1803                The ruler is made into a prince-elector and the polity is
                             styled Electorate of Württemberg (Kurfürstentum Württemberg).
 1 Jan 1806                Kingdom of Württemberg (Königreich Württemberg).
30 Nov 1918                People's State of Württemberg (see German states since 1918).

Dukes (title Herzog von Württemberg und Teck)
 3 Jul 1677 - 31 Oct 1733  Eberhard Ludwig                    (b. 1676 - d. 1733)
 3 Jul 1677 - 1693         Friedrich Karl zu Winnental -Regent(b. 1652 - d. 1698)
31 Oct 1733 - 12 Mar 1737  Karl Alexander                     (b. 1684 - d. 1737)
12 Mar 1737 - 24 Oct 1793  Karl Eugen                         (b. 1728 - d. 1793)
 3 Mar 1737 - 1738         Karl Rudolf Herzog von Württemberg (b. 1667 - d. 1742)
                             -Neustadt -Regent
1738 - 1744                Karl Friedrich Herzog von          (b. 1690 - d. 1761)
                             Öls -Regent
24 Oct 1793 - 20 May 1795  Ludwig Eugen                       (b. 1731 - d. 1795)
20 May 1795-22/23Dec 1797  Friedrich Eugen                    (b. 1732 - d. 1797)
23 Dec 1797 - 29 Apr 1803  Friedrich II                       (b. 1754 - d. 1816)
Duke and Elector (title Herzog von Württemberg und Teck, Erzpannerträger und Kurfürst
des Heiligen Römischen Reiches - Duke of Württemberg and Teck, Archbannerbearer and
prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire)
29 Apr 1803 -  1 Jan 1806  Friedrich II                       (s.a.)
Kings (title König von Württemberg)
 1 Jan 1806 - 30 Oct 1816  Friedrich I                        (s.a.)
30 Oct 1816 - 25 Jun 1864  Wilhelm I                          (b. 1781 - d. 1864)
25 Jun 1864 -  6 Oct 1891  Karl I                             (b. 1823 - d. 1891)
 6 Oct 1891 - 30 Nov 1918  Wilhelm II                         (b. 1848 - d. 1921)

Chairmen of the Privy Council
1654 - 1666                Wolfgang Georg von Castell         (b. 1610 - d. 1668)
1667 - 1677                Christoph von Manteuffel zu        (b. 1622 - d. 1688)
                             Arnhausen              
1677 - 1693                ....
1693 - 1696                Joachim Rüdiger von Ostien         (d. 1699)
                             (Owstien)    
1696 - 1698                Johann Georg von Kulpis            (b. 1652 - d. 1698)
1698 - 1706                Johann Friedrich Freiherr von      (b. 1653 - d. 1730)
                             Staffhorst
1706 - 1708                Friedrich Maximilian von           (b. 1635 - d. 1708)
                             Mentzingen
1709 - 1717                Georg Wilhelm von Reischach        (b. 1673 - d. 1724)
1717 - 1730                Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von         (b. 1679 - d. 1755) 
                             Graevenitz
Nov 1730 - May 1735        Christoph Peter von Forstner
                             (1st time)
1736 - 1737                Johann Theodor Scheffler
 1 Feb 1737 - Mar 1738     Christoph Peter von Forstner
                             (2nd time)
1739 - 18 Feb 1750         Georg Bernard Bilfinger            (b. 1693 - d. 1750)
1750 - 24 Jun 1755         Friedrich August von Hardenberg    (b. 1701 - d. 1768)
1755 - 1758                ....
1758 - 19 May 1763         Ferdinand Reinhard Wolfgang        (b. 1701 - d. 1770) 
                             Freiherr von Wallbrunn
State Ministers
1763 - 1766                Friedrich Samuel Graf von          (b. 1712 - d. 1778) 
                             Montmartin
1766 - 1777                Duke Karl Eugen                    (s.a.)
1777 - 21 Aug 1799         Friedrich Emich Johann von Uxküll- (b. 1724 - d. 1810)
                             Gyllenband                      
                           - jointly with -
1777 - Aug 1792            Eberhard von Kniestedt             (b. 1725 - d. 1794)
1799 - 1801                Johann Karl Graf von Zeppelin      (b. 1767 - d. 1801)
28 Oct 1801 -  9 Jan 1804  Georg Ernst Levin Graf von         (b. 1752 - d. 1834)
                             Wintzingerode
First Ministers
 9 Jan 1804 -  4 Dec 1807  Georg Ernst Levin Graf von         (s.a.)
                             Wintzingerode (1st time)
 4 Dec 1807 - 12 Feb 1812  Karl August Ludwig Graf von Taube  (b. 1772 - d. 1816)
12 Feb 1812 -  7 Aug 1814  Ferdinand Ludwig Graf von Zeppelin (s.a.)
                             (1st time) 
 7 Aug 1814 - 10 Nov 1816  Georg Ernst Levin Graf von         (s.a.)
                             Wintzingerode (2nd time)
10 Nov 1816 - 1819         Ferdinand Ludwig Graf von Zeppelin (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
President of the Privy Council
18 Nov 1817 - 29 Jul 1821  Hans Otto Freiherr von der Lühe    (b. 1761 - d. 1836)
Minister-presidents
29 Jul 1821 - 15 Nov 1831  Christian Friedrich von Otto       (b. 1758 - d. 1836)
15 Nov 1831 -  9 Mar 1848  Paul Friedrich Theodor Eugen       (b. 1783 - d. 1859)
                             Reichsfreiherr von Maucler
 9 Mar 1848 - 28 Oct 1849  Friedrich von Römer                (b. 1794 - d. 1864)
28 Oct 1849 -  2 Jul 1850  Johannes von Schlayer              (b. 1792 - d. 1860)
 2 Jul 1850 - 21 Sep 1864  Joseph Freiherr von Linden         (b. 1804 - d. 1895)
21 Sep 1864 - 31 Aug 1870  Karl Friedrich Gottlob Freiherr    (b. 1809 - d. 1889)
                             von Varnbüler von und zu Hemmingen
31 Aug 1870 -  9 Jan 1871  Adolf Graf von Taube (acting)      (b. 1810 - d. 1899)
 9 Jan 1871 - 31 Jul 1876  Johann August Freiherr von Wächter (b. 1807 - d. 1879)
31 Jul 1876 - 10 Nov 1900  Hermann von Mittnacht              (b. 1825 - d. 1909)
                             (from 1887, Hermann Freiherr von Mittnacht)
10 Nov 1900 - 15 Apr 1901  Max Freiherr Schott von            (b. 1836 - d. 1917)
                             Schottenstein 
15 Apr 1901 -  4 Dec 1906  Wilhelm August von Breitling       (b. 1835 - d. 1914)
 4 Dec 1906 -  9 Nov 1918  Karl von Weizsäcker                (b. 1853 - d. 1926)  DP-W
                            (from 5 Oct 1916, Karl Freiherr von
                             Weizsäcker)                
 9 Nov 1918 - 11 Nov 1918  Theodor Liesching                  (b. 1865 - d. 1922)  FVP


