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Ukraine
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
1697 - 22 Jan 1918
 
[Ukrainian People's Republic
                                    (non-communist) flag 1917-1918
                                    (Ukraine)]
20 Nov 1917 - 27 Jan 1918 Non-Communist Ukraine
 
[Ukrainian
                                    People's Republic 1918-1920 and
                                    Ukrainian State 1918 (non-communist)
                                    flag (Ukraine)]
27 Jan 1918 - 22 Nov 1920 Non-Communist Ukraine
 
[Ukrainian People's Republic
                                    (communist) flag 1917-1919
                                    (Ukraine)]
26 Dec 1917 - 14 Mar 1919 Communist Ukraine
 
[Flag
                                    of Ukrainian SSR 1919-1937 (USSR)]
14 Mar 1919 - 30 Jan 1937 Communist Ukraine
 
[Flag of
                                    USSR 1923-1991]
30 Dec 1922 - 25 Dec 1991
 
[Flag of
                                    Ukrainian SSR 1949-1992 (USSR)]
24 Aug 1991 - 28 Jan 1992
 
[Ukraine flag]
Adopted 18 Sep 1991
(co-National flag to 28 Jan 1992)
 

Map of Ukraine Hear National Anthem
"Shche ne vmerla Ukrayina"
(Ukraine has not Perished) 
Text of National Anthem
(1917-1920 unofficial non-communist)
Adopted 5 Dec 1991
Constitution
  (28 Jun 1996)
Capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)
Currency: Hryvnya (UAH);
1992-96 Karbovanets' (UAK);
1918-23 and 1991-92 Russian Ruble (RUR); 1918-19

Hryvnya
(UAH)
1918 &
1919-20 Karbovanets'
National Holiday:
24 Aug  (1991)

Independence Day
Population: 43,922,939 (2019)
25,000,000 (
Ukrainian State
1918 est.)
GDP: $369.6 billion (2017) Exports: $39.69 billion (2017)
Imports: $49.06 billion (2017)
Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%,
Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian
 0.3%,
Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 129,925 (2010)
60,000 (Nov. 1918)
Ukrainian Red Army 188,000 (1919)

Former Nuclear Power: 5,000 weapons (1991-1996)
Merchant marine: 408 ships (2019)
Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate 50.4%, Ukrainian
 Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate 26.1%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic
 8%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 7.2%, Roman Catholic
 2.2%, Protestant 2.2%, Jewish 0.6%, none and other 3.2% (2006)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (observer), AG, ANT (consultative), APM, BSEC, BTWC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN (associate), CFE, CICA (observer), CTBT, CWC, DC, EAPC, EBRD, EITI, ENMOD, ESA (cooperating state), ESCR, Euratom (associate), Eutelsat, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MTCR, NAM (observer), NSG, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, OST, PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Ukraine Index
Chronology
               
c.862 - 19 May 1389        Part of the Grand Principality of Rus' (later
                             referred to as Kievan Rus' [Kiyevskaya Rus']
                             by historians), ruled by the Ryurikovich
                             (Rurikid) dynasty. The dynasty follows agnatic
                             seniority, and in 1054, divides into three
                             branches on the basis of descent from three
                             successive ruling Grand Princes - Izyaslav
                             Yaroslavich (I) (1024-1078), Svyatoslav 
                             Yaroslavich (II)(1027-1076), and Vsevolod
                             Yaroslavich (I) (1030-1093).
988                        Grand Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich (I)(b. c.958
                             - d. 1015) converts to (Orthodox) Christianity
1096                       Cuman-Kipchak (Kypchak) attack Kiev.
1097                       Council of Lyubech amends the succession rule
                             and divides Rus' into several regional
                             autonomous principalities that had equal
                             rights to obtain the throne in Kiev.
12 Mar 1169                Kiev sacked by the forces of Andrey Yuryevich
                             (I) Bogolyubskiy of Vladimir-Suzdal'
                             (b. c.1111 - d. 1174). The seat of the Grand
                             Prince is moved to Vladimir (see under Russia)
 8 Sep 1173                Kiev sacked by the forces of Svyatoslav
                             Vsevolodovich (III) of Chernigov.
1201                       Kiev captured by Roman Mstislavich (I) of
                            
Galich-Volynia.
 2 Jan 1203                Kiev captured and sacked by Ryurik Rostislavich
                             (II) and his Cuman-Kipchak (Kypchak) allies.
Dec 1237/Feb 1241          The Mongols subdue most of the regional
                             principalities of Rus'(Kiev itself being
                             sacked and destroyed on 6 Dec 1240).
1299                       Metropolitan Maksim (d. 1305) moves the seat of
                             the Orthodox Metropolitanate of Rus' from Kiev
                             to Vladimir (in modern day Russia).
1340/1362                  Northern Ukraine becomes part of Lithuania
                            (from 1340 Volhynia; Chernigov and Novgorod-
                             Severskiy 1355; Pereyaslavl' and Kiev in 1362)
1471                       Kiev voivodeship created within Lithuania which
                             formally ends Kiev's local autonomy.
 1 Jul 1569                By the Union of Lublin, joining Poland and
                             Lithuania, Ukrainian lands are transferred
                             from Lithuania to Poland.
 2 May 1648                Hetmanate rebellion against Poland begins.
17 Aug 1649                In the Treaty of Zboriv (Zborów) recognized by
                             Poland as an autonomous Hetmanate (see below),
                             later retrospectively referred to by historians
                             as the "Ukrainian Cossack Republic."
 6 Apr 1654                Hetmanate under Russian sovereignty by the
                             Treaty of Pereyaslav (signed 8/18 Jan 1654).
 6 Sep 1658                Under Polish sovereignty by the Treaty of 
                             Hadiach (Hadyach/Gadyach).
17 Jun 1663                Split in the pro-Russian Left-Bank Hetmanate 
                             (east of the Dnieper River) and the pro-Polish
                             Right-Bank Hetmanate (west of the Dnieper).
 9 Feb 1667                In Treaty of Andrusovo, Hetmanate provisionally 
                             partitioned between Poland and Russia. Russia 
                             obtains Left-Bank Ukraine (including Kiev and 
                             Zaporozhia Sich), in Russian official usage
                             always the Little Russia, Poland retains the
                             Right-Bank (partition is confirmed by the
                             'Eternal' Peace of 6 May 1686).
27 Aug 1672 - 22 Sep 1699  Podolia, Bratslav, and part of Kiev provinces
                             occupied (and eventually annexed) by the
                             Ottoman Empire.
Jun 1699                   Right-Bank Hetmanate abolished by Poland.
17 Nov 1764                Hetmanate fully incorporated into Russia.
18 Sep 1793/24 Oct 1795    Polish parts of Ukraine are annexed by Russia
                             in the Second and Third Partitions of the 
                             Poland-Lithuania.
24 Jan 1905 - May 1906     Local rebellions part of Russian Revolution of
                             1905, the Soviets (Councils) of Workers'
                             Deputies were elected and rebellions attempted
                             late 1905 - early 1906 in Aleksandrovsk (modern
                             Zaporizhzhya), Gorlovka, Kharkov, Kiev,
                             Yekaterinoslav (modern Dnipro), Yuzovka (modern
                             Donets'k).
20 Nov 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic (non-Communist)
                             proclaimed.
23 Dec 1917                Soviet Russian occupation of Khar'kov (Kharkiv).
25 Dec 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets
                             established in Khar'kov (Kharkiv) as a
                             (Communist) counter-government, part of a
                             federal Soviet Russian republic.
22 Jan 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic (non-Communist) 
                             declares independence from Russia.
 9 Feb 1918 -  1 Mar 1918  Soviet Russian occupation of Kiev (Kyyiv)(the
                             non-Communist government moves to Zhitomir
                             (Zhytomyr], the Soviet troops occupy Poltava
                             on 19 Jan 1918, Kamenets-Podol'skiy
                             [Kam'yanets'-Podil's'kyy] on 21 Jan 1918,
                             Chernigov [Chernihiv] on 1 Feb 1918, and
                             Zhitomir on 12 Feb 1918).
 1 Mar 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  German and Austro-Hungarian occupation (by
                             agreement of 9 Feb 1918); Germans in Zhitomir
                             (24 Feb), Kiev (1 Mar), Chernigov
                             (12 Mar), Poltava (30 Mar), Khar'kov (8 Apr),
                             in Crimea (22 Apr); Austrians in Kamenets-
                             Podol'skiy (28 Feb), and Odessa (13 Mar),
                             Yekaterinoslav ((modern Dnipro)(4 Apr 1918).
                             Germany occupies the former Kiev Military
                             District (and Crimea), while Austria-Hungary
                             occupies former Odessa Military District
                             (minus Crimea) .
 3 Mar 1918                Independence of Ukraine recognized by Russian
                             S.F.S.R. in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
                             (annulled by Soviet Russia 13 Nov 1918).
19 Mar 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets (Communist)
                             declares independence as Ukrainian Soviet
                             Republic, subordinated to Russian S.F.S.R.
18 Apr 1918 - 28 Nov 1918  Communist authorities dissolved and exiled
                             following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and
                             the fall of Lugansk (Luhans'k) to the Germans.
29 Apr 1918                Ukrainian State (under German and Austro-
                             Hungarian occupation), replacing the People's
                             Republic.
28 Nov 1918                (Communist) Provisional Workers' and Peasants'
                             Government of Ukraine established (in Soviet
                             Russia exile).
14 Dec 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic (non-communist)
                             restored in Kiev, in rebellion against the
                             Ukrainian State from 16 Nov 1918 in Belaya
                             Tserkov' (Bila Tserkva).
18 Dec 1918 -  8 Apr 1919  Allied (France) Powers occupation of Odessa.
 5 Jan 1919                Soviet Russian intervention (from 3 Jan 1919
                             in Khar'kov [Kharkiv], 12 Jan 1919 Chernigov
                             [Chernihiv], 18 Jan 1919 Poltava and 27 Jan
                             1919 in Yekaterinoslav [Katerynoslav]).
 5 Feb 1919                Soviet Russian forces occupy Kiev (followed by
                             occupation of Zhitomir on 12 Apr 1919).
10 Mar 1919                Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic (name adopted
                             already 6 Jan 1919), sovereignty and (nominal)
                             independence declared.
21 Apr 1919 -  3 Jun 1919  Soviet Russia occupies Kamenets-Podolskiy
                             (Kam'yanets'-Podil's'kyy), regained by the
                             Ukrainian People's Republic (seat of government
                             from 6 Jun 1919).
 2 Sep 1919 - 16 Dec 1919  "White" Russian Armed Forces in the South of
                             Russia under Anton Denikin occupies Kiev (Kiev
                             oblast created) and most of Ukraine (in
                             Odessa 24 Aug 1919 - 7 Feb 1920).
17 Nov 1919                Poland occupied Kamenets-Podol'skiy, the
                             government of the Ukrainian People's Republic
                             allowed to remain there, but without
                             independent territory.
12 Dec 1919                Soviet Russia occupies Khar'kov (Kharkiv); Kiev
                            (Kyyiv) 16 Dec 1919, Odessa (Odesa) 7 Feb 1920.
 7 May 1920 - 13 Jul 1920  Poland and (non-communist) Ukrainian forces
                             occupy Kiev (Polish troops also occupied
                             Zhitomir 26 Apr 1920 – 7 Jul 1920).
12 Jul 1920 – 19 Sep 1920  Soviet troops occupied Kamenets-Podol'skiy
                             (again from 16 Nov 1920).
22 Nov 1920                Ukrainian People's Republic, which is
                             intermittently absent from the national
                             territory from 16 Jul 1920, holds its last
                             last session on Ukrainian soil.
30 Dec 1922                Founding component of the Soviet Union.
 5 Dec 1936                Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
17-22 Sep 1939             Western regions occupied and, from 1 Nov 1939,
                             annexed by Soviet Union (part of Ukrainian
                             S.S.R.)(previously part of Poland 1920-1939).
22 Jun 1941                German invasion begins (Rivne occupied on 28 Jun
                             1941, L'viv 30 Jun 1941, Kiev on 19 Sep 1941
                             Kharkiv 24 Oct 1941, Voroshilovgrad [Luhans'k]
                             on 17 Jul 1942).
 5 Jul 1941 - 12 Jul 1941  Ukrainian State declared restored at L'viv,
                             terminated by German occupation forces.
 1 Aug 1941                Eastern Galicia made the district of Galicia
                             in the General Government.
 3 Aug 1941 - 10 Apr 1944  Ukraine between the Dniester and Bug Rivers,
                             including Odessa, occupied but not annexed to
                             Romania (see Transnitria).
 1 Sep 1941 - 25 Feb 1944  German occupied Ukraine organized as the
                             Reichskommissariat Ukraine. Eastern Ukraine
                             and Crimea remain under German military rule.
Jan 1943 - 28 Oct 1944     Soviet re-occupation of Ukraine (Voroshilovgrad
                            [Luhans'k] 14 Feb 1943, Kharkiv liberated 23
                             Aug 1943, Stalino [Donets'k] on 8 Sep 1943,
                             Kiev 6 Nov 1943, Rivne 2 Feb 1944, Kherson 13
                             Mar 1944, Odessa 10 Apr 1944, L'viv 26 Jul
                             1944, and Uzhgorod 28 Oct 1944).
19 Feb 1954                Crimea transferred from Russian S.F.S.R. to
                             Ukrainian S.S.R
26 Apr 1986                Chernobyl' (Chornobyl') nuclear plant disaster.
16 Jul 1990                Declaration of state sovereignty.
24 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence (Ukraine)
                             (ratified by referendum on 1 Dec 1991).
26 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of the 
                             Soviet Union).
21 Mar 2014                Russia annexes Crimea (not recognized by Ukraine).
12 May 2014                Donetsk and Lugansk proclaim independence
                             (not recognized by Ukraine).
Ukraine
(since 1991)
Ukraine Admin.
Divisions
Crimea
Rus'
(c.862-1169)
Hetmanate
(1648-1775)
Kiev and Podolia
governorates

(1782-1914,1919)
Non-Communist
Ukraine

(1917-1920)
Communist
Ukraine and
Ukrainian S.S.R.
(1917-1991)
Ukraine in Exile
(1920-1992)
Makhnovist Forces
(1919-1921)

Odessa Region
(1783-1920)
Kharkov and
Donetsk Regions
(1780-1918, 1919)
Central Powers Occupation
(1918)
Reichskommissariat
Ukraine

(1941-1944)
Transnistria
(1941-1944)
Galicia
(1772-1918, 1920)
Western Ukraine
(1918-1919)
Komancha
(1918-1919)
Galician Soviet
Republic

(1920)
Lemko-Rusyn
(1918-1920)

Podolia (Podole)
(1672-1699)
Bukovina
(1774-1918,
1941-1944)
Subcarpathia
(Transcarpathia)
(1918-1946)
Hutsul
(1918-1919)
Genoese Caffa
and Gazaria
(1266-1475)
Ukrainian
Republic of

the Far East

(1918-1922)
Donetsk People's
Republic
(2014-)
Lugansk People's
Republic
(2014-)
Orthodox Church
of Ukraine
Ukrainian Greek
Catholic Church
Map of
Administrative
Divisions
Historical Maps
of Ukraine
 
Kievan Rus

c.862                      Grand Principality of Rus' (later referred to as Kievan Rus'
                             [Kiyevskaya Rus'] by historians), ruled by the Ryurikovich
                             (Rurikid) dynasty. The dynasty follows agnatic seniority,
                             and in 1054, divides into three branches on the basis of descent
                             from three successive ruling Grand Princes - Izyaslav
                             Yaroslavich (I) (1024-1078), Svyatoslav Yaroslavich (II)
                             (1027-1076), and Vsevolod Yaroslavich (I) (1030-1093).
                             established first at Novgorod, then from 882 at Kiev.
988                        Grand Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich (I) (b. c.958 - d. 1015)
                             converts to (Orthodox) Christianity.
1096                       Cuman-Kipchak (Kypchak) attack Kiev.
1097                       Council of Lyubech amends the succession rule and divides Kievan
                             Rus' into several regional autonomous principalities that had
                             equal rights to obtain the throne in Kiev.
1157                       Grand Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal' (originally Rostov-Suzdal')
                             within the Grand Principality of Rus', with its capital at
                             Rostov-Suzdal' and later Vladimir.
12 Mar 1169                Kiev sacked by the forces of Andrey Yuryevich (I) "Bogolyubskiy"
                             of Vladimir-Suzdal' (b. c.1111 - d. 1174).  The seat of the
                             Grand Prince is moved to Vladimir-Suzdal' (see under Russia).
 8 Sep 1173                Kiev sacked by the forces of Prince Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich (III)
                             of Chernigov.
1201                       Kiev captured by Roman Mstislavich (I) of Galich-Volynia.
 2 Jan 1203                Kiev captured and sacked by Ryurik Rostislavich (II) and
                             his Cuman-Kipchak (Kypchak) allies.
Dec 1237/Feb 1241          The Mongols subdue most of the regional principalities of Rus'
                             (Kiev itself being sacked and destroyed on 6 Dec 1240).

Princes
of Rus'
(title Knyaz')
c.862 - c.879              Rurik (Riurik)                     (b. 83. - d. 879)
c.879 - 882                Oleg "Veshchiy" ("the Seer")       (b. 85. - d. 912)
Grand Princes of Rus' (title Velikiy knyaz')
882 - 912                  Oleg "Veshchiy"                    (s.a.
)
912 - 945                  Igor Rurikovich I                  (b. c.878 - d. 945)
945 -
Mar 972              Svyatoslav Igorevich I             (b. 942 - d. 972)
945 - 11 Jul 969           Knyaginya Olga (Yelena)(f) -Regent (b. c.920 - d. 969)
969 - 11 Jun 978           Yaropolk
Svyatoslavich I           (b. 955 - d. 978)
11 Jun 978 - 15 Jul 1015   Vladimir Svyatoslavich I           (b. c.960 - d. 1015)
15 Jul 1015 - 1016         Svyatopolk Vladimirovich I         (b. c.979 - d. 1019)
                             "Okayannyy" ("Accursed")
1016 - 1017                Yaroslav
Vladimirovich I "Mudryy"  (b. c.978 - d. 1054)
                             ("Wise")(1st time) 
1017 - 1019                Svyatopolk
Vladimirovich I         (s.a.)
                             "Okayannyy" (2nd time)
1019 - 1024                Yaroslav
Vladimirovich I (2nd time)(s.a.)
1024                       Mstislav Vladimirovich I "Khrabryy"(b. c.983 - d. 1036)
                             (the Brave)(in rebellion)
1024 - 20 Feb 1054         Yaroslav
Vladimirovich I (3rd time)(s.a.)
20 Feb 1054 - 1068         Izyaslav Yaroslavich I (1st time)  (b. 1024 - d. 1078)
14 Sep 1068 - Apr 1069     Vseslav Bryachislavich             (b. c.1029 - d. 1101)
1069 - 1073                Izyaslav Yaroslavich I (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1073 - 27 Dec 1076         Svyatoslav Yaroslavich II          (b. 1027 - d. 1076)
Dec 1076 - 1077            Vsevolod Yaroslavich I (1st time)  (b. 1030 - d. 1093)
1077 -  3 Oct 1078         Izyaslav I (3rd time)              (s.a.)
1078 -  3 Apr 1093         Vsevolod Yaroslavich I (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Apr 1093 - 16 Apr 1113     Svyatopolk Izyaslavich II          (b. 1050 - d. 1113)
 4 May 1113 - 19 May 1125  Vladimir Vsevolodovich II          (b. 1053 - d. 1125)
                            
"Monomakh"
19 May 1125 - 14 Apr 1132  Mstislav
Vladimirovich II "Velikiy"(b. 1076 - d. 1132)
                             (the Great)
14 Apr 1132 - 18 Feb 1139  Yaropolk
Vladimirovich II          (b. 1082 - d. 1139)
18 Feb 1139 -  4 Mar 1139  Vyacheslav Vladimirovich (1st time)(b. c.1083 - d. 1154)
 5 Mar 1139 -  1 Aug 1146  Vsevolod Olgovich II               (b. c.1094 - d. 1146)
 1 Aug 1146 - Aug 1146     Igor Olgovich II                   (d. 1147)
Aug 1146 - Aug 1149        Izyaslav Mstislavich II (1st time) (b. c.1097 - d. 1154)
Aug 1149 - 1150            Yuri (Georgiy) Vladimirovich       (b. 1090 - d. 1157)
                             "Dolgorukiy" (1st time)
1150                       Izyaslav Mstislavich II (2nd time) (s.a.
)
                           - jointly with -
1150                       Vyacheslav
Vladimirovich (2nd time)(s.a.)
1150 - Jun 1151            Yuri (Georgiy) Vladimirovich       (s.a.)
                             "Dolgorukiy" (2nd time)
Jun 1151 - 13 Nov 1154     Izyaslav Mstislavich II (3rd time)
(s.a.)
                           - jointly with -
Apr 1151 - Dec 1154        Vyacheslav
Vladimirovich (3rd time)(s.a.)
Dec 1154 - 1155            Rostislav Mstislavich (1st time)   (b. c.1108 - d. 1167)
1155 - Mar 1155            Izyaslav Davidovich III (1st time) (d. 1161)
Mar 1155 - 15 May 1157    
Yuri (Georgiy) Vladimirovich       (s.a.)

                             "Dolgorukiy" (3rd time)

1157                       Izyaslav Davidovich III (2nd time) (s.a.)
19 May 1157 - Apr 1159     Mstislav Izyaslavich III (1st time)(b. 1125? - d. 1170)
Apr 1159 - 12 Feb 1161     Rostislav Mstislavich (2nd time)   (s.a.)
12 Feb 1161 -  6 Mar 1161  Isyaslav Davidovich III (3rd time) (s.a.)
 6 Mar 1161 - 14 Mar 1167  Rostislav Mstislavich (3rd time)   (s.a.)
1167 - 1169                Mstislav Izyaslavich III (2nd time)(s.a.)

Hetmanate

[Flag
                            used by the Hetman c.1706 (Ukraine)]
Hetman's Flag c.1706
Map of Hetmanate
Capital (after 1663, of Left-Bank Hetmanate): Chyhyryn (Chigirin) 1648-1663; Hadyach (Gadyach) 1663-1668; Baturyn (Baturin) 1668-1708, 1750-1764; Hlukhiv (Glukhov) 1708-1750, 1764-1773; Kozelets' (Kozelets) 1773-1775; Kiev 1775-1782
Population: 1,027,928
(1762, not including Zaporozhia Sich)
---------------------------
Military: 30,000 (1764)

Constitution
Articles of March (6 Apr 1654, amended several times until 1687); Articles of Resolution (8 Sep 1728)
c.1489                     Southern border areas of the province (voivodship) of Kiev
                             conquered by Lithuania, organized as a military district called
                             the 'Zaporozhian Sich ("Transrapid Fortification" (Zaporoz'ka
                             Sich
) comprised of  Cossacks.
1572                       Cossacks are divided into two entities- the Zaporozhian Host (Urban)
                             (Viys'ko Zaporoz'ke Horodove) of Registered Cossacks, led by a
                             Polish appointed Senior (Starshyy), and the largely independent
                             Zaporozhian Host (Lower) (Viys'ko Zaporoz'ke Nyzove), led by a
                             self-elected Kish Ataman (Koshovyy Otaman), based at Sich, the
                             title Hetman is used occasionally by leaders of both Hosts.
 2 May 1648                Rebellion against Poland-Lithuania begun (Kiev occupied by
                             Cossacks from Jan 1649). 
17 Aug 1649                In the Treaty of Zboriv, recognized by Poland as an autonomous 
                             Hetmanate, retrospectively referred by historians as the
                             "Ukrainian Cossack Republic" (covering Kiev, Bratslav [Bracław]
                             and Chernihiv [Czernihów] voivodships), the Zaporozhian Host
                             (Lower) at Sich included in the Hetmanate.
28 Sep 1651                Bratslav and Chernihiv voivodships restored to Polish administration.
 6 Apr 1654                Under Russian sovereignty by the Treaty of Pereyaslav (signed
                             8/18 Jan 1654).
 6 Sep 1658 - Oct 1659     Under Polish sovereignty by the Treaty of Hadiach (Hadyach/Gadyach),
                             styled the Grand Principality of Ruthenia (the Kings of Poland
                             being the Grand Princes), this move was not recognized by the
                             Zaporozhian Host (Lower) (see below), which effectively separated
                             from Hetmanate.
17 Jun 1663                Hetmanate of Zaporozhian Host is split between the pro-Russian
                             Hetmanate on the Left-Bank (east of the Dnieper River) and the
                             pro-Polish Hetmanate on the Right-Bank (west of the Dnieper River).
31 Jan 1667                In the Treaty of Andrusovo provisionally partitioned between 
                             Poland and Russia. Russia obtained Left-Bank (including Kiev and 
                             Zaporozhia Sich), in Russian official usage always the Little
                             Russia, Poland retained Right-Bank (partition confirmed by the
                             'Eternal' Peace of 6 May 1686).
Mar 1669 - 1698            Right-Bank split into rival pro-Ottoman and pro-Polish camps.
Oct 1670                   Autonomy of Right-Bank Hetmanate ended by Poland.
Jun 1699                   Right-Bank Hetmanate/Host abolished by Poland.
Jun 1704 – Jul 1708        Former Right Bank areas (part of Poland) occupied by Left-Bank
                             Hetmanate.
1708 - 1709                Brief attempt to assert separation from Russia supporting Sweden.
Nov 1708                   Kiev Governorate established by Russia (the governors were charged
                             mostly with military affairs).
Jul 1722 - Sep 1727        Direct Russian administration, in 1722 ceased to be treated by
                             Russia through the Collegium of Foreign Affairs.
Jan 1734 - Jun 1750        Direct Russian administration.
17 Nov 1764                Incorporated into Russia, abolition of Hetman title. Creation
                             of the Little Russia Governorate (Malorosiys'ka [Malorossiyskaya]
                             guberniya) from former Kiev Governorate.
Nov 1781                   Liquidation of the remaining structure of the Hetmanate - Little
                             Russia Cossack regiments abolished, the governorate-general of
                             Kiev, Chernigov and Novgorod-Severskiy created (effective Jan
                             1782).
Hetmans of the Zaporozhian Host (title Het'man Viys'ka Zaporoz'koho)
30 Jan 1648 -  6 Aug 1657  Bohdan Mykhaylovych Khmel'nyts'kyy (b. 1595 - d. 1657)
                             (Bogdan Mikhaylovich Khmel'nitskiy)
 
6 Aug 1657 - 21 Oct 1657  Yuriy Bohdanovych Khmel'nyts'kyy   (b. c.1641 - d. 1685)
                             (Yuriy Bogdanovich Khmel'nitskiy)
                             (1st time)

21 Oct 1657 - Oct 1659     Ivan Ostapovych Vyhovs'kyy         (b. c.1608 - d. 1664)
                            
(Ivan Ostapovich Vigovskiy)
Nov 1658 - Oct 1659        Ivan Fedorovych Bezpalyy (acting)  (b. c.1619 - d. 1718)

                            
(Ivan Fyodorovich Bezpaliy [Bezpaloy])
                             (in opposition to Vyhovs'kyy, in Romny, pro-Russian)
Oct 1659 - Oct 1662        Yuriy Bohdanovych Khmel'nyts'kyy   (s.a.)

                             (2nd time)(in Oct 1660 surrendered to Polish)
Oct 1660 - 18 Jun 1663     Akym Semenovych Somko (acting)     (b. c.1619 - d. 1663)
                            
(Yakim Semyonovich Somko)
Hetmans of the Zaporozhian Host of the Right-Bank (pro-Polish/pro-Ottoman)
Jul 1663 - Jul 1665        Pavlo
Ivanovych Morzhkovs'kyy-     (b. c.1620 - d. 1670)
                            
Teterya (Pavel Ivanovich Morzhkovskiy-Teterya)
                            
(in Chyhyryn)
Jul 1665 - Oct 1665        Mykhaylo Stepanovych Khanenko      (b. c.1620 - d. c.1680)
                             (Mikhail Stepanovich Khanenko)
                             (acting)
Jul 1665 - Oct 1665        Stepan Opara
(Stepan Opara)        (d. 1665)
                            
(in rebellion in Uman', Polish prisoner from 18 Aug 1665)
10 Oct 1665 - 19 Sep 1676  Petro Dorofiyovych Doroshenko      (b. 1627 - d. 1689)

                            
(Pyotr Dorofeyevich Doroshenko)
                             (in rebellion from Mar 1669, pro-Ottoman)
                             (in Chyhyryn)
1668 - 1669                Petro Sukhoviy (Pyotr
Sukhovey)    (b. c.1645 - d. af.1674)
                             (
pretender)
Mar 1669 - 27 Mar 1674     Mykhaylo Stepanovych Khanenko      (s.a.)

                            
(Mikhaylo Stepanovich Khanenko)
                             (in Uman')

1675 -  9 Jan 1679         Ostap Hohol' (Ostap Gogol')(acting)(d. 1679)

                             (in Dymer)
1677 - 1681                Yuriy Bohdanovych Khmel'nyts'kyy   (s.a.)
                             (Yuriy Bogdanovich Khmel'nitskiy)
                             (in rebellion, in Nemyriv [Nemirov]; pro-Ottoman)

1681 - 1684                Heorhiy Duka (Georgiy Duka)        (b. c.1620 - d. 1685)
                             (= Gheorghe Duca)(nominal)
                             (also Voivode and Lord of Moldavia)
                             (in rebellion, appointed by Ottomans)
24 Aug 1683 - Jan 1684     Stefan Kunyts'kyy  (in Nemyriv)    (b. c.1640 - d. 1684)
                             (Stefan Kunitskiy)
Jan 1684 - Jan 1689        Andriy
Andriyovych Mohyla          (b. c.1630 - d. 1689)
                             (Andrey
Andreyevich Mogila)
                             (in Nemyriv)
1684 - 1685                Teodor Sulymenko                   (d. 1685)
                             (in rebellion, in Yahorlyk; pro-Ottoman)
1685 - 1695                Stepan Ivanovych Lozyns'kyy        (b. 1653 - d. 1695)
                             (in rebellion, in Yahorlyk; pro-Ottoman)
1689 - 1692                Hryhoriy Ivanovych "Hryshko"       (b. 1649 - d. 1692)
                             Drahynych (Khrumko) (acting)
                             (Grigoriy Ivanovich Draginich)
                             (in Nemyriv)

Feb 1693 - Jun 1699        Samiylo Ivanovych Samus' (acting)  (b. c.1640 - d. c.1713)
                             (Samoylo Ivanovich Samus')
                             (in Vinnytsya)

1695 - Feb 1696            Petro Ivanenko (acting)            (d. 1696)
                             (in rebellion, in Yahorlyk; pro-Ottoman)
1696 - 1698                Ivan Bahatyy                       (d. 1698)
                             (in rebellion, in Yahorlyk; pro-Ottoman)
1702 - Jun 1704            Samiylo Ivanovych Samus’           (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion, in Bila Tserkva)
Hetmans of the Zaporozhian Host of the Left-Bank (pro-Russian)
18 Jun 1663 - 17 Jun 1668  Ivan Martynovych Bryukhovets'kyy   (b. 1623 - d. 1668)
                            
(Ivan Martinovich Bryukhovetskiy)
Sep 1668 - Dec 1668        Stepan Vdovychenko (acting)        (d. 1672)
Dec 1668 - 27 Jun 1672     Dem'yan Ihnatovych Mnohohrishnyy   (b. 1627 - d. 1698)

                             (Dem'yan Ignatovich Mnogogreshnyy)
                             (Russian prisoner from Mar 1672)

28 Jun 1672 - 23 Jul 1687  Ivan
Samoylovych Samoylovych       (b. c.1630 - d. 1690)
                            
(Ivan Samoylovich Samoylovich)
Jul 1687 - Aug 1687        Vasyl' Kasperovych Dunin-          (b. 1640 - d. 1702)
                             Borkovs'kyy (acting)
Hetmans of the Zaporozhian Host (from Jun 1704, style with addition "of the Both Banks")
 4 Aug
1687 -  6 Nov 1708  Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa            (b. 1639 - d. 1709)

                             (
Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa)
                             (continued in opposition to 22 Sep 1709)
 
6 Nov 1708 -  3 Jul 1722  Ivan Illich Skoropads'kyy          (b. 1646 - d. 1722)
                             (Ivan Ilyich Skoropadskiy)
 
5 Apr 1710 - 24 May 1742  Pylyp Stepanovych Orlyk            (b. 1672 - d. 1742)
                            
(Filipp Stepanovich Orlik)
                             (in exile in Bender 1710-11, in Iasi 1711-14,
                             in Stockholm 1714-20, in Vienna and Prague 1720-22,
                             in Thessaloniki 1722-34, in Iasi from 1734)
 4 Jul 1722 - 18 Dec 1724  Pavlo Leontiyovych Polubotok     
  (b. c.1660 - d. 1724)
                            
(Pavel Leontyevich Polubotok)
                             (acting)(from May 1723 Russian prisoner)
President of the Little Russian Collegium
31 Jul 1722 - 12 Oct 1727  Stepan Lukich Velyaminov           (b. 1660 - d. 1737)
Hetmans of the Zaporozhian Host (style with addition "of the Both Banks")

12 Oct 1727 - 28 Jan 1734  Danylo Pavlovych Apostol           (b. 1654 - d. 1734)
                            
(Daniil Pavlovich Apostol)
1733 - Jan 1734            Yakiv Yukimovych Lizohub           (b. 1675 - d. 1749)
                             (acting for Apostol)
President of the (Temporary to Aug 1734) Board of the Hetman's Government

(with style Pravitel', from 1741 styled Commander-in-chief of Little Russia)

28 Jan 1734 - 1736         Knyaz' Aleksey Ivanovich           (b. 1690 - d. 1737) 
                             Shakhovskoy
17 Jun 1736 - Feb 1738     Knyaz' Ivan Fyodorovich            (b. 1689 - d. 1738)
                             Boryatinskiy (Baryatinskiy)
Mar 1738 - May 1738        Ivan Afanasyevich Shipov           (b. 1682 - d. 1749)
                             (1st time)
May 1738 - Mar 1740        Aleksandr Ivanovich Rumyantsov     (b. 1677 - d. 1749) 
                             (Rumyantsev)
Mar 1740 - 17 Sep 1740     Ivan Afanasyevich Shipov           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1740 - 1741                Yakov Vilimovich Keyt              (b. 1696 - d. 1758)
                            
(= James Francis Edward Keith) 
Sep 1741 - Dec 1741        Ivan Ivanovich Neplyuyev           (b. 1693 - d. 1773)

Dec 1741 - Jun 1742        Aleksandr Borisovich Buturlin      (b. 1694 - d. 1767)
1742 - 20 May 1745         Ivan Ivanovich Bibikov             (b. 16.. - d. 1745)
20 May 1745 -  5 Jun 1750  Mikhail Ivanovich Leontyev         (b. 1682 - d. 1752)
Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host (full style: Hetman of Zaporozhian Host of All
Little Russia, Both Banks)

 5 Jun 1750 - 17 Nov 1764  Hraf Kyrylo Hryhorovych            (b. 1728 - d. 1803)
                            
Rozumovs'kyy
                           
(Graf Kirill Grigoryevich Razumovskiy)
President of the Little Russian Collegium
(and from Nov 1775, Governor-General of Little Russia)

30 Jun 1765 - Jan 1782     Graf Pyotr Aleksandrovich          (b. 1725 - d. 1796)
                             Rumyantsev-Zadunayskiy
                             (appointed Nov 1764)


Zaporozhia Sich (Zaporozhian Host [Lower])

[Zaporozhia Sich (Zaporozhian Host
                              [Lower] flag to 1775 (Ukraine)]
16.. - 1775
 6 Sep 1658 - Oct 1659     Hetmanate under Polish sovereignty by the Treaty of Hadiach
                            (Hadyach/Gadyach), this move was not recognized by the Zaporozhian
                             Host (Lower) at Sich (previous events see under Hetmanate),
                             which is effectively separated from Hetmanate.
31 Jan 1667                In the Treaty of Andrusovo between Poland and Russia included
                             (largely nominally) in the Left-Bank Hetmanate obtained by Russia.
1709                       Brief attempt to assert separation from Russia supporting Sweden.
1709 - 1734                Cossacks abandoned Sich and establish a base near mouth of the
                             Dnieper River under the protection of the Khans of Crimea and
                             Ottoman Empire.
1734                       Under the Agreement of Lubny, the Cossacks regain all of their
                             former lands, privileges, laws, and customs in exchange for
                             serving under Russia, subject to the governor of Kiev.
17 Nov 1764                Sich included in the Novorossiya Governorate.
 3 Aug 1775                Host abolished by Russia.
1788                       Black Sea Cossack Host formed from former Sich Cossacks

                             (see Transnistria under Moldova)
.