Party abbreviations: DP-W = Deutsche Partei - Württemberg (Württemberg nationalist, conservative, 1866-1918); FVP = Fortschrittlichen Volkspartei (Progressive People's Party, social-democratic, 1910-1918)



Würzburg
 
[Würzburg
                          bishopric to 1802 (Germany)]
                       to  1802
[Würzburg
                          1806-1814 (Germany)]
                      1806 - 1814

 1 Apr 741                 Bishopric of Würzburg (Hochstift Würzburg)
1168                       Bishops also nominally Dukes of Eastern 
                             Franconia.
29 Nov 1802                Annexed to Bavaria.
26 Dec 1805                Electorate of Würzburg (Kurfürstentum Würzburg)
26 Sep 1806                Grand Duchy of Würzburg (Grossherzogtum Würzburg)
 1 May 1814                Incorporated into Bavaria.

Duke-Bishops (title Herzogbischof zu Würzburg und Herzog von Franken)
 9 Feb 1699 -  3 Aug 1719  Johann Philipp II Freiherr von     (b. 1652 - d. 1719)
                             Greifenclau zu Vollraths
18 Sep 1719 - 18 Aug 1724  Johann Philipp III Franz Graf      (b. 1673 - d. 1724)
                             von Schönborn
 2 Oct 1724 - 25 Mar 1729  Christoph Franz Freiherr von       (b. 1673 - d. 1729)
                             Hutten
18 May 1729 - 26 Jul 1746  Friedrich Karl Graf von            (b. 1674 - d. 1746)
                             Schönborn
29 Aug 1746 -  9 Feb 1749  Anselm Franz Graf von Ingelheim    (b. 1683 - d. 1749) 
14 Apr 1749 - 25 Nov 1754  Karl Philipp Freiherr von          (b. 1690 - d. 1754)
                             Greifenclau zu Vollraths
 7 Jan 1755 - 18 Feb 1779  Adam Friedrich Graf von Seinsheim  (b. 1708 - d. 1779)
18 Mar 1779 - 14 Feb 1795  Franz Ludwig Freiherr von Erthal   (b. 1730 - d. 1795)
12 Mar 1795 - 29 Nov 1802  Georg Karl Ignaz Freiherr von
                             Fechenbach zu Laudenbach         (b. 1749 - d. 1808)
Elector (title Kurfürst von Würzburg)
26 Dec 1805 - 25 Sep 1806  Ferdinand Joseph Johann Baptist
                             von Österreich                   (b. 1769 - d. 1824)
Grand Duke (title Grossherzog von Würzburg)
25 Sep 1806 -  1 May 1814  Ferdinand Joseph Johann Baptist 
                             von Österreich                   (s.a.)


Zehngerichtebund (League of the Ten Jurisdictions): see Swiss Cantons
Zug: see Swiss Cantons

Zürich: see Swiss Cantons

Zweibrücken: see Palatinate-Zweibrücken

Zwiefalten

1089                       Benedictine Abbey of Zwiefalten (Stift Zwiefalten).
1750                       Becomes an Imperial abbey (Reichsstft).
28 Nov 1802                Secularized and annexed to Württemberg.

Abbots (title Äbt zu Zwiefalten)
1699 -  2 Apr 1715         Wolfgang Schmidt                 (b. 16.. - d. 1715)
1715 - 1725                Beda Sommerberger                (b. 1680 - d. 1737)
1725 - 22 May 1744         Augustin Stegmüller              (b. 1666 - d. 1744)
1744 - 1750                Benedikt Mauz                    (d. 1765)
Abbots (title Reichsabt zu Zwiefalten)

1750 - 18 Jul 1765         Benedikt Mauz                    (s.a.)
1765 - 12 Feb 1787         Nikolaus II Schmidler            (b. 1727 - d. 1787)
1787 - 1802                Gregor Weinemer                  (b. 1738 - d. 1816)








© Ben Cahoon