Kish Atamans of the Zaporozhian Host (title: Koshovyy Otaman Viys'ka Zaporoz'kohо)
(elected for one year terms; probably incomplete list, persons known to have served listed)
1699 - 1700                Petro Pryma
1701                       Herasym Krysa (1st time)           (d. af.1712)
1701 - 1702                Petro Sorochyns'kyy (1st time)       
1702                       Kost' Hordienko (1st time)         (d. 1733)
1703                       Herasym Krysa (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1703 - 1706                Kost' Hordienko (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1706 - 1707                Luk'yan Tymofienko
1707                       Petro Sorochyns'kyy (2nd time)
1707 - 1708                Tymofiy Fenenko
1708 - 1709                Kost' Hordienko (3rd time)         (s.a.)
1709 - 1710                Petro Sorochyns’kyy (3rd time)
1710                       Yakym Bohush
1710                       Yosyp Kyrylenko
1711 - 1714                Kost' Hordienko (4th time)         (s.a.)
1714 - 1716                Ivan Oleksiyovych Malashevych
                             (1st time)
1719 - 1720                Ivan Oleksiyovych Malashevych
                             (2nd time)
1720 - 1728                Kost' Hordienko (5th time)   
1731 - 1733                Ivan Oleksiyovych Malashevych
                             (3rd time)
1733 - 1734                Ivan Bilytsk'kyy (1st time)        (d. 1788)
1734 - 1735                Ivan Oleksiyovych Malashevych
                             (4th time)
1735                       Ivan Bilytsk'kyy (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1736                       Ivan Oleksiyovych Malashevych
                             (5th time)
1738                       Ivan Bilytsk'kyy (3rd time)        (s.a.)
1739                       Kost' Pokotylo
1739 - 1740                Yakiv Turkalo                      (d. 1740)
1740                       Ivan Khomych Cherevko              (d. af.1775)
1740                       Stepan Ostapovych Umans'kyy
1741                       Stepan Hladkyy
1742                       Semen Eremievych Tymoshyy          (d. af.1756)
                             (1st time)
1743                       Ivan Oleksiyovych Malashevych
                             (6th time)
1744                       Yakym Ihnatovych Malyy (1st time)  (d. af.1760)
1745 - 1747                Vasy'l Hryhorovych Sych (1st time)
1747                       Pavlo Ivanovych Kozelets'kyy       (d. 1768)
                             (1st time)
1748                       Danylo Stefanovych Hladkyy
                             (1st time)
1748 - 1749                Yakym Ihnatovych Malyy (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1749 - 1750                Oleksiy Kozelets'kyy
1750                       Ivan Kazhan                        (d. af.1756)
1751                       Vasy'l Hryhorovych Sych (2nd time)
1752                       Yakiv Ihnatovych                   (b. 1712 - d. 1763)
1752 - 1753                Pavlo Ivanovych Kozelets'kyy       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1753                       Hryhoriy Fedorovych Lantukh
                             (1st time)
1753                       Semen Eremievych Tymoshyy          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1753                       Danylo Stefanovych Hladkyy
                             (2nd time)
1754                       Yakym Ihnatovych Malyy (3rd time)  (s.a.)
1755                       Hryhoriy Fedorovych Lantukh
                             (2nd time)
1755 - 1757                Danylo Stefanovych Hladkyy
                             (3rd time)
1757 - 1758                Hryhoriy Fedorovych Lantukh
                             (3rd time)
1759 - 1760                Oleksiy Hryhorovych Bilyts'kyy
1761                       Hryhoriy Fedorovych Lantukh
                             (4th time)
1762                       Stepan Rud'
1762                       Petro Ivanovych Kalnyshevs'kyy     (b. 1691 - d. 1803)
                             (1st time)
1763                       Hryhoriy Fedorovych Lantukh
                             (5th time)
1764 - 1765                Pylyp Fedorovych Pylypenko         (b. 1694 - d. 1795)
1765                       Ivan Bilytsk'kyy (4th time)        (s.a.)
1765 - 1775                Petro Ivanovych Kalnyshevs'kyy     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)


Kiev and Podolia Russian Governorates-general
[Russia flag]
1782 - 1796                Governorate-general of Kiev, Chernigov and Novgorod-Severskiy.
30 Nov 1796                Kiev Military Governorate covering governorates of Kiev,
                             Malorossiya (to 1801) and Minsk (1801-1808).
1796 - 1832                Kamenets-Podol'skiy Military Governorate (from 1830, temporary
                             governorate-general of Volhynia and Podolia), covering
                             governorates of Podolia, Volhynia and (to 1801) Minsk.
 3 Feb 1832                Kiev Military Governorate and Governorate-general of Podolia and
                             Volhynia, both administrations merged.
31 Jan 1865                Governorate-general of Kiev, Podolia and Volhynia (known as South-
                             Western Kray).
1915                       Governorate-general abolished.
25 Aug 1919 - 29 Dec 1919  Kiev oblast, covering parts of governorates of Kiev, Chernigov and
                             Podolia (Kiev under the "White" rule 2 Sep 1919 – 16 Dec 1919,
                             and Chernigov 12 Oct 1919 – 7 Nov 1919), created during occupation
                             of Kiev by the Armed Forces in the South of Russia.

Governor-general of Kiev, Chernigov and Novgorod-Severskiy
(with title Namestnik)
1782 - 1796                Graf Pyotr Aleksandrovich          (s.a.)
                             Rumyantsev-Zadunayskiy
Military Governors of Kiev and Chief administrators of Civil affairs for Kiev, Malorossiya
(to 1801) and (1801-1808) Minsk Governorates (with rights of governor-general)
29 Nov 1796 - 11 Dec 1796  Graf Ivan Petrovich Saltykov       (b. 1730 - d. 1805)
11 Dec 1796 - 23 Mar 1798  Andrey Grigoryevich Rozenberg      (b. 1739 - d. 1813)
                             (Diederich Arend von Rosenberg)
24 Jun 1798 - 1799         Aleksandr Alekseyevich Bekleshov   (b. c.1743 - d. 1808)
1800 - 1803                Andrey Semyonovich Fensh           (b. 1757 - d. 1828)  
                             (Andrew Fenshaw)
1803 - 1806                Aleksandr Petrovich Tormasov       (b. 1752 - d. 1819)
10 Oct 1806 - 15 Jul 1809  Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev (b. 1745 - d. 1813)
                             -Kutuzov
1810 - Aug 1818            Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich   (b. 1771 - d. 1825)
Aug 1818 -  9 Feb 1827     Vacant
 9 Feb 1827 - 1829         Pyotr Fyodorovich Zheltukhin       (b. 1777 - d. 1829)
1829 -  3 Feb 1832         Boris Yakovlevich Knyazhnin        (b. 1777 - d. 1854)
Military Governors of Kamenets-Podol'skiy and Chief administrators of Civil affairs
for Podolia, Volhynia and (to 1801) Minsk Governorates

(in Kamenets-Podol'skiy; with rights of governor-general)
1796 - 1798                Aleksandr Alekseyevich Bekleshov   (s.a.)
1798 - 1799                Ivan Vasilyevich Gudovich          (s.a.)
1800 - 1803                Andrey Grigoryevich Rozenberg      (s.a.)
1803 - 1811                Ivan Nikolayevich Essen            (b. 1759 - d. 1813)
                             (Magnus Gustav von Essen)
1811 - 1812                Nikolay Alekseyevich Tuchkov       (b. 1765 - d. 1812)
1812 - 1814                Vacant
1814 - 1825                Aleksey Nikolayevich Bakhmetyev    (b. 1774 - d. 1841)
1825 - 1830                Vacant
Temporary Governors-general of Volhynia and Podolia
(in Zhitomir)
1830 - 1831                Yakov Alekseyevich Potyomkin       (b. 1782 - d. 1831)
1831 - 1832                Vasiliy Vasilyevich Levashov       (b. 1783 - d. 1848)
Military Governors of Kiev and Chief administrators of Civil affairs for
Kiev governorate, Governors-general of Podolia and Volhynia

 3 Feb 1832 - 21 Jun 1835  Vasiliy Vasilyevich Levashov       (s.a.)
                             (from 1 Jun 1833, Graf Vasiliy Vasilyevich Levashov)
21 Jun 1835 - 27 Nov 1837  Graf Aleksandr Dmitriyevich Guryev (b. 1786 - d. 1865)
10 Jan 1838 - 11 Sep 1852  Dmitriy Gavrilovich Bibikov        (b. 1791 - d. 1870)
11 Sep 1852 - 24 Nov 1862  Knyaz' Illarion Illarionovich      (b. 1805 - d. 1862)
                             Vasilchikov
31 Jan 1863 - 31 Jan 1865  Nikolay Nikolayevich Annenkov      (b. 1799 - d. 1865)
Governors-general of Kiev, Podolia, and Volhynia
31 Jan 1865 - 28 Jan 1869  Aleksandr Pavlovich Bezak          (b. 1800 - d. 1869)
                             (Alexander Besack)
28 Jan 1869 - 28 Apr 1878  Knyaz' Aleksandr Mikhaylovich      (b. 1820 - d. 1893)
                             Dondukov-Korsakov
28 Apr 1878 - 25 Jan 1881  Mikhail Ivanovich Chertkov         (b. 1829 - d. 1905)
25 Jan 1881 - 27 Jul 1888  Aleksandr Romanovich Drentel'n     (b. 1820 - d. 1888)
                             (Alexander von Drenteln)
24 Aug 1889 - 19 Dec 1897  Graf Aleksey Pavlovich Ignatyev    (b. 1842 - d. 1906)
13 Jan 1898 -  6 Jan 1904  Mikhail Ivanovich Dragomirov       (b. 1830 - d. 1905)
 6 Jan 1904 -  1 Nov 1905  Nikolay Vasilyevich Kleygel's      (b. 1850 - d. 1916)
                             (Nikolai Clayhills)
 1 Nov 1905 - 31 Dec 1908  Vladimir Aleksandrovich Sukhomlinov(b. 1848 - d. 1926)
31 Dec 1908 - 30 Sep 1914  Fyodor Fyodorovich Trepov          (b. 1854 - d. 1938)
Chief administrator of Kiev Oblast (with rights of governor-general)
25 Aug 1919 – 29 Dec 1919  Abram Mikhaylovich Dragomirov      (b. 1868 - d. 1955)  Mil

(non-Communist) Ukraine

Note: Names are listed in Ukrainian with Russian in parentheses. Ukrainian and Russian BGN/PCGN romanization system.

20 Nov 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic, as part of federal Russian republic.
22 Jan 1918                Independence from Russia declared.
 9 Feb 19181 Mar 1918  Soviet Russian occupation of Kiev (Kyyiv), the non-Communist
                             government moves to Zhitomir (Zhytomyr), 12 Feb 1918 – 24 Feb
                             1918 to Sarny.
29 Apr 1918                First constitution ("Articles on State Organization, Rights and
                             Freedoms") adopted, not implemented.
29 Apr 1918                Ukrainian State (under German and Austro-Hungarian occupation),
                             on 30 Apr 1918 the second constitution ("Statutes on Temporary
                             State Organization") adopted.
14 Dec 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic (restored) in Kiev, in rebellion against
                             the Ukrainian State from 16 Nov 1918 in Belaya Tserkov' (Bila
                             Tserkva).
22 Jan 1919                Western Ukrainian People's Republic merged into the Ukrainian
                             People's Republic, not fully effected.
 5 Feb 1919                Soviet Russian forces occupy Kiev, the non-Communist government on
                             28 Jan 1919 moved to Vinnitsa (Vinnytsya), on 24 Apr 1919 to
                             Rovno (Rivne), on 25 May 1919 to Ternopol' (Ternopil'), on 6 Jun
                             1919 to Kamenets-Podol'skiy (Kam'yanets'-Podil's'kyy).
17 Nov 1919                Poland occupies Kamenets-Podol'skiy, the government of the
                             Ukrainian People's Republic is allowed to remain there, but
                             without independent territory.
 7 May 1920 - 13 Jul 1920  Poland and (non-communist) Ukrainian forces occupy Kiev, the
                             Ukrainian government returned to Kiev for a while.
12 Jul 1920 - 19 Sep 1920  Soviet Russian troops occupied Kamenets-Podol'skiy (again from 16
                             Nov 1920), the Ukrainian government moved on 9 Jul 1920 to
                             Stanislavov (modern Ivano-Frankivs'k), on 16 Jul 1920 in exile to
                             Tarnow, Poland, 30 Sep 1920 - 14 Nov 1920 returned to Kamenets
                             Podol'skiy.
12 Nov 1920                Third constitution ("Statute on Temporary Supreme Governance and
                             Laws") adopted.
22 Nov 1920                Government, which is intermittently absent from the national
                             territory from 16 Jul 1920, holds its last last session on
                             Ukrainian soil.
30 Jun 1941 - 12 Jul 1941  Ukrainian State declared restored at L'viv (terminated by
                             German occupation forces).

Chairmen of the Ukrainian Central Rada (Council)
20 Mar 1917 - 27 Mar 1917  Fedir Ivanovych Kryzhanivs'kyy     (b. 1878 - d. 1938)  Non-party
                             (Fyodor Ivanovich Krizhanіvskiy)
                             (acting)
27 Mar 1917 - 29 Apr 1918  Mykhaylo Serhiyovych Hrushevs'kyy  (b. 1866 - d. 1934)  TUP
                             (Mikhaylo Sergeyevich Grushevskіy)
                             (elected 20 Mar 1917, arrived 27 Mar 1917)
Hetman of All Ukraine
29 Apr 1918 - 14 Dec 1918  Pavlo Petrovych Skoropads'kyy      (b. 1873 - d. 1945)  Mil
                             (Pavel Petrovich Skoropadskiy)
Chairmen of the Directory

13 Nov 1918 -  5 Feb 1919  Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko   (b. 1880 - d. 1951)  USDRP
                             (Vladimir Kirillovich Vinnichenko)
                             (in opposition to the Hetman to 14 Dec 1918)
 5 Feb 1919 -  9 May 1919  Directors
                           (meetings chaired in random order)
                           - Symon Vasylyovych Petlyura       (b. 1879 - d. 1926)  USDRP
                             (Simon Vasilyevich Petlyura)
                           - Fedir Petrovych Shvets'          (b. 1882 - d. 1940)  UPSR
                             (Fyodor Petrovich Shvets)
                           - Andriy Havrylovych Makarenko     (b. 1886 - d. 1963)  Non-party
                             (Andrey Gavrilovich Makarenko)
                           - Opanas Mykhaylovych Andriyevs'kyy(b. 1878 - d. 1955)  UPSS
                             (Afanasiy Mikhaylovich Andriyevskiy)
                           - Yevhen Omelyanovych Petrushevych (b. 1863 - d. 1940)  USDP
                             (
Yevgeniy Yemelyanovich Petrushevich)
                             (from 12 Mar 1919; was never chair)
 9 May 1919 - 22 Nov 1920 
Symon Vasylyovych Petlyura         (s.a.)               USRP
Chairman of the National Assembly
30 Jun
1941 - 12 Jul 1941  Yaroslav Semenovych Stets'ko       (b. 1912 - d. 1986)  OUNR
                             (Yaroslav Semyonovich Stets'ko)
                             (in dissidence, in L'viv; German
                              prisoner from 9/10 Jul 1941)


Chairman of the General Secretariat

15 Jun 1917 -  9 Jan 1918  Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko   (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (Vladimir Kirillovich Vinnichenko)
Chairmen of the C
ouncil of Ministers (prime ministers)
 
9 Jan 1918 - 30 Jan 1918  Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko   (s.a.)               USDRP
30 Jan 1918 - 29 Apr 1918  Vsevolod Oleksandrovych Holubovych (b. 1885 - d. 1939)  UPSR
                            
(Vsevolod Aleksandrovich Golubovich)
29 Apr 1918 - 30 Apr 1918  
Mykola Mykolayovych Sakhno-        (b. 1863 - d. 1918)  UPSF
                            
Ustymovych (Nikolay Nikolayevich
                             Sakhno-
Ustimovich
)
30 Apr 1918 -  3 May 1918 
Mykola Prokopovych Vasylenko       (b. 1866 - d. 1935)  KDP
                            
(Nikolay Prokopovich Vasilenko)
                             (acting)
 3 May 1918 - 14 Nov 1918 
Fedir Andriyovych Lyzohub          (b. 1851 - d. 1928)  Okt
                            
(Fyodor Andreyevich Lizogub)
14 Nov 1918 - 14 Dec 1918 
Serhiy Mykolayovych Gerbel'        (b. 1856 - d. 1936)  Non-party
                            
(Sergey Nikolayevich Gerbel')
Chairman of the Council of Commissioners

14 Dec 1918 - 24 Dec 1918  Volodymyr Musiyovych Chekhivs'kyy  (b. 1876 - d. 1937)  USDRP
                            
(Vladimir Moiseyevich Chekhovskiy)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime ministers)
(from 13 Feb 1919, in opposition to Communist rule)
24 Dec 1918 - 13 Feb 1919  Volodymyr Musiyovych Chekhivs'kyy  (s.a.)               USDRP
13 Feb 1919 -  9 Apr 1919  Serhiy Stepanovych Ostapenko       (b. 1881 - d. 1937)  Non-party
                             (Sergey Stepanovich Ostapenko)
 9 Apr 1919 - 29 Aug 1919  Borys Mykolayovych Martos          (b. 1879 - d. 1977)  USDRP
                             (Boris Nikolayevich Martos)
29 Aug 1919 - 28 May 1920  Isaak Prokhorovych Mazepa          (b. 1884 - d. 1952)  USDRP
                             (Isaak Prokhorovich Mazepa)
28 May 1920 - 18 Oct 1920  Vyacheslav Kostyantynovych         (b. 1881 - d. 1942)  UPSF
                             Prokopovych
                            
(Vyacheslav Konstantinovich Prokopovich)
18 Oct 1920 - 14 Nov 1920  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (b. 1879 - d. 1954)  USDRP
                             (Andrey Nikolayevich Lіvitskiy)


Central Powers Occupation

German Military Commanders-in-chief (in Kiev Military District)
(of Heeresgruppe Linsingen to 31 Mar 1918; Heeresgruppe Eichhorn-Kiew 31 Mar - 2 Apr 1918;
Heeresgruppe Eichhorn 3 Apr - 13 Aug 1918, then Heeresgruppe Kiew)
 3 Mar 1918 - 31 Mar 1918  Alexander Adolf August Karl von    (b. 1850 - d. 1935)  Mil

                            
Linsingen
31 Mar 1918 -  8 Aug 1918 
Hermann Gottfried Emil von         (b. 1848 - d. 1918)  Mil
                             Eichhorn 
 
8 Aug 1918 - 21 Jan 1919  Günther Emanuel Graf von Kirchbach (b. 1850 - d. 1925)  Mil
Austro-Hungarian Military Commanders (in Odessa Military District)
13 Mar 1918 - 16 May 1918  Eduard Freiherr von Böhm-Ermolli   (b. 1856 - d. 1941)  Mil

                           
(Oberkommandierender der Ukraine)
16 May 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Alfred Krauss                      (b. 1862 - d. 1938)  Mil

                           
(Kommandant der Ostarmee in der Ukraine)

Ukrainian People's Republic in Exile

[Ukrainian People's Republic
                1918-1920 (non-communist) flag]

Chairmen of the Directory
22 Nov 1920 - 25 May 1926  Symon Vasylyovych Petlyura         (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (Simon Vasilyevich Petlyura)
                             (in Poland to 1923, in 1923-1934
                             Austria, later Hungary and Switzerland;
                             from Oct 1924 in Paris, France exile)
25 May 1926 - 16 Jul 1948  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (Andrey Nikolayevich Lіvitskiy)
                             (in Poland, from 1945 Germany exile)
Presidents

16 Jul 1948 - 17 Jan 1954  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (in Münich, West Germany exile)
17 Jan 1954 - 19 Oct 1965  Stepan Porfyrovych Vytvyts'kyy     (b. 1884 - d. 1965)  UNDP+UNDO
                             (Stepan Porfiryovich Vitvitskiy)
                             (acting to 6 Mar 1954)
                             (in New York exile)
19 Oct 1965 -  8 Dec 1989  Mykola Andriyovych Livyts'kyy      (b. 1907 - d. 1989)  UNDS
                             (Nikolay Andreyevich Lіvitskiy)
                             (acting to 22 Mar 1967)
                             (in Philadelphia exile)
 8 Dec 1989 - 22 Aug 1992  Mykola Vasylyovych Plav'yuk        (b. 1925 - d. 2012)  OUN
                             (Nikolay Vasilyevich Plavyuk)
                             (in Canada exile)

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime ministers)
(in Poland exile, then Prague, later Germany, then noted)
14 Nov 1920 - 24 Mar 1921  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (1st time)
24 May 1921 -  5 Aug 1921  Vyacheslav Kostyantynovych         (s.a.)               UPSF
                             Prokopovych (1st time) (acting)
                             (Vyacheslav Konstantinovich Prokopovich)
 5 Aug 1921 - 14 Jan 1922  Pylyp Kalenykovych Pylypchuk       (b. 1869 - d. 1940)  Non-party
                             (Pilip Kalenikovich Pilipchuk)
14 Jan 1922 - 25 May 1926  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (2nd time)
25 May 1926 - Oct 1939     Vyacheslav Kostyantynovych         (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Prokopovych (2nd time) 
Oct 1939 - May 1940        Oleksander Yakovych Shul'hyn       (b. 1889 - d. 1960)  Non-party
                             (Aleksander Yakovlevich Shul'gin)
                             (in Paris exile, German prisoner from ... 1940)
1940 - 1944                Vacant
1944 - 1945                Andriy Ivanovych Yakovliv          (b. 1872 - d. 1955)  Non-party
                             (Andrey Ivanovich Yakovlev)
                             (in Prague exile) (acting)
1945 - 1948                Kost' Kostyantynovych Pan'kivs'kyy (b. 1897 - d. 1973)  UNDS
                             (Konstantin Konstantinovich Pankovskiy)
                             (in [West] Germany exile)
19 Jun 1948 - Jan 1952     Isaak Prokhorovych Mazepa          (s.a.)               USDRP;1950
                             (Isaak Prokhorovich Mazepa)                           USP
                             (in Austria, then West Germany exile)
Jan 1952 -  4 Jun 1953     Stepan Ivanovych Baran             (b. 1879 - d. 1953)  UNDP+UNDO
                             (Stepan Ivanovich Baran) 
                             (in West Germany exile)
1953 - 1954                Stepan Porfyrovych Vytvyts'kyy     (s.a.)               UNDO
                             (in New York exile)
1954                       Spyrydon Mykytovych Dovhal'        (b. 1896 - d. 1975)  USP
                             (Spiridon Nikitovich Dovgal')
                             (in West Germany exile)(1st time)
1954 - 1957                Symon Vasylyovych Sozontiv         (b. 1898 - d. 1980)  Non-party
                             (Simon Vasilyevich Sozontov [Sozontyev])
                             (in Paris exile)
1957 - 1967                Mykola Andriyovych Livyts'kyy      (s.a.)               UNDS
                             (in New York exile)
22 Mar 1967 - 1969         Atanas Ivanovych Figol'            (b. 1908 - d. 1993)  Non-party
                             (Atanas Ivanovich Figol') 
                             (in West Germany exile)
1969 - 1972                Spyrydon Mykytovych Dovhal'        (s.a.)               USP
                             (in Münich, West Germany exile)
                             (2nd time)
1972 - 1974                Vasyl' Lukynovych Fedoronchuk      (b. 1915 - d. 1984?) OUN+UNDO
                             (Vasiliy Lukyanovich Fedoronchuk)
                             (in Rome, Italy exile)
1974 - 1980                Teofil' Leontiy (Teofil Leontiy)                        Non-party
1980 - 1989                Yaroslav-Bohdan Antonovych         (b. 1910 - d. 1995)  Non-party
                             Rudnyts'kyy (Yaroslav-Bogdan
                             Antonovich Rudnitskiy)
                             (in Canada exile)
1989 - 22 Aug 1992         Ivan Matviyovych Samiylenko        (b. 1912 - d. 2006)  UNDS
                             (Ivan Matveyevich Samoylenko)
                             (in New York exile)

German Recognized Ukrainian National Committee in Exile

[Ukrainian National Army
                flag 1945 (Ukraine)]

Chairman of the Ukrainian National Committee (and from
28 Mar
1945, Commander of the Ukrainian National Army) 
17 Mar 1945 -  8 May 1945  Pavlo Feofanovych Shandruk         (b. 1889 - d. 1979)  Mil
                             (Pavel Feofanovich Shandruk)
                             (in Graz, Austria exile)

Resistance to German and Soviet Occupation 1942 - 1954

Note: Ukrainian resistance groups against German occupation united as the Ukrainian Insurgent Army on 14 Oct 1942, which formed its political body in 1944. Resistance continued against Soviet re-occupation until 1954 when it was finally suppressed by Soviet forces.

[Organization of Ukrainian
                Nationalists (OUNR) and Ukrainian Insurgent Army flag
                1942-1954 (Ukraine)]

Chairmen of the General Secretariat of the Ukrainian Supreme Liberation
Council
and Commanders of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army
14 Oct 1942 - 15 Jul 1944  Dmytro Semenovych Klyachkivs'kyy   (b. 1911 - d. 1945)  OUNR
                             (Dmitriy Semyonovich Klyachkivskiy)
15 Jul 1944 -  5 Mar 1950  Roman Osypovych Shukhevych         (b. 1907 - d. 1950)  OUNR
                             (Roman Osipovich Shukhevich)
1950 - 23 May 1954         Vasyl' Stepanovych Kuk             (b. 1913 - d. 2007)  OUNR
                             (Vasiliy Stepanovich Kuk)

Party abbreviations: KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya/Konstytutsiyno-Demokratychna Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, 12 Oct 1905-1920, banned by Bolsheviks from 12 Dec 1917); Okt = Soyuz 17 Oktyabrya/Spilka 17 Zhovtnya (Union of October 17, "Octobrists", conservative, Russian moderate constitutionalist, Nov 1905-1918); OUN = Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins'kykh Natsionalistiv (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, nationalist, right-wing, anti-communist, from 1940 sometimes called OUN-Melnyk, est.3 Feb 1929); OUNR = Organizatsiya Ukrayins'kykh Natsionalistiv Revolyutsiyna (Revolutionary Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, sometimes called OUN-Bandera, nationalist, Stepan Bandera personalist, anti-communist, right-wing, split from OUN, Feb 1940-1959); TUP = Tovarystvo Ukrayins'kykh Postupovtsiv (Society of Ukrainian Progressives, liberal nationalist, split from Ukrainian Democratic Radical Party, 1908-7 Apr 1917, merged into UPSF); UNDO = Ukrayins'ke Natsional'no-Demokratychne Ob'yednannya (Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance, nationalist, right-wing, 11 Jul 1925-1939, exile re-est.1947); UNDP = Ukrayins'ka Natsional'na Demokratychna Partiya (Ukrainian National Democratic Party, centrist, Galicia regionalist, 26 Dec 1896-28 Mar 1919, renamed Ukrainian People's Labor Party); UNDS = Ukrayins'kyy Natsional'no-Derzhavnyy Soyuz (Ukrainian National State Union, coordination center Ukrainian centrist and right parties, incl USDRP, UPSR, UPSF & USP, Aug 1918-1991); UPSF = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Federalistiv (Ukrainian Party of Socialist Federalists, 7 Apr 1917-1923, renamed 1923-1939 as Ukrainian Radical Democratic Party); USDP = Ukrayins'ka Sotsial-Demokratychna Partiya (Ukrainian Social-Democratic Party, democratic socialist, Galicia regionalist, 17 Sep 1899-Sep 1939, banned by Poland 30 Jun 1924, merged into USP); USP = Ukrayins'ka Sotsialistychna Partiya (Ukrainian Socialist Party, socialist, merger of USDP, USDRP & UPSR members, est.24 Mar 1950); UPSR = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Revolyutsioneriv/Ukrainskaya Partiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Ukrainian Party of Socialist-Revolutionaries, democratic socialist, agrarian socialist, 17 Apr 1917-1918, left wing faction merged into KPU-B, right wing in exile to 1950 then merged into USP); UPSS = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Samostiynykiv (Ukrainian Party of Socialist Independents, socialist, 30 Dec 1917-1922, renamed Ukrainian People's Party); USDRP = Ukrayins'ka Sotsial-Demokratychna Robitnycha Partiya/Ukrainskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers' Party, democratic socialist, Jan 1919 split into right and left wing factions, 1920 exiled, Dec 1905-26 Mar 1950, merged into USP); Mil = Military


Makhnovist Forces (Makhnovshchina/Makhnovshchyna)

[South Ukraine Labor
              Federation (Ukrainian Revolutionary Insurgent Army [Black
              Army]) flag 1919-1920 (Ukraine)]

 9 Jun 1919                A brigade led by Nestor Makhno (established 21 Feb 1919 from
                             peasant guerrillas at Gulyaypole [Hulyaypole]) deserts the Red
                             Army and
occupies Yelizavetgrad (Kirovohrad)(until Aug 1919)
                            
between the departure of the Red Army and arrival of Denikin's
                             "White" Armed
Forces of the South Russia.
 1 Sep 1919                Ukrainian Revolutionary Insurgent Army (URIA) organized (from
                             20 Sep 1919 under short-lived alliance with the non-communist
                             Ukrainian
People's Republic). Popularly called "Makhnovshchina"
                             (
Makhnovshchyna) and sometimes referred to as the "Black Army."
Oct 1919                   URIA occupies a large part of southern Ukraine, called the "free
                             rayons", in the rear of Denikin's "White" army (on 5 Oct 1919
                             Aleksandrovsk [Zaporizhzhya], on 14 Oct Mariupol, and 28 Oct
                             Yekaterinoslav [Dnipropetrovs'k]).
 1 Nov 1919                South Ukraine Labor Federation is proclaimed in Aleksandrovsk by
                             the Congress of Peasants, Workers, and Insurgents Deputies as
                             a federation of various level "free soviets" under the protection
                             of Makhno's forces.
Nov 1919                   Most of the "free rayons" are lost to Denikin's "White" army (on 21
                             Oct Mariupol', on 7 Nov Aleksandrovsk, and Yekaterinoslav
                             8 Dec 1919
).
 9 Jan 1920                Aleksandrovsk finally lost (it is briefly re-occupied from late
                             Dec 1919 between the departure of Denikin's army and arrival of
                             the Red Army). From Jan 1920, guerrilla operations against the
                             Red Army continue from a main base near Gulyaypole.
15 Oct 1920                Bolshevik-Makhnovist Treaty of Political and Military Alliance
                             concluded, it is not officially published by the Bolsheviks.
28 Aug 1921                Makhno and the remains of his army leave Ukraine for Romania.

Commander-in-chief of the Ukrainian Revolutionary Insurgent Army (de facto leader)
 1 Sep 1919 – 28 Aug 1921  Nestor Ivanovych Makhno            (b. 1888 – d. 1934)  Mil
                             "Bat'ko Makhno"
                             (Nestor Ivanovich Makhno)

Chairmen of the Revolutionary Military Council
 1 Sep 1919–late Sep 1919  Oleksandr Lashchenko (1st time)    (b. 1890 – d.af.1928)Mil
                           
(Aleksandr Lashchenko)
late Sep 1919–26 Nov 1919  Vsevolod Mykhaylovych Volyn       
(b. 1882 – d. 1945)  KAU
                            (Eykhenbaum)(Vsevolod Mikhaylovich Volin [Eykhenbaum])
26 Nov 1919 – 29 Dec 1919  Oleksandr Lashchenko (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Mil

Party abbreviations: KAU = Konfederatsiya Anarkhistskikh Organizatsiy Ukrainy "Nabat" (Confederation of Ukrainian Anarchist Organizations "Alarm", anarchist, 1918-1920); Mil = Military


Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
 
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian People's Republic (Communist)
                          1917-1918, 1918-1919]
26 Dec 1917 - 18 Apr 1918,
28 Nov 1918 - 14 Mar 1919
[Ukrainian
                          People's Republic (communist) 1917-1918
                          (Possible reconstruction)]
26 Dec 1917 - 18 Apr 1918 (Possible)
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR 1919 - 1937 (USSR)]
14 Mar 1919 - 30 Jan 1937
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR Variant 1919-1937]
14 Mar 1919 - 30 Jan 1937 Variant
 
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR 1937-1949 (USSR)]
30 Jan 1937 - 21 Nov 1949
 
[Flag of Ukrainian
                          SSR, 1949-1992 (USSR)]
21 Nov 1949 - 28 Jan 1992
[National Flag
                          of Ukraine]
18 Sep 1991 - 28 Jan 1992 Co-National Flag

Capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)
(
Khar'kov [Kharkiv]
Dec 1919-1934)
Hear SSR Anthem
"Gosudarstvennyy Gimn
 Ukrainskoy Sovetskoy
Sotsialisticheskoy
 Respubliki"
("Derzhavnyy
 Himn Ukrayins'koyi
 Radyans'koyi
Sotsialistychnoyi
Respubliky")
(State Anthem of the
 Ukrainian S.S.R.)
(1949 - 5 Dec 1991)

--------------------------------------------
Former Anthem
"Internatsional"
(The Internationale)
(1919-1922, de facto possibly)

Constitution
(20 Apr 1978 - 8 Jun 1995;
in Ukrainian)
------------------------------
Former Constitutions
(10 Mar 1919, 15 May 1925,
30 Jan 1937)
Population: 49,755,000 (1980)
26,279,000 (1923)
International Organizations/Treaties (1945-1991): ENMOD, ESCR, IAEA, ILO, Inmarsat, ITU, NTBT, OST, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNIDO, UPU, WFP, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Ukrainian oblasts

Note: Names are listed in Russian with Ukrainian in parentheses. Ukrainian and Russian BGN/PCGN romanization system.

25 Dec 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets established in Khar'kov
                             (
Kharkiv) as a Communist counter-government, as part of a federal
                             Soviet Russian republic.

 
9 Feb 1918 -  1 Mar 1918  Soviet Russian occupation of Kiev (Kyyiv), which became the capital
                             of Soviet Ukraine (Soviet government moved to Poltava on 27
                             Feb 1918, to Yekaterinoslav [modern Dnipro] on 10 Mar 1918, into
                             exile to Taganrog on 4 Apr 1918).
19 Mar 1918                Ukrainian Soviet Republic, subordinated to Russian S.F.S.R.
28 Apr 1918                Authorities exiled to Moscow (from 12 Jul 1918, Kursk), Soviet
                             Russia, following the Treaty of Brest-
Litovsk and the fall of
                            
Lugansk (Luhans'k).
28 Nov 1918                (Communist) Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government of
                             Ukraine established (in Kursk, from 24 Dec 1918 Belgorod
Soviet
                             Russia exile).
 
5 Feb 1919                Soviet Russian forces occupy Kiev, which became capital of
                             Soviet Ukraine (Khar'kov was seat of government from 6 Jan 1919).
10 Mar 1919                Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic (name adopted already 6 Jan
                             1919), constitution adopted, sovereignty and (nominal)
                             independence declared.
 4 Jun 1919                Military and political union with the Russian S.F.S.R. (confirmed by
                             the Union Treaty of 28 Dec 1920).
30 Sep 1919 - 11 Dec 1919  Departure of the government to
Gomel', Soviet Russia exile,
                             following "White" Russian occupation of Kiev.

30 Dec 1922                Founding component of the Soviet Union
(see under Russia).
 
5 Dec 1936                Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
25 Jun 1941 -  2 Feb 1944
  Occupied by Germany (
Reichskommissariat Ukraine established
                             on 1 Sep 1941 [see
below]).
 
1 Jan 1990                Ukrainian is made the state language.
16 Jul 1990                Declaration of state sovereignty.
24 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence (Ukraine)(confirmed 1 Dec 1991).
 

Secretaries of the Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
12 Jul 1918 -  9 Sep 1918  Georgіy Leonidovich Pyatakov       (b. 1890 - d. 1937) 

                             (Heorhiy Leonidovych P'yatakov)
                             (1st time)

 
9 Sep 1918 - 23 Oct 1918  Serafima
Ilyinichna Gopner (f)     (b. 1880 - d. 1966)
                            
(Serafyma Illivna Hopner)
23 Oct 1918 -  6 Mar 1919  Emmanuil Ionovich Kviring          (b. 1888 - d. 1937)

                             (Emmanuyil Ionovych Kviring)
 6 Mar 1919 - 30 May 1919  Georgіy Leonidovich Pyatakov  
     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
30 May
1919 - 10 Dec 1919  Stanislav Vikentyevich Kosior      (b. 1889 - d. 1939)
                             (Stanislav Vikentiyovych Kosior)
                             (1st time)

10 Dec 1919 - Jan 1920     Vacant?
Jan 1920 - 23 Mar 1920     Rafail Borisovich Farbman (acting) (b. 1893 - d. 1966)
                            
(Rafayil Borysovych Farbman)
23 Mar 1920 - 25 Mar 1920  Nikolay Ilyich Nikolayev           (b. 1895 - d. 1937)

                            
(Beschetvertnoy)
                             (Mykola Illich Nikolayev [
Bezchetvertnyy])
25 Mar 1920 - 23 Nov 1920  S
tanislav Vikentyevich Kosior      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
First Secretary of the Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
23 Nov 1920 - 22 Mar 1921  Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov    (b. 1890 - d. 1986)
                            
(Vyacheslav Mykhaylovych Molotov)
Executive Secretary of the
Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
22 Mar 1921 - 15 Dec 1921  Feliks Yakovlevich Kon             (b. 1864 - d. 1941)
                             (Felyks Yakovlevych Kon)
First Secretaries of the
Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
15 Dec 1921 - 10 Apr 1923  Dmitriy Zakharovich Manuilskiy     (b. 1883 - d. 1959)
                             (Dmytro Zakharovych Manuyil's'kyy)
10 Apr 1923 - 20 Mar 1925  E
mmanuil Ionovich Kviring          (s.a.)
General Secretaries of the
Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
20 Mar 1925 -  7 Apr 1925  Emmanuil Ionovich Kviring          (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1925 - 14 Jul 1928  Lazar' Moiseyevich Kaganovich      (b. 1893 - d. 1991)
                            
(Lazar' Moyseyovych Kahanovych [Kaganovych])
14 Jul 1928 - 23 Jan 1934  S
tanislav Vikentyevich Kosior      (s.a.)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
23 Jan 1934 - 27 Jan 1938  Stanislav Vikentyevich Kosior      (s.a.)
27 Jan 1938 -  3 Mar 1947  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (b. 1894 - d. 1971)
                             (Khrushchyov)(1st time)
                             (
Mykyta Serhiyovych
Khrushchov [Khrushchyov])
                             (acting to 18 Jun 1938)

                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1941-1944)
 3 Mar 1947 - 26 Dec 1947  Lazar' Moiseyevich Kaganovich      (s.a.)
26 Dec 1947 - 28 Dec 1949  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
28 Dec 1949 -  4 Jun 1953  Leonid Georgiyevich Mel'nikov      (b. 1906 - d. 1981)
                            
(Leonid Heorhiyovych Mel'nykov)
 4 Jun 1953 - 26 Dec 1957  Aleksey Illarіonovich Kirichenko   (b. 1908 - d. 1975)

                            
(Oleksiy Ilarionovych Kyrychenko)
26 Dec 1957 -  2 Jul 1963  Nikolay Viktorovich Podgornyy      (b. 1903 - d. 1983)

                            
(Mykola Viktorovych Pidhornyy)
 2 Jul 1963 - 25 May 1972  Pyotr Yefimovich Shelest           (b. 1908 - d. 1996)

                            
(Petro Yukhymovych Shelest)
25 May 1972 - 28 Sep 1989  Vladimir Vasilyevich
Shcherbitskiy (b. 1918 - d. 1990)
                             (Volodymyr Vasylyovych Shcherbyts'kyy)
28 Sep 1989 - 23 Jun 1990  Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko        (b. 1932 - d. 1994)

                             (Volodymyr Antonovych Ivashko
)
23 Jun 1990 - 26 Aug 1991  Stanislav Ivanovich Gurenko        (b. 1936 - d. 2013)
                             (Stanislav Ivanovych Hurenko
)

Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee (in rebellion)
26 Dec 1917 - 30 Dec 1917  Presidium of the Central Executive
                           Committee
(acting)
                           - Vladimir Khristiyanovich Aussem  (b. 1882 - d. 1937?) RSDRP-B
                             (Volodymyr Khrystyyanovych Aussem)
                           -
Issak Leybovich Erlikherman      (b. 1892 - d. 1938)  RSDRP-B
                             (Isaak Leybovych Erlikherman)
                           -
Yevgeniya Bogdanovna Bosh (Bosch)(b. 1879 - d. 1925)  RSDRP-B
                             (Yevheniya Bohdanivna Bosh)(f)
                           - Sergey Sergeyevich Bakinskiy     (b. 1886 - d. 1939)  RSDRP-B
                             (Serhiy Serhiyovych Bakyns'kyy)
                           - Vasiliy Matveyevich Shakhray     (b. 1888 - d. 1919)  R
SDRP-B
                            
(Vasyl' Matviyovych Shakhray)
30 Dec 1917 - 19 Mar 1918 
Yukhym Grigoryevich Medvyedyev     (b. 1886 - d. 1938)  USDRP
                            
(Yukhym Hryhorovych Medvyedyev)
19 Mar 1918 - 25 Mar 1918 
Presidium of the Central Executive
                           Committee (acting)
                           - Vladimir Petrovich Zatonskiy     (b. 1888 - d. 1938)  RKP
                             (Volodymyr Petrovych Zatons'kyy)
                           - Y
an Borisovich Gamarnik          (b. 1894 - d. 1937)  RKP
                             (Yan Borysovych Hamarnyk)
                           - Georgiy Fyodorovich L
apchinskiy  (b. 1887 - d. 1938)  RKP
                             (Heorhiy Fedorovych Lapchyns'kyy)
                           -
Leonid Dmitriyevich Korobchuk    (b. 1898 - d. 19..)  USDRP
                             (Karabchuk)(Leonid Dmytrovych Korobchuk [Karabchuk])
                           - Afanasiy Semyonovich (Severov)   (b. 1884 - d. 1938)  UPSR

                               Odoyevskiy
                            
(Opanas S
emenovych [Sivero] Odoyevs'kyy)
                           -
Pavel Fyodorovich Boychenko                           UPSR
                             (Pavlo Fedorovych Boychenko)
                           - Yevgeniy Petrovich Terletskiy    (b. 1892 - d. 1938)  UPSR

                             (Yevhen Petrovych Terlets'kyy)
                           -
Viktor Grigoryevich Grish                             UPSR
                            
(Viktor Hryhorovych Hrysh)
25 Mar 1918 - 28 Apr 1918  V
ladimir Petrovich Zatonskiy       (s.a.)               RKP 
28 Apr 1918 - 12 Jul 1918 
All-Ukrainian Bureau For Directing the Partisan 
                           Resistance Against the German Occupiers
                           (in Soviet Russia exile)
                           - Andrey Sergeyevich Bubnov        (b. 1884 - d. 1938)  KPU-B
                             (Andriy Serhiyovych Bubnov)
                           -
Nikolay Alekseyevich Skrypnik    (b. 1872 - d. 1933)  KPU-B 
                             (Mykola Oleksiyovych Skrypnyk)
                               (chairman)
 
                          - V
ladimir Petrovich Zatonskiy     (s.a.)               KPU-B 
                           -
Georgіy Leonidovich Pyatakov     (s.a.)               KPU-B
                           -
Yevgeniy Petrovich Terletskiy    (s.a.)               UPSR
                           - Afanasiy Semyonovich Severo-     (s.a.)               UPSR
                               Odoyevskiy
 
                          - Sergey Dmitriyevich Mstislavskiy (b. 1876 - d. 1943)  KPU-B
                             (S
erhiy Dmytrovych Mstyslavs'kyy) 
                           - Nikolay Yevtikhiyevich           (b. 1897 - d. 1918)  KPU-B                                Vrublevskiy
                            
(Mykola Yevtykhiyovych Vrublevs'kyy)
                           - S
tanislav Vikentyevich Kosior    (s.a.)               KPU-B
                          
[list not necessarily complete]
Chairmen of the All-Ukrainian Central Military Revolutionary Committee
(
in Soviet Russia exile to 6 Jan 1919)
12 Jul 1918 - 18 Sep 1918  Andrey Sergeyevich Bubnov          (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Andriy Serhiyovych Bubnov)
18 Sep 1918 - 28 Nov 1918  Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeyev        (b. 1883 - d. 1921)  KPU-B
                             "Artem" ("Artyom") (1st time)
                             (Fedir Andriyovych Serhyeyev "Artem")
28 Nov 1918 -  6 Jan 1919  Grigoriy Ivanovich Petrovskіy      (b. 1878 - d. 1958)  KPU-B
                             (Hryhoriy Ivanovych Petrovs'kyy)
 6 Jan 1919 - 10 Mar 1919  Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeyev        (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             "Artem" ("Artyom") (2nd time) 

Chairman of the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee
10 Mar 1919 - 11 Dec 1919  Grigoriy Ivanovich Petrovskіy      (b. 1878 - d. 1958)  KPU-B

                             (Hryhoriy Ivanovych Petrovs'kyy)
                             (1st time)
Chairman of the All-Ukrainian Revolutionary Committee
11 Dec 1919 - 19 Feb 1920  Grigoriy Ivanovich Petrovskiy      (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Hryhoriy Ivanovych Petrovs'kyy)
Chairman of the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee
19 Feb 1920 - 25 Jul 1938  Grigoriy Ivanovich Petrovskіy      (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (2nd time)
Chairman of the Supreme Council

25 Jul 1938 - 27 Jul 1938  Mikhail Alekseyevich Burmistenko   (b. 1902 - d. 1941)  KPU-B
                             (Mykhaylo Oleksiyovych Burmystenko)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

27 Jul 1938 - 28 Jul 1939  Leonid Romanovich Korniyets        (b. 1901 - d. 1969)  KPU-B
                             (Korniets)(Leonid Romanovych Korniyets' [Kornyets])
28 Jul 1939 - 15 Jan 1954  Mikhail Sergeyevich Grechukha
     (b. 1902 - d. 1976)  KPU-B;1952
                             (Mykhaylo Serhiyovych Hrechukha)                      KPU
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1941-1944)

15 Jan 1954 -  7 Apr 1969  Dem'yan Sergeyevich Korotchenko    (b. 1894 - d. 1969)  KPU
                             (Dem'yan Serhiyovych Korotchenko)
 
7 Apr 1969 - 20 Jun 1969 
Stepan Yemelyanovich Stetsenko     (b. 1903 - d. 1989)  KPU
                             (Stepan Omelyanovych Stetsenko)
                             (1st time) (acting)
20 Jun 1969 -  9 Jun 1972  Aleksandr Pavlovich Lyashko        (b. 1915 - d. 2002)  KPU

                            
(Oleksandr Pavlovych Lyashko)
 9 Jun 1972 - 28 Jul 1972  Stepan Yemelyanovich
Stetsenko     (s.a.)               KPU
                             (2nd time) (acting)
28 Jul 1972 - 25 Jun 1976  Ivan Samіylovich Grushetskiy       (b. 1904 - d. 1982)  KPU

                            
(Ivan Samiylovych Grushets'kyy)
25 Jun 1976 - 22 Nov 1984  Aleksey Fedoseyevich Vatchenko     (b. 1914 - d. 1984)  KPU

                            
(Oleksiy Fedosiyovych Vatchenko)
22 Nov 1984 -  4 Jun 1990  Valentina Semyonovna Shevchenko (f)(b. 1935 - d. 2020)  KPU

                             (Valentyna Semyenovna Shevchenko)
                             (acting to 27 Mar 1985)

Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet
 4 Jun 1990 - 18 Jul 1990  Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko        (s.a.)               KPU
                             (Volodymyr Antonovych Ivashko)
 
9 Jul 1990 - 23 Jul 1990  Ivan Stepanovich Plyushch          (b. 1941 - d. 2014)  KPU
                            
(Ivan Stepanovych Plyushch)
                             (acting [for
Ivashko to 18 Jul 1990])
23 Jul 1990 - 24 Aug 1991  Leonid Makarovich Kravchuk         (b. 1934)            KPU
                             (Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk)

Chairmen of the People's Secretariat
17 Dec 1917 -  4 Mar 1918 
Yevgeniya Bogdanovna Bosh (Bosch)  (s.a.)               RSDRP-B                               (Yevheniya Bohdanivna Bosh)(f)
                             (acting)
 
4 Mar 1918 - 28 Apr 1918  Nikolay Alekseyevich Skrypnik      (s.a.)               RKP
                            
(Mykola Oleksiyovych Skrypnyk)
28 Apr 1918 - 28 Nov 1918  post abolished   
Chairmen of the Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government

28 Nov 1918 - 16 Jan 1919  Georgіy Leonidovich Pyatakov       (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Heorhiy Leonidovych P'yatakov)
                             (continued in dissidence 16 - 24 Jan 1919)
16 Jan 1919 - 24 Jan 1919  Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeyev        (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             "Artem" ("Artyom")
                             (Fedir Andriyovych Serhyeyev "Artem")
                             (acting from 19 Jan 1919)
24 Jan 1919 – 29 Jan 1919  Khristiyan Georgiyevich Rakovskiy  (b. 1873 - d. 1941)  KPU-B
                             (Khrystyyan Heorhiyovych Rakovs'kyy

                             [= Krăstyo Georgiev Stanchev])
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

29 Jan 1919 - 11 Dec 1919
  Khristiyan Georgiyevich Rakovskiy  (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Khrystyyan Heorhiyovych Rakovs'kyy)
                             (1st time)

11 Dec 1919 - 19 Feb 1920  post abolished
19 Feb 1920 - 15 Jul 1923  Khristiyan Georgiyevich Rakovskiy  (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (2nd time)
15 Jul 1923 - 28 Apr 1934  Vlas Yakovich (Yakovlevich) Chubar (b. 1891 - d. 1939)  KPU-B
                            
(Vlas Yakovych [Yakovlevych] Chubar)
28 Apr 1934 - 30 Aug 1937  Panas Petrovich Lyubchenko         (b. 1897 - d. 1937)  KPU-B

                            
(Panas Petrovych Lyubchenko)
30 Aug 1937 - 29 Oct 1937  Mikhaylo Ilyich Bondarenko         (b. 1903 - d. 1938)  KPU-B
                            
(Mykhaylo Illich Bondarenko)
13 Oct 1937 - 21 Feb 1938  Nikolay Makarovich Marchak         (b. 1903 - d. 1938)  KPU-B
                            
(Mykola Makarovych Marchak)
                             (acting [for B
ondarenko to 29 Oct 1937])
21 Feb 1938 - 28 Jul 1939  Dem
'yan Sergeyevich Korotchenko    (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Dem'yan Serhiyovych Korotchenko)
                             (1st time)
28 Jul 1939 -  5 Feb 1944  Leonid Romanovich Korniyets        (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Korniets)(Leonid Romanovych Korniyets' [Kornyets])
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1941-1944)

 5 Feb 1944 - 25 Mar 1946  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Khrushchyov)
                             (Mykyta Serhiyovych Khrushchov [Khrushchyov]
)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

25 Mar 1946 - 26 Dec 1947  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)               KPU-B
26 Dec 1947 - 15 Jan 1954  Dem'yan Sergeyevich Korotchenko    (s.a.)               KPU-B;1952
                             (2nd time)                                            KPU
15 Jan 1954 - 28 Feb 1961  Nikifor Timofeyevich Kal'chenko    (b. 1906 - d. 1989)  KPU
                            
(Nykyfor Tymofiyovych Kal'chenko)
28 Feb 1961 - 28 Jun 1963  Vladimir Vasilyevich Shcherbitskiy
(s.a.)               KPU
                             (Volodymyr Vasylyovych Shcherbyts'kyy)
                             (1st time) 

28 Jun 1963 - 15 Oct 1965  Ivan Pavlovich Kazanets'           (b. 1918 - d. 2013)  KPU
                            
(Ivan Pavlovych Kazanets')
15 Oct 1965 -  9 Jun 1972  Vladimir Vasilyevich Shcherbitskiy
(s.a.)               KPU
                             (2nd time) 
 
9 Jun 1972 - 10 Jul 1990  Aleksandr Pavlovich Lyashko        (s.a.)               KPU
                            
(Oleksandr Pavlovych Lyashko)
10 Jul 1990 - 23 Oct 1990  Vitaliy Andreyevich Masol          (b. 1928 - d. 2018)  KPU

                            
(Vitaliy Andriyovych Masol)
23 Oct 1990 - 18 Apr 1991  Vitol'd Pavlovich Fokin            (b. 1932)            KPU

                             (Vitol'd Pavlovych Fokin [Fokyn])
                             (acting to 14 Nov 1990)

Pro-Soviet Resistance to German Occupation 1941-1944

Chief of Staff of Ukrainian Partisan Units (also in charge of Moldavia)

20 Jun 1942 – 1944         Timofey Amvrosiyevich Strokach     (b. 1903 - d. 1963)  Mil/KPU-B


Party abbreviations:
KPU = Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Ukrainy (Communist Party of Ukraine, communist, former KPU-B, 13 Oct 1952-26 Aug 1991); KPU-B = Komunistychna Partiya (Bil'shovykiv) Ukrayiny/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Ukrainy (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Ukraine, communist, separated 1 Mar 1919 from RKP, 12 Jul 1918-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPU); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks]Marxist-Leninist communist, former RSDRP-B, state party, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)[All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)]); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Bolsheviks], Russian revolutionary socialist, Marxist communist, 1 Mar 1898-8 Mar 1918, renamed RKP); UPSR = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Revolyutsioneriv/Ukrainskaya Partiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Ukrainian Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries, democratic socialist, agrarian socialist, 17 Apr 1917-1918, left wing faction merged into KPU-B, right wing in exile to 1950 then merged into USP); USDRP = Ukrayins'ka Sotsial-Demokratychna Robitnycha Partiya/Ukrainskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers' Party, democratic socialist, Jan 1919 split into right and left wing factions, 1920 exiled, Dec 1905-26 Mar 1950, merged into USP)


Odessa (Odesa) Region

[Odessa Soviet
                          Republic, 1918 (Ukraine)]
31 Jan 1918 - 13 Mar 1918
[Odessa Government,
                          Russian flag 1918-19 (Ukraine)]
18 Dec 1918 - 8 Apr 1919
Odessa Government

1526                       Ottoman Empire annexes Ochakov (Ochakiv), the rest of area is
                             retained by khanate of Crimea under Ottoman suzerainty.
1774                       Under the Ottoman rule upon independence of Crimea (part of Eyalet
                             of Silistra).
1788                       Russian occupation of the area.
1791                       Ceded to Russia by the Ottoman Empire, to 1796 included in the
                             governorate-general of Yekaterinoslav, Taurida and Voznesensk
                             (area of the governorate-general referred to as Novorossiya).
1794                       Odessa city founded.
1802 - 1822                Military Governorate of Nikolayev (from 1803, Kherson), covering
                             governorates of Yekaterinoslav (to 1814), Nikolayev (from 1803,
                             Kherson) and Taurida.
1822 - 1874                Governorate-general of Novorossiya (governorates of Kherson,
                             Taurida and [to 1830] Yekaterinoslav) and Bessarabia.
1879 - 1890                Temporary governorate-general of Odessa, covering the four
                             governorates of the former governorate-general of Novorossiya.
1905 - 1911                Temporary governorate-general of Odessa, covering only the Kherson
                             governorate.
1914 - 1917                Governorate-general of Odessa, covering the governorates of
                             Kherson, Bessarabia and Taurida.
20 Nov 1917                (First) "Rumcherod", founded in 23 May 1917, recognized authority
                             of the Ukrainian People's Republic.
23 Dec 1917                (Second) Central Executive Committee of Soviets of Soldiers',
                             Sailors', Workers' and Peasants' Deputies of the Romanian Front,
                             the Black Sea Fleet and Odessa oblast ("Rumcherod") organized.
14 Jan 1918 - 26 Jan 1918  Bolshevik units of "Rumcherod" occupy Bessarabia (see Moldova).
27 Jan 1918                "Rumcherod" declared itself the "supreme Soviet authority" in
                             rebellion against the Ukrainian People's Republic, on 30 Jan 1918
                             occupied Kherson, on 31 Jan 1918 completed occupation of Odessa
                             (Odesa).
31 Jan 1918                Odessa Soviet Republic
proclaimed by "Rumcherod" (claiming Kherson,
                             and Bessarabia governorates); as a part of Russia.
13 Mar 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Odessa occupied by Austria-Hungary, part of the Ukrainian People's
                             Republic (Ukrainian State 29 Apr 1918-11 Dec 1918), Kherson
                             occupied from 19 Mar 1918.
16 Dec 1918 -  8 Apr 1919  Odessa occupied by the Allied and Associated Powers and on 18 Dec
                             1918 declared an Allied protectorate (French and Greek troops
                             present from 7 Dec 1918), Ukrainian authorities withdrew.
30 Jan 1919                Allied-occupied area enlarged (to also include Kherson), but the
                             civil administration of the Ukrainian People's Republic remained.
 8 Apr 1919                Soviet troops occupied Odessa (on 10 Mar 1919 Kherson occupied),
                             part of the Ukrainian S.S.R.
24 Aug 1919 -  7 Feb 1920  "White" Russian forces (Armed Forces in the South of Russia) occupy
                             Odessa (Kherson occupied from 13 Aug 1919).
 7 Feb 1920                Soviet troops re-occupy Odessa (on 4 Feb 1920 Kherson occupied),
                             part of the Ukrainian S.S.R.

Governors-general of Yekaterinoslav, (from 1784) Taurida and (from 1795) Voznesensk
(with title Namestnik)(in Kremenchug, from 1789 in Yekaterinoslav [modern Dnipro])
1783 - 1791                Knyaz' Grigoriy Aleksandrovich      (b. 1739 - d. 1791)
                             Potyomkin-Tavricheskiy
1791 - 1793                Vacant
1793 - 1796                Graf Platon Aleksandrovich Zubov    (b. 1767 - d. 1822)
Military governors of Nikolayev (from 1803, Kherson) and chief administrators of civil affairs for Yekaterinoslav (to 1814), Nikolayev (from 1803, Kherson) and Taurida Governorates
(with rights of governor-general; in Yekaterinoslav, 1803-1805 in Kherson, from 1805 in Odessa)
Dec 1802 - Feb 1803        Ivan Ivanovich Mikhel'son           (b. 1740 - d. 1807)
                             (Johann von Michelsohnen)
Feb 1803 - Oct 1803        Sergey Andreyevich Bekleshov        (b. 1752 - d. 1803)
Oct 1803 - Mar 1805        Andrey Grigoryevich Rozenberg       (b. 1739 - d. 1813)
                             (Diederich Arend von Rosenberg)
Mar 1805 - Sep 1814        Armand Emmanuel du Plessis,         (b. 1766 - d. 1822)
                             duc de Richelieu
                             (= Gertsog Emmanuil Osipovich de Rishel'yo)
Sep 1814 - Dec 1815        Aleksandr Yakovlevich Rudzevich     (b. 1775 - d. 1829) 
Dec 1815 - Jul 1822        Alexandre Louis Andrault, comte     (b. 1763 - d. 1831)
                             de Langeron                       
                            (= Graf Aleksandr Fyodorovich Lanzheron)
Governors-general of Novorossiya and Bessarabia
(in Odessa)
17 Jul 1822 -  7 May 1823  Ivan Nikitich Inzov                 (b. 1768 - d. 1845)
19 May 1823 -  5 Nov 1854  Graf Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov  (b. 1782 - d. 1856)
                             (from 1845, Knyaz' Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov)
                             (absent 1826-1828, 1830-1832, from 1846)
29 May 1826 -  1 Jan 1828  Graf Fyodor Petrovich Palen         (b. 1780 - d. 1863)
                             (Friedrich Alexander Graf von der Pahlen)
                             (1st time)(acting for Vorontsov)
1830 - 1831                Afanasiy Ivanovich Krasovskiy       (b. 1781 - d. 1843)
                             (acting for Vorontsov)
15 Feb 1831 - Oct 1832     Graf Fyodor Petrovich Palen         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting for Vorontsov)
1846 - Nov 1854            Pavel Ivanovich Fyodorov            (b. 1789 - d. 1855)
                             (acting for Vorontsov)
Nov 1854 - 17 Apr 1855     Nikolay Nikolayevich Annenkov       (b. 1799 - d. 1865)
17 Apr 1855 - 29 Jun 1862  Graf Aleksandr Grigoryevich         (b. 1795 - d. 1891)
                             Stroganov
 2 Dec 1862 - Jan 1874     Pavel Yevstafyevich Kotsebu         (b. 1801 - d. 1884)
                             (Paul Demetrius von Kotzebue)
Temporary governors-general (from 1914, governor-general) of Odessa
1879 - 1880                Graf Eduard Ivanovich Totleben      (b. 1818 - d. 1884)
                             (Franz Eduard Graf von Totleben)
1880 - 1881                Aleksandr Romanovich Drentel'n      (b. 1820 - d. 1888)
                             (Alexander von Drenteln)
1881 - 1882                Knyaz' Aleksandr Mikhailovich       (b. 1820 - d. 1893)
                             Dondukov-Korsakov
1882 - 1883                Iosif Vladimirovich Gurko           (b. 1828 - d. 1901)
1883 - 1890                Khristofor Khristoforovich Roop     (b. 1831 - d. 1917)
                             (Christoph von Roop)
1890 - 1905                Post abolished
1905 - 1906                Konstantin Adamovich Karangozov     (b. 1852 - d. 1907)
1906 - 1907                Pavel Fyodorovich Glagolev          (b. 1849 - d. af.1910)
1907 - 1911                Ivan Nikolayevich Tolmachev         (b. 1861 - d. 1932)
1911 - 1914                Post abolished
1914 - 1917                Mikhail Isayevich Ebelov            (b. 1855 - d. 1919)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Soviets of Soldiers', Sailors', Workers' and Peasants' Deputies of the Romanian Front, the Black Sea Fleet and Odessa Oblast ("Rumcherod")

23 Dec 1917 - 13 Mar 1918  Vladimir Grigoryevich Yudovskiy     (b. 1880 - d. 1949)  RSDRP-B
                             (with no executive role from 31 Jan 1918)

Chairman of the Executive Committee of Soviets of Odessa Oblast
20 Feb 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Pyotr Ivanovich Starostin           (b. 1883 - d. 1918)  RSDRP-B
                             (Petro Ivanovych Starostin)
Allied and Associated Powers Military Commanders in Odessa (all from France)
16 Dec 1918 - 15 Jan 1919  Albert Charles Jules Borius         (b. 1865 - d. 1937)  Mil
15 Jan 1919 -  8 Apr 1919  Philippe Henri Joseph d'Anselme     (b. 1864 - d. 1936)  Mil
Chief administrator of Novorossiya Oblast (with rights of governor-general)
(in charge of Kherson and Taurida governorates)
25 Aug 1919 -  7 Feb 1920  Nikolay Nikolayevich Shilling       (b. 1870 - d. 1946)  Mil

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Odessa Soviet Republic
31 Jan 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Vladimir Grigoryevich Yudovskiy     (s.a.)               RSDRP-B
Governors of Odessa Rayon and Heads of the Consultation (from 21 Mar 1919, Directory)
(chiefs of the French-appointed 'Odessa government')
18 Dec 1918 - 15 Mar 1919  Aleksey Nikolayevich Grishin-       (b. 1880 - d. 1919)  Mil
                             Almazov
21 Mar 1919 -  8 Apr 1919  Aleksey Vladimirovich Shvarts       (b. 1874 - d. 1853)  Mil


Khar'kov (Kharkiv) and Donetsk (Donets'k) Regions

[Soviet Republic
                          of the Basins of Donetsk & Krivoy Rog
                          (Donets' k- Kryvyy Rih) 1918 (Ukraine)]
12 Feb 1918 - 19 Mar 1918
Map of Soviet Republic of the Donetsk and Krivoy
Rog Basins 1918

Capital: Khar'kov
(Kharkiv)
(Poltava 1802-1837)

1780 - 1796                Governorate-general of Khar'kov and (except 1787-1791) Voronezh.
1802 - 1835                Military Governorate of Malorossiya, covering governorates of
                             Poltava and Chernigov.
1835 - 1856                Governorate-general of Khar'kov, Poltava and Chernigov.
1879 - 1882                Temporary governorate-general of Khar'kov, covering governorates of
                             Khar'kov, Poltava, Chernigov, Kursk, Oryol and Voronezh.
1905 - 1906                Temporary governorate-general of Khar'kov.
20 Nov 1917                (First) Executive Committee of Soviets of Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Basins,
                             founded in May 1917 in Khar'kov (Kharkiv), recognized authority
                             of the Ukrainian People's Republic (in Lugansk [Luhans'k]
                             Bolshevik rule was established).
20 Dec 1917                (Second) Executive Committee declared that Donetsk-Krivoy Rog
                             Oblast, covering Khar'kov and Yekaterinoslav governorates, parts
                             of Kherson governorate (area of Krivoy Rog) and Taurida
                             governorate
(area of Melitopol'), and the newly Bolshevik-created
                             Donetsk
governorate, belongs to Soviet Russia.
23 Dec 1917                Soviet Russian troops occupy Khar'kov (Yekaterinoslav [modern
                             Dnipro] is occupied 11 Jan 1918).
25 Dec 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets established in Khar'kov,
                             part of a federal Soviet Russian republic.
12 Feb 1918                Soviet Republic of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Basins (Donets'k-Kryvyy
                             Rih), with a capital in Khar'kov, is proclaimed in Khar'kov,
                             Yekaterinoslav, Donetsk, and parts of Kherson and Taurian
                             governorates provinces, part of Russian S.F.S.R.; separation from
                             Ukraine declared.
19 Mar 1918                Accepted merger into the Ukrainian Soviet Republic (largely
                             nominally).
 8 Apr 1918 - 19 Nov 1918  German occupation of Khar'kov, part of the Ukrainian People's
                             Republic (29 Apr 1918-18 Nov 1918 the Ukrainian State),
                             Yekaterinoslav occupied by Austrians from 4 Apr 1918, Lugansk
                             occupied by Austrians and Germans on 28 Apr 1918.
19 Nov 1918 - 21 Jan 1919  Lugansk occupied by the Don Cossacks, originally by agreement with
                             the Ukrainian People's Republic.
 3 Jan 1919                Soviet occupation of Khar'kov (in Lugansk from 21 Jan 1919, in
                             Yekaterinoslav from 27 Jan 1919), part of the Ukrainian S.S.R.
25 Jun 1919 - 12 Dec 1919  "White" Russian forces (Armed Forces in the South of Russia) occupy
                             Khar'kov (in Lugansk from 27 May 1919, in Yekaterinoslav from
                             29 Jun 1919, in Poltava from 16 Jul 1919).
28 Oct 1919 -  8 Dec 1919  Makhnovist Forces occupy Yekaterinoslav.
12 Dec 1919                Soviet occupation of Khar'kov (in Poltava from 13 Dec 1919, in
                             Lugansk from 24 Dec 1919, in Yekaterinoslav from 30 Dec 1919),
                             part of the Ukrainian S.S.R.

Governors-general of Khar'kov and (except 1787-1791) Voronezh
(with title Namestnik)
(in Khar'kov)
1780 - 1782                Yevdokim Alekseyevich Shcherbinin  (b. 1728 - d. 1783)
1782 - 1787                Vasiliy Alekseyevich Chertkov      (b. 1726 - d. 1793)
1787 - 1791                Knyaz' Grigoriy Aleksandrovich     (b. 1739 - d. 1791)
                             Potyomkin-Tavricheskiy
1791 - 1796                Vacant
1796                       Andrey Yakovlevich Levanidov       (b. 1747 - d. 1802)
Military governors of Malorossiya and Chief administrators of Civil affairs for
Poltava and Chernigov Governorates
(in Poltava; with rights of governor-general)
1802 - 1807                Knyaz' Aleksey Borisovich Kurakin  (b. 1759 - d. 1829)
1808 - 1816                Knyaz' Yakov Ivanovich Lobanov-    (b. 1760 - d. 1831)
                             Rostovskiy
1816 - 1834                Knyaz' Nikolay Grigoryevich Repnin (b. 1778 - d. 1845)
                             -Volkonskiy
1834 - 1835                Graf Aleksandr Dmitriyevich Guryev (b. 1785 - d. 1865)
Governors-general of Khar'kov, Poltava and Chernigov (in Poltava, from 1837 in Khar'kov)
1835 - 1836                Graf Vasiliy Vasilyevich Levashov  (b. 1783 - d. 1848)
1836 - 1839                Graf Aleksandr Grigoryevich        (b. 1796 - d. 1891)
                             Stroganov
1840 - 1847                Knyaz' Nikolay Andreyevich         (b. 1792 - d. 1847)
                             Dolgorukov
1847 - 1856                Sergey Aleksandrovich Kokoshkin    (b. 1796 - d. 1861)
Temporary governors-general of Khar'kov
1879 - 1880                Graf Mikhail Tarielovich Loris-    (b. 1825 - d. 1888)
                             Melikov
1880 - 1881                Knyaz' Aleksandr Mikhaylovich      (b. 1820 - d. 1893)
                             Dondukov-Korsakov
1881 - 1882                Knyaz' Dmitriy Ivanovich           (b. 1825 - d. 1889)
                             Svyatopolk-Mirskiy
1882 - 1905                Post abolished
1905 - 1906                Konstantin Sokratovich Starynkevich(b. 1858 - d. 1906)
1906                       Nikolay Nikolayevich Peshkov       (b. 1857 - d. af.1917)
Chairman of the Executive Committee of Soviets of Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Oblast
20 Dec 1917 - 28 Apr 1918  Semyon Filippovich Vasil'chenko    (b. 1884 - d. 1937)  RSDRP-B
                             (with no executive rule from 14 Feb 1918)
Chairman of the Oblast Council of People's Commissars of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Basins
14 Feb 1918 - May 1918     Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeyev        (b. 1883 - d. 1921)  RSDRP-B/RKP
                             "Artem" ("Artyom")
                             (Fedir Andriyovych Serhyeyev "Artem")
 9 Apr 1918 – May 1918     Yuriy Khrisanfovich Lutovinov      (b. 1887 - d. 1924)  RKP
                             (Yuriy Khrysanfovych Lotovinov)
                             (acting for Sergeyev)
                             (in Lugansk to 28 Apr 1918, then in
                              exile in Tsaritsyn [modern Volgograd])
Chief administrators of Khar'kov Oblast (with rights of governor-general)
(in charge of Khar'kov, Poltava and Yekaterinoslav governorates
and the White-occupied Russian areas towards Moscow)
25 Jun 1919 - 10 Dec 1919  Vladimir Zenonovich May-Mayevskiy  (b. 1867 - d. 1920)  Mil
10 Dec 1919 - 12 Dec 1919  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (b. 1878 - d. 1928)  Mil


(post-Soviet) Ukraine

Note: Names are listed in Ukrainian, romanization system BGN/PCGN.

24 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence (Ukraine)
                             (ratified by referendum on 1 Dec 1991).
26 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of the
                             Soviet Union)
.

Chairman of the Supreme Council
24 Aug 1991 -  5 Dec 1991
  Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk         (b. 1934)            Non-party
Presidents

 5 Dec 1991 - 19 Jul 1994  Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk         (s.a.)               Non-party
19 Jul 1994 - 23 Jan 2005  Leonid Danylovych Kuchma           (b. 1938)            Non-party
23 Jan 2005 - 25 Feb 2010  Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko      (b. 1954)            NU
25 Feb 2010 - 22 Feb 2014  Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych       (b. 1950)            Non-party
23 Feb 2014 -  7 Jun 2014  Oleksandr Valentynovych Turchynov  (b. 1964)            VOB;2014 NF
                             (acting)
 7 Jun 2014 - 20 May 2019  Petro Oleksiyovych Poroshenko      (b. 1965)            Non-party
20 May 2019 -              Volodymyr Oleksandrovych Zelens'kyy(b. 1978)            SN

Prime ministers 
18 Apr 1991 -  2 Oct 1992  Vitol'd Pavlovych Fokin            (b. 1932)          KPU;1991 Ind
 2 Oct 1992 - 13 Oct 1992  Valentyn Kostyantynovych Symonenko (b. 1940)            Non-party
                             (acting) 
13 Oct 1992 - 22 Sep 1993  Leonid Danylovych Kuchma           (s.a.)               Non-party
22 Sep 1993 - 16 Jun 1994  Yukhym Leonidovych Zvyahil's'kyy   (b. 1933)            Non-party
                             (acting) 
16 Jun 1994 -  6 Mar 1995  Vitaliy Andriyovych Masol          (b. 1928 - d. 2018)  KPU
 
6 Mar 1995 - 27 May 1996  Yevhen Kyrylovych Marchuk          (b. 1941)            SDP
                             (acting to 8 Jun 1995)
28 May 1996 -  2 Jul 1997  Pavlo Ivanovych Lazarenko          (b. 1953)            Hromada
19 Jun 1997 - 16 Jul 1997  Vasyl' Vasylyovych Durdynets'      (b. 1937)            Non-party
                             (acting [for Lazarenko to 2 Jul 1997])
16 Jul 1997 - 22 Dec 1999  Valeriy Pavlovych Pustovoytenko    (b. 1947)            NDP
22 Dec 1999 - 29 May 2001  Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko      (s.a.)               Non-party
29 May 2001 - 21 Nov 2002  Anatoliy Kyrylovych Kinakh         (b. 1954)            PPP
21 Nov 2002 -  5 Jan 2005  Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych       (s.a.)               PR
                            
(1st time)
 7 Dec 2004 - 28 Dec 2004  M
ykola Yanovych Azarov (1st time)  (b. 1947)            PR
                             (acting for Yanukovych)
 5 Jan 2005 - 24 Jan 2005  Mykola Yanovych Azarov (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PR
                             (acting)      
24 Jan 2005 -  8 Sep 2005  Yuliya Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko (f)(b. 1960)            VOB
                             (1st time) (acting to 4 Feb 2005)
 8 Sep 2005 -  4 Aug 2006  Yuriy Ivanovych Yekhanurov         (b. 1948)            NU
                             (Ekhanurov)(acting to 22 Sep 2005)
 4 Aug 2006 - 18 Dec 2007  Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych       (s.a.)               PR
                            
(2nd time)
18 Dec 2007 - 11 Mar 2010  
Yuliya Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko (f)(s.a.)               VOB
                             (2nd time)
 4 Mar 2010 -  9 Mar 2010  Oleksandr Valentynovych Turchynov  (s.a.)               VOB
                             ([de facto] acting for Tymoshenko)
11 Mar 2010 - 28 Jan 2014  Mykola Yanovych Azarov (3rd time)  (s.a.)               PR
28 Jan 2014 - 27 Feb 2014  Serhiy Gennadiyovych Arbuzov       (b. 1976)            PR
                            
(acting)
27 Feb 2014 - 14 Apr 2016  Arseniy Petrovych Yatsenyuk        (b. 1974)           
NF
24 Jul 2014 -  1 Aug 2014  Volodymyr Borysovych Groysman      (b. 1978)            Non-party
                             (Hroysman)(acting for Yatsenyuk)
14 Apr 2016 -
29 Aug 2019  Volodymyr Borysovych Groysman      (s.a.)               Non-party
29 Aug 2019 -  4 Mar 2020  Oleksiy Valeriyovych Honcharuk     (b. 1984)            SN
 4 Mar 2020 -              Denys Anatoliyovych Shmyhal        (b. 1975)            Non-party


Territorial Disputes:
1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Belarus remains unratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Russia is complete and demarcation began in 2012; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Ukraine and Moldova signed an agreement officially delimiting their border in 1999, but the border has not been demarcated due to Moldova's difficulties with the break-away region of Transnistria; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldova's Transnistria Region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSECE)-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops; the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Ostriv Zmiyinyy/Insula Șerpilor (Snake Island) and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea; Ukraine, U.S. and most other nations do not recognize Russia's 21 Mar 2014 annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol', nor their re-designation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol'.

Party abbreviations: Hromada = Vseukrayins'ke Ob'yednannya "Hromada" (All-Ukrainian Association "Community", social democratic, center-left, est.12 Dec 1993); Ind = Independent; KPU = Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Ukrainy (Communist Party of Ukraine, communist, Eurosceptic, former KPU-B, 13 Oct 1952-26 Aug 1991, re-est.19 Jun 1993); NDP = Narodno-Demokratychna Partiya (People's Democratic Party, centrist, est.24 Feb 1996); NF = Narodnyy Front (People's Front, nationalist, conservative, pro-Europe, est.31 Mar 2014); NRU = Narodnyy Rukh Ukrayiny (People's Movement of Ukraine, "Rukh", center-right, Ukrainian nationalist, est.9 Feb 1990); NU = Narodnyy Soyuz "Nasha Ukraina" (People's Union "Our Ukraine", center-right, liberal conservative, pro-Europe, Viktor Yushchenko personalist, est.5 Mar 2005); PPP = Partiya Promyslovtsiv i Pidpryyemtsiv Ukrayiny (Party of Industrialists & Entrepreneurs of Ukraine, centrist, est.9 Feb 2000); PR = Partiya Regioniv/Partiya Regionov (Party of Regions, regionalist, centrist, pro-Russia, Eurosceptic, 2001-05 pro-Kuchma, 2010-14 pro-Yanukovych, 1997-2001 named Partiya Regionalʹnoho Vidrodzhennya Ukrayiny/Partiya Regional'nogo Vozrozhdeniya Ukrainy [Party Regional Revival of Ukraine], est.3 Mar 2001); SN = Sluha Narodu (Servant of the People, populist, anti-corruption, pro-European, est.2 Dec 2017); VOB = Vseukrayins'ke Ob'yednannya "Bat'kivshchyna" (All-Ukrainian Association "Fatherland", center-right, liberal conservative, populist, pro-Europe, split from Hromada, est.9 Jul 1999)



Reichskommissariat Ukraine

[German (Third) Reich War flag used in
                Reichskommissariat Ukraine 1941-1944]
 
Map of Ukraine
1941-1944
Capital: Rowno
(Rivne)
Currency: 1942-1944 Reichskommissariat
Ukraine Karbowanez
Population: 16,910,008
(1943 est.)
General Districts
(Generalbezirke)

22 Jun 1941                German invasion begins (Kiev on 19 Sep 1941).
 1 Sep 1941                Reichskommissariat Ukraine organized (by decree of 20 Aug 1941)
                             (originally composed of former Kam'yanets'-Podil's'kiy, Rivne,
                             Vinnytsia, Volyn and parts of Ternopil', Brest and Pinsk oblasti)
20 Oct 1941                Former Kiev, Vinnytsya, Zhytomyr and parts of Homel' and Poliss'ye
                             oblasti included.
15 Nov 1941                Former Cherkasy, Dnipropetrovs'k, Kirovohrad and Mykolayiv oblasti
                             included.
 1 Sep 1942                Former Kherson, Poltava and Zaporizhya oblasti included.
21 Jan 1943                Most of the Reichskommissariat (except General Districts of
                             Wolhynien-Podolien and Shitomir) subject to German military
                             administration (see under Soviet Union) by decree.
1943 - 1944                Soviet re-occupation of Ukraine (Dnipropetrovs'k liberated on
                             30 Sep 1943, Kiev on 6 Nov 1943, Rivne 2 Feb 1944, Kherson
                             13 Mar 1944, Proskurov [now Khmel'nyts'kiy] 26 Mar 1944,
                             and Mykolayiv 28 Mar 1944).
25 Feb 1944 -  3 Jul 1944  Inclusion of the reminder of Reichskommissariat Ukraine (Brest,
                             Pinsk) into Generalbezirk Weissruthenien (see Belarus), the
                             Reichskommissariat Ukraine exists in name only to 10 Nov 1944.


German
Commander-in-chief of the Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd)
22 Jun 1941 -  1 Sep 1941  Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (b. 1875 - d. 1953)  Mil
Reichskommissar für die Ukraine
 1 Sep 1941 - 25 Feb 1944  Erich Koch                     (b. 1896 - d. 1986)  NSDAP
                             (remained mainly in Königsberg, Germany)
Sep 1941 – af.Apr 1942     Helmuth von Wedelstädt         (b. 1902 – d. 1988)  NSDAP
                             (acting for absent Koch)
bf.Nov 1942 – 30 Sep 1943  Paul Dargel                    (b. 1903 – d.af.1945)NSDAP

                             (acting for absent Koch)

Party abbreviation: NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, German nationalist, Nazi fascist, xenophobic, 1920-1945)


Transnistria

[Romania]

Map of Transnistria
1941-1944

Capital: Odessa
(Odesa)
Population: 2,326,224
 (1941)



 3 Aug 1941 - 10 Apr 1944  Ukraine between the Dniester and Bug Rivers, including Odessa
                             (Odesa) and the Transnitria region of Moldavian S.S.R., is
                             occupied but not annexed by Romania.
19 Aug 1941 - 10 Apr 1944  Organized as Transnistria Governorate (Guvernământul
                             Transnistriei
); Odessa occupied on 16 Oct 1941.
10 Apr 1944                Odessa liberated by Soviet forces. 

Romanian Commanders (of the Romanian 4th Army)
 3 Aug 1941 -  9 Sep 1941  Nicolae Ciupercă                   (b. 1882 - d. 1950)  Mil 
 9 Sep 1941 - 16 Oct 1941  Iosif Iacobici                     (b. 1884 - d. 1952)  Mil 
Governors of Transnistria
19 Aug 1941 -  1 Feb 1944  Gheorghe Alexianu                  (b. 1897 - d. 1946)  Mil 
 1 Feb 1944 - 10 Apr 1944  Gheorghe Potopeanu                 (b. 1889 - d. 1966)  Mil



Galicia

[Galicia and
                          Lodomeria c.1773-1849 (Austrian Empire)]
c.1773 - 1849
[Galicia and
                          Lodomeria flag 1849-1890 (Austrian Empire)]
1849 - 1890
[Galicia and
                          Lodomeria flag, 1890-1918 (Austro-Hungarian
                          Empire)]
1890 - 1 Nov 1918
[Galician
                      Socialist Soviet Republic, 1920 (possible
                      reconstruction)(Poland)]
1 Aug 1920 - 19 Sep 1920 Galician SSR Flag
 


Map of Galicia in 1914
Capital: Lemberg (L'viv, Lwów)
Population: 8,025,675 (1910)
2,600,000 (1773 est.)

Currency: 1892-1918 Austro-
Hungarian  Kronen (ATK);
1
918-1919 Hryvnya (UAG)
Ethnic groups: Polish 58.55%,
Ruthenian (Ukrainian) 40.2 %,
German 1.13 %, Czech/Slovak
 0.11% (1910)
Religions: Roman Catholic 46.5%,
Greek Catholic 42.1%, Jews 11.1%,
Evangelical Protestant 0.5% (1910)
 5 Aug 1772                Parts of Lesser Poland (Małopolska) and Red Ruthenia (Ruś Czerwona)
                             annexed by Austria in the First Partition of Poland.
30 Sep 1773                Galicia formally ceded to Austria by Austro-Polish treaty.
18 Nov 1773                Province named the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria with the
                             Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator created (Königreich Galizien und
                             Lodomerien mit den Herzogtümern Auschwitz und Zator), with the
                             ruler of Austria adopting the additional style of König/Königin
                             von Galizien und Lodomerien und Herzog/Herzogin zu Auschwitz und
                             Zator ("King/Queen of Galicia and Lodomeria and Duke/Duchess of
                             Auschwitz and Zator").
 1 Nov 1786 -  8 Mar 1849  Bukovina incorporated into Galicia.
 1 Nov 1803 - 14 Oct 1809  West Galicia (see under Poland) incorporated into Galicia.
Jun 1809 - Oct 1809        Lwów and some other parts of Galicia occupied by Russia.
14 Oct 1809                West Galicia is ceded to the Duchy of Warsaw, and the area around
                             Tarnopol (Tarnopoler Kreis) is ceded to Russia, by the Treaty
                             of Schönbrunn (ratified 20 Oct 1809).
25 Aug 1815                New Style calendar re-introduced in re-incorporated parts.
30 Aug 1815                Tarnopoler Kreis, etc. reverts to Austria by Austro-Russian treaty
                        (administered by imperial Landes-Commissariat to 1 Nov 1815).
16 Nov 1846                Cracow Free City annexed by Austria is incorporated into Galicia.
21 Mar 1848 -  2 Nov 1848  Polish rebellion in Galicia.
 4 Mar 1849 - 15 Nov 1849  Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, with the Duchies of Auschwitz
                             and Zator and the Grand Duchy of Cracow (Königreich Galizien und
                             Lodomerien, mit den Herzogtümern Auschwitz und Zator und dem
                             Grossherzogtum Krakau) a crownland of Austria (not effected),
29 Sep 1850                Imperial patent grants a constitution (cancelled 31 Dec 1851).
 1 Sep 1860 -  9 Mar 1861  Bukovina subordinated to Galicia.
30 Oct 1860                Granted autonomy by imperial diploma (not effected).
26 Feb 1861                Partially autonomous. 
 6 Apr 1861                Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria together with the Grand Duchy
                             of Cracow (Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien samt dem
                             Grossherzogtum Krakau), made a crownland of Austria.
21 Dec 1867                Part of "Austrian half" of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (i.e. of
                             the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Diet").
 5 Sep 1914 - 14 Jul 1915  Russian occupation of most of Galicia (in Lemberg [Lwów] 3 Sep 1914
                             - 22 Jun 1915 and Premissel [Przemyśl] 22 Mar - 3 Jul 1915)
                             which is organized as General Government of Occupied Austro-
                             Hungarian Provinces (Galicia and Bukovina).
 4 Oct 1916 -  2 Aug 1917  Russian re-occupation of Tarnopol and some other parts of Galicia.
 1 Nov 1918                Former Austrian crownland of Galicia and Lodomeria is divided
                             between Ukraine and Poland. Kraków/Cracow and part of Galicia
                             West of the San River (incl. Nowy Sącz/Neu Sandez, Oświęcim/
                             Auschwitz, Przemyśl/Premissel, Tarnów/Tarnau and Zator/
                             Neuenstadt) is incorporated into Poland - while that part of
                             Galicia East of the San River (incl. L'viv/Lwów, Ternopil'/
                             Tarnopol, Kolomyya/Kołomyja, and Stanyslaviv/Stanisławów)
                             becomes Western Ukraine.
 1 Nov 1918 - May 1919     Western Ukrainian People's Republic (see below).
30 Apr 1920                Western Ukraine annexed by Poland (formally recognized by Allied
                             Conference of Ambassadors on 12 Mar 1923).
 8 Jul 1920                Galician Revolutionary Committee ("Galrevkom") formed in Kiev,
                             Ukrainian S.S.R. in preparation for Soviet rule over Galicia.
25 Jul 1920                Soviet Russian invasion, failing to gain Lemberg (L'viv).
26 Jul 1920 - 19 Sep 1920  Soviet Russia occupies Tarnopol' (Ternopil').
 1 Aug 1920                Soviet power established in the parts of Galicia under Soviet
                             Russian occupation, to be provisionally administered by the
                             "Galrevkom" (Galician Socialist Soviet Republic).
15 Sep 1920                Galician S.S.R. government evacuates Ternopil'.
19 Sep 1920                Polish occupation of Tarnopol' (Ternopil').
23 Sep 1920                Galrevkom dissolved in exile, area re-occupied by Poland.
18 Mar 1921                Recognized as part of Poland by Poland-Soviet Russia-Ukraine
                             peace treaty (ratified 30 Apr 1921).
17-22 Sep 1939             Western Ukraine occupied and, from 1 Nov 1939, annexed
                             by the Soviet Union (part of Ukrainian S.S.R.)
Governors (Landes-Gouverneure)
 4 Oct 1772 - 24 Jan 1774  Johann Anton Graf von Pergen       (b. 1725 - d. 1814)
24 Jan 1774 - May 1774     Andreas Graf von Hadik             (b. 1710 - d. 1790)
                             (= András gróf Hadik futaki)
May 1774 - Jun 1780        Heinrich Joseph Graf von Auersperg (b. 1721 - d. 1793)
Jun 1780 - Oct 1794        Joseph Graf von Brigido            (b. 1733 - d. 1817)
Apr 1794 - Oct 1794        Joseph Siegmund Graf von Gallenberg(b. 1751 - d. 1800)
                             (acting for Brigido)
Oct 1794 - Aug 1795        Joseph Graf von Mailath            (b. 1737 - d. 1810)
                             (= József gróf Mailáth székhelyi)
Aug 1795 - Nov 1795        Joseph Siegmund Graf von Gallenberg(s.a.)
                             (acting)
Nov 1795 - 21 Jan 1801     Johann Jakob Graf von Gaisruck     (b. 1739 - d. 1801)
Feb 1801 - Aug 1801        Joseph Franz de Paula Graf von     (b. 1756 - d. 1823)
                             Sweerts-Spork (acting)
Sep 1801 - Jul 1806        Joseph Graf von und zu Urményi     (b. 1741 - d. 1825)
                             (József gróf Ürményi)  
Jul 1806 -  3 Apr 1810     Christian Graf von Wurmser         (b. 1768 - d. 1844)
                             (acting to 27 Mar 1809)
27 Mar 1809 - 13 Jun 1809  Franz Adam Mitscha                 (b. 1746 - d. 1811)
                             (acting for absent Wurmser)
13 Jun 1809 - Dec 1809     Ernst von Kortum                   (b. 1746 - d. 1811)
                             (acting for absent Wurmser)
Jun 1809 - Oct 1809        Knyaz' Dmitriy Ivanovich Lobanov-   (b. 1758 - d. 1838)
                             Rostovskiy
                             (Russian commandant of Lwów)
Apr 1810 -  3 Apr  1810    Georg Oechsner (Öchsner)           (b. 1757 - d. 1829)

                             (acting for absent Wurmser)
 3 Apr 1810 - Apr 1815     Peter Graf von Goëss               (b. 1774 - d. 1846)
Apr 1815 - Aug 1815        Georg Ritter von Oechsner          (s.a.)
26 May 1815 – 22 May 1816  Ferdinand Friedrich August Herzog  (b. 1763 - d. 1834)
                             von Würtemberg (did not take office)

President of the Province
(Gubernial-Präsident)
Aug 1815 - 30 Sep 1817     Franz Seraph Freiherr von Hauer    (b. 1777 - d. 1822)
30 Aug 1815 -  1 Nov 1815  Aloys Ritter von Stutterheim
                             (Landes-Commissär
Tarnopoler Kreis)
Governors

30 Sep 1817 - 25 Nov 1822  Franz Seraph Freiherr von Hauer    (s.a.)
25 Nov 1822 - 1822         Franz Freiherr Krieg von           (b. 1776 - d. 1856)
                             Hochfelden (acting)  
1822 - 2. Mar 1823         Ádám Reviczky de Revisnye          (b. 1786 - d. 1862)
                             (revisnyi) (acting)
 2. Mar 1823 - Aug 1826    Ludwig Graf von Taaffe             (b. 1791 - d. 1855)
Aug 1826 - Sep 1832        August Longin Fürst von Lobkowitz, (b. 1797 - d. 1842)
                             Herzog zu Raudnitz, Gefürsteter
                             Graf zu Sternstein
Presidents of the Province Government in Galicia
(Präsident des Landesguberniums in Galizien)
12 Oct 1832 - Jul 1847     Franz Freiherr Krieg von           (b. 1776 - d. 1856)
                             Hochfelden
Jul 1847 -  1 Aug 1847     Leopold Graf Lazansky​ Freiherr     (b. 1808 - d. 1860)
                             von Bukowa (acting)
                             (Leopold hrabě Lažanský svobodný pán z Bukové)

Governors
 1 Aug 1847 - Jul 1848     Franz Seraph Stadion Graf von      (b. 1806 - d. 1853)
                             Warthausen und Thannhausen
14 Apr 1848 -  2 Nov 1848  Aleksander Konstanty Batowski      (b. 1799 - d. 1862)
                             (chairman of Polish Central National Council; in rebellion)
Jul 1848 -  8 Aug 1848     Agenor Romuald Onufry Graf         (b. 1812 - d. 1875)
                             Gołuchowski z Gołuchowa (acting) 
 8 Aug 1848 - 31 Jan 1849  Wenzeslaw Ritter von Zaleski       (b. 1799 - d. 1849)
                             (Wacław Michał Zaleski)
Landes-Chef           
 1 Feb 1849 -  9 Oct 1850  Agenor Romuald Onufry Graf         (s.a.)
                             Gołuchowski z Gołuchowa 
Statthalter (Namiestnicy)
 9 Oct 1850 - Aug 1859     Agenor Romuald Onufry Graf         (s.a.)
                             Gołuchowski z Gołuchowa (1st time) 
Aug 1859 - Dec 1859        Joseph Freiherr von Kalchberg      (b. 1801 - d. 1882)
                             (acting)
Dec 1859 - Jun 1861        Karl Ritter von Mosch (1st time)   (b. 1806 - d. 1885)
                             (acting)
Jun 1861 - 27 Oct 1864     Alexander Constantin Albert Graf   (b. 1813 - d. 1871)
                              Mensdorff-Pouilly (1st time)
13 Oct 1864 - Nov 1864     Karl Ritter von Mosch (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
29 Nov 1864 - 26 Sep 1866  Franz Xaver Maria Aloys Freiherr   (b. 1811 - d. 1866)
                             von Paumgartten
26 Sep 1866 - 20 Oct 1868  Agenor Romuald Onufry Graf         (s.a.) 
                             Gołuchowski z Gołuchowa (2nd time)
20 Oct 1868 - 25 Jul 1871  Ludwig Ritter Possinger von        (b. 1823 - d. 1905)
                             Choborski (from Oct 1870, Ludwig
                             Freiherr Possinger von Choborski)
25 Jul 1871 -  3 Aug 1875  Agenor Romuald Onufry Graf         (s.a.) 
                             Gołuchowski z Gołuchowa (3rd time)
25 May 1875 -  1 Dec 1875  .... (acting for Gołuchowski)
 1 Dec 1875 - Aug 1883     Alfred Józef Marian Graf Potocki   (b. 1822 - d. 1889)
                             z Podhajec (1st time) 
Aug 1883 - 23 Oct 1888     Filip Krzysztof Artur Zaleski z    (b. 1836 - d. 1911)
                             Otoka 
23 Oct 1888 - Nov 1888     Hermann Ritter von Loebl (acting)  (b. 1835 - d. 1907)
Nov 1888 - 29 Sep 1895     Kazimierz Feliks Graf Badeni       (b. 1846 - d. 1909)
29 Sep 1895 - 28 Oct 1895  Johann Ritter von Lidl (1st time)
                             (acting)
28 Oct 1895 -  7 Apr 1898  Eustachy Stanisław Fürst           (b. 1842 - d. 1903)
                             Sanguszko Kowelski 
 7 Apr 1898 - 16 Jun 1903  Leon Graf Piniński                 (b. 1857 - d. 1938)
16 Jun 1903 - 18 Jun 1903  Johann Ritter von Lidl (2nd time)
                             (acting)
18 Jun 1903 - 12 Apr 1908  Andrzej Kazimierz Graf Potocki     (b. 1861 - d. 1908)
                             z Podhajec (2nd time)
12 Apr 1908 -  3 May 1908  Włodzimierz Adam Graf Łoś z        (b. 1847 - d. 1911)
                             Grodkowa (acting)
 3 May 1908 - 24 May 1913  Michał Hieronim Bobrzyński         (b. 1849 - d. 1935)  
24 May 1913 - 20 Aug 1915  Witold von Korytowski z Korytowa   (b. 1850 - d. 1923)  
20 Aug 1915 -  8 Apr 1916  Hermann von Colard                 (b. 1857 - d. 1916)    
 8 Apr 1916 -  3 May 1916  Stanisław Francuszek Ritter        (b. 1865 - d. 1943) 
                             Grodzicki z Grodziska (acting)
 3 May 1916 - Mar 1917     Erich Heinrich Friedrich Wilderich (b. 1859 - d. 1926) 
                             Freiherr von Diller 
Mar 1917 -  1 Nov 1918     Karl Georg Otto Maria Graf Huyn    (b. 1857 - d. 1938) 
 1 Nov 1918  (hours)       Wołodymyr Decykiewicz (Decykevich) (b. 1865 - d. 1949)
                             (acting)
Russian Governors-General (from 22 Apr 1917, Kray Commissioners of the Provisional
Government) of the Occupied Austro-Hungarian Provinces (Galicia and Bukovina) 

 
5 Sep 1914 - 14 Jul 1915  Graf Georgiy Aleksandrovich        (b. 1863 - d. 1928)  Mil
                             Bobrinskiy
 4 Oct 1916 - 31 Mar 1917  Fyodor Fyodorovich Trepov          (b. 1854 - d. 1938)  Mil
31 Mar 1917 - 22 Apr 1917  Nikolay Nikolayevich Usov (acting) (b. 1866 - d. 1920)  Mil
22 Apr 1917 -  2 Aug 1917  Dmitriy Ivanovich Doroshenko       (b. 1882 - d. 1951)  UPSF

                             (= Dmytro Ivanovych Doroshenko)
Commissioner General for Galicia of the Regency Council of the Polish Kingdom

 1 Nov 1918
- Jan 1919     Witold Leon książę Czartoryski     (b. 1864 - d. 1945)  Non-party
Soviet Russian Military Commander (of the 14th Army of the Southwestern Front) 
26 Jul 1920 -  1 Aug 1920  Mikhail Vasilyevich Molkochanov    (b. 1877 - d. 1924)  Mil
Chairman of the Galician Revolutionary Committee ("Galrevkom")
(in rebellion)
 1 Aug 1920 - 19 Sep 1920  Vladimir Petrovich Zatonskiy       (b. 1888 - d. 1938)  RKP
                             (= Volodymyr Petrovych Zatons'kyy)
                             (
in Kiev exile to 23 Sep 1920)

Landmarschälle (Marszałkowie krajowi)
15 Apr 1861 -  2 Apr 1875  Leon Ludwik Fürst Sapieha-Kodeński (b. 1803 - d. 1878)   
 2 Apr 1875 -  1 Dec 1875  Alfred Józef Marian Graf Potocki   (s.a.)
                             z Podhajec
 1 Dec 1875 -  7 Mar 1876  Oktaw Pietruski z Siemuszowy       (b. 1820 - d. 1894Con
                             (1st time) (acting)  
 7 Mar 1876 - Apr 1877     Włodzimierz Graf Dzieduszycki z    (b. 1825 - d. 1899)
                              Dzieduszyc  
Apr 1877 -  8 Aug 1877     Oktaw Pietruski z Siemuszowy       (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time) (acting) 
 8 Aug 1877 - Jan 1881     Ludwik Graf Wodzicki z Granowa     (b. 1834 - d. 1894)  Con   
Jan 1881 -  9 Feb 1881     Oktaw Pietruski z Siemuszowy       (s.a.)               Con
                             (3rd time) (acting)  
 9 Feb 1881 - 28 Nov 1886  Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz               (b. 1823 - d. 1887)  Con   
22 Nov 1886 - 28 Nov 1886  Oktaw Pietruski z Siemuszowy       (s.a.)               Con
                             (4th time) (acting)  
28 Nov 1886 - 14 Oct 1890  Jan Dzierżysław Graf Tarnowski z   (b. 1835 - d. 1898)  Con?
                             Tarnowa 
14 Oct 1890 - Oct 1895     Eustachy Stanisław Fürst           (s.a.)               Con
                             Sanguszko Kowelski 
Oct 1895 -  8 Nov 1895     Antoni Chamiec (1st time) (acting) (b. 1840 - d. 1908)  Con   
 8 Nov 1895 - 11 Oct 1901  Stanisław Marcin Graf Badeni       (s.a.)               Con
                             (1st time)   
11 Oct 1901 - 12 Oct 1901  Antoni Chamiec (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)               Con     
12 Oct 1901 - Jun 1903     Andrzej Kazimierz Graf Potocki     (s.a.)               Con
                             z Podhajec
Jun 1903 -  3 Jul 1903     Tadeusz Zygmunt Pilat (1st time)   (b. 1844 - d. 1923)  Con
                             (acting)
 3 Jul 1903 - 19 Jun 1912  Stanisław Marcin Graf Badeni       (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time)
1912 - 19 Jun 1912         Tadeusz Zygmunt Ritter Pilat       (s.a.)               Con
                             (acting for Badeni)  
19 Jun 1912 - 15 Apr 1914  Adam Maria Stanisław Graf          (b. 1855 - d. 1914)  Con   
                             Gołuchowski z Gołuchowa
15 Apr 1914 - 17 May 1914  Tadeusz Zygmunt Ritter Pilat       (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time) (acting)
17 May 1914 -  1 Nov 1918  Stanisław Jakub Ritter von         (b. 1860 - d. 1941)  Con?   
                             Niezabitowski

Ministers of State for Galicia (in Vienna)
(Staatsminister für Galizien [Ministrowie ds. Galicji])
11 Apr 1871 - 22 Nov 1871  Kazimierz Grocholski (acting)      (b. 1815 - d. 1888)
25 Nov 1871 - 21 Apr 1873  Joseph Unger (acting)              (b. 1828 - d. 1913)  Lib
21 Apr 1873 - 11 Oct 1888  Florian Ziemiałkowski              (b. 1817 - d. 1900)  Con
                             (from 1880, Florian Freiherr Ziemiałkowski)
11 Oct 1888 - 12 Nov 1892  Filip Zaleski                      (b. 1836 - d. 1911)
12 Nov 1892 - 11 Nov 1893  Vacant
11 Nov 1893 - 29 Sep 1895  Apolinary Jaworski                 (b. 1825 - d. 1904)
29 Sep 1895 - 17 Jan 1897  Leon von Biliński (acting)         (b. 1846 - d. 1923)  Con
17 Jan 1896 - 30 Nov 1897  Edward Rittner                     (b. 1845 - d. 1899)
30 Nov 1897 - 16 Dec 1897  Vacant
16 Dec 1897 -  5 Mar 1898  Hermann Adolf Freiherr von Loebl   (b. 1835 - d. 1907)
 5 Mar 1898 -  2 Oct 1899  Adam Jędrzejowicz                  (b. 1847 - d. 1924)
 2 Oct 1899 - 18 Jan 1900  Kazimierz Chłędowski               (b. 1843 - d. 1920)
19 Jan 1900 - 28 May 1906  Leonard Piętak                     (b. 1841 - d. 1909)
 2 Jun 1906 -  9 Nov 1907  Wojciech Graf Dzieduszycki         (b. 1848 - d. 1909)  Con
 9 Nov 1907 -  3 Mar 1909  Dawid Abrahamowicz                 (b. 1839 - d. 1926)  Con
 3 Mar 1909 -  9 Jan 1911  Władysław Dulęba                   (b. 1851 - d. 1930)  PSD
 9 Jan 1911 - 19 Nov 1911  Wacław Zaleski                     (b. 1868 - d. 1913)  Con
19 Nov 1911 - 28 Dec 1913  Władysław Długosz                  (b. 1864 - d. 1937)  PSL
28 Dec 1913 -  2 Jan 1914  Vacant
 2 Jan 1914 - 21 Oct 1916  Zdzisław Morawski                  (b. 1855 - d. 1928)
31 Oct 1916 - 23 Jun 1917  Michał Hieronim Bobrzyński         (s.a.)               LPP
23 Jun 1917 - 25 Jul 1918  Juliusz von Twardowski-Skrzypna    (b. 1874 - d. 1945)
26 Jul 1918 -  1 Nov 1918  Kazimierz Ritter von Gałecki       (b. 1863 - d. 1941)

Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative; Lib = Liberal; LPP = Liga Państwowości Polskiej (Polish Statehood, League, supported equal status with Austria-Hungary for Galicia, 1915-1918); PSD = Polskie Stronnictwo Demokratyczna (Polish Democratic Party, liberal, 1861-1918); PSL = Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe (Polish People's [Peasant] Party, agrarian, Polish nationalist, 3 Feb 1903-1 Feb 1914, split into PSL-P and [from 6 Dec 1915] PSL-W); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks]Marxist-Leninist communist, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)[All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)]); UPSF = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Federalistiv (Ukrainian Party of Socialist Federalists, 7 Apr 1917-1923, renamed 1923-1939 as Ukrainian Radical Democratic Party); Mil = military


Western Ukraine

[Western Ukrainian
                        People's Republic flag 1918-1919]
13 Nov 1918 - 26 May 1919

Map of Western Ukraine
National Anthem
"Shche ne vmerla Ukrayina" (Ukraine has not Perished) (unofficial)

Population: 4,000,000 (1918 est.),
5,400,000 (1910)
Constitution
(Temporary Fundamental Law)(13 Nov 1918;
in Ukrainian)

Capital: L'viv (Lvov)
Currency: 1918-1919
Hryvnya (UAG)
Armed Forces: 30,000 (Dec 1918, Ukrainian Galician Army)
Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 60%, Polish 25%, Jewish 12%, German and other 3% (1918 est.)

 1 Aug 1914                Supreme Ukrainian Council organized in L'viv.
 5 May 1915                Renamed General Ukrainian Council formed in Vienna to support
                             Ukrainian territories under Russian rule
forming an independent
                             Ukrainian state and the Ukrainian territories
under Austria-
                             Hungary to become
autonomous unified Ukrainian region.
18 Oct 1918                Ukrainian National Council established.
 1 Nov 1918                Ukrainian state (independence from Austria [Galicia]).
13 Nov 1918                Western Ukrainian People's Republic (claiming also Bukovina and
                             Transcarpathia).
21 Nov 1918                Poland occupies L'viv, administration moves to Тernopil', then on
                             1 Jan 1919 to Stanislaviv (modern Ivano-Frankivs'k).
21 Jan 1919                Western Ukraine attempted to occupy Transcarpathia (Ruthenia).
22 Jan 1919                Incorporation into Ukraine (as Western Oblast of the Ukrainian
                             People's Republic), not fully effected (the Western Ukrainian
                             government continued).

26 May 1919                Polish occupy Stanislaviv, the government flees to Kam'yanets'-

                             Podil's'kyy (reached in Jun 1919).
 9 Jun 1919                Petrushevych is given full powers in exile (on 16 Nov 1919 left
                             Ukraine for Vienna), subsequently styling
himself "Dictator of
                             the West Ukrainian People's Republic."

30 Apr 1920                Annexation by Poland, recognized by the Ukrainian People's Republic.
12 Mar 1923                Allied Conference of Ambassadors recognizes Polish annexation.
17-22 Sep 1939             Western Ukraine occupied and from 1 Nov 1939 annexed by Soviet
                             Union (part of Ukrainian S.S.R.)

President of the Supreme Ukrainian Council
(from 5 May 1915,
General Ukrainian Council
)
 1 Aug 1914 - 18 Oct 1918  Kostyantyn Antonovych Levyts'kyy   (b. 1859 - d. 1941)  UNDP
                            
(= Konstantin Lewyckyj)
Presidents of the Ukrainian National Council

18 Oct 1918 -  1 Nov 1918  Kostyantyn Antonovych Levyts'kyy   (s.a.)               UNDP
 1 Nov 1918 -  9 Jun 1919  Yevhen Omelyanovych Petrushevych   (b. 1863 - d. 1940)  UNDP;1919
                             (= Jewhen Petruszewycz)                               UNTP
                             (
continues as Dictator in exile to 15 Mar 1923)

Chairmen of the State Secretariat (chief ministers)
 9 Nov 1918 -  4 Jan 1919  Kostyantyn Antonovych Levyts'kyy   (s.a.)               UNDP
 4 Jan 1919 -  9 Jun 1919  Sydir Tymofiyovych Holubovych      (b. 1873 - d. 1938)  UNDP;1919
                             (= Isidor Holubowicz)                                 UNTP

Party abbreviations: UNDP = Ukrayins'ka Natsional'na Demokratychna Partiya (Ukrainian National Democratic Party, centrist, Galicia regionalist, 26 Dec 1896-28 Mar 1919, renamed UNTP); UNTP = Ukrayins'ka Narodno-Trudova Partiya (Ukrainian People's Labor Party, former UNDP, 28 Mar 1919-11 Jul 1925, merged into UNDO)

Lemko-Rusyn
  
[Ruthenian
                          People's Republic of the Lemkos, 1918-1920
                          (Galicia)]
Lemko-Rusyn Flag 1918-1920
 5 Dec 1918                Rusyn Supreme Council established in the Lemko Ruthenian [Rusyn]
                             region in the Polish part of Galicia by congress of 130 western
                             Lemko villages in Florynka. It is retrospectively referred to as
                             the "Ruthenian [Rusyn] People's Republic of the Lemkos" (Rus'ka
                             [Rusyns’ka] Narodna
Republika Lemkiv)(this name without "Lemkiv"
                             might have been used as official name), also described as the
                             "Lemko-Rusyn Republic."
Jan 1919                   Dissolved by Poland.
20 Apr 1919                With Russia out of reach, the Lemkos favor annexation to
                             Czechoslovakia (as part of Subcarpathian Rus).
12 Mar 1920                Rusyn Supreme Council and its Executive Committee established in
                             Lemko areas (by Second Congress of Lemko villages in Florynka).
Mar 1920                   Local Lemko administration suppressed by Poland.

Chairman of the Rusyn Supreme Council
 5 Dec 1918 - Jan 1919     Mikhail Osipovich Yurchakevich      (b. 1869 - d.af.1939)Non-party
                             (Mykhaylo Osypovych Yurchakevych)

Chairman of the Executive Committee of Rusyn Supreme Council
12 Mar 1920 - Mar 1920     Yaroslav Teofilovich Kachmarchik    (b. 1885 - d. 1944)  Non-party
                             (Yaroslav Teofilovych Kachmarchyk
                             [= Jarosław Kaczmarczyk])


Komancha

[Ukrainian flag used in Komancha
                (Komancza) 1918-1919 (Galicia)]

 4 Nov 1918                Accession of 35 eastern Lemko villages in Sanok (Syanik) County
                             around Komancha to Western Ukraine is declared. In
                             retrospect this was called the "Komancha Republic"
                             (Komanchans'ka Republika), or sometimes "East Lemko Republic."
23 Jan 1919                Poland occupies Vyslik Velykyy (as Wisłok Wielki), local
                             administration is suppressed.
24 Jan 1919                Poland occupies Komancha (as Komańcza), area is incorporated
                             into Poland (Syanik County named Sanok County).

Chairman of the the Main Board of the Ukrainian National Council
 4 Nov 1918 - 23 Jan 1919  Panteleymon Shpyl'ka               (b. 1883 - d. 1950)  Non-party
                             (Pantalejmon Szpylka) 

County Commissioner of Sanok (Syanik) County
 4 Nov 1918 - 23 Jan 1919  Hrihoriy "Hryts'" Sudomyr                               Non-party
                             (Grigoriy "Grisha" Sudomir)



Podolia under Ottoman rule

27 Aug 1672                Turkish occupation of Podolia (capital Kamieniec Podolski/
                             Kam'yanets'-Podil's'kyy
) province (voivodship).
18 Oct 1672                Podolia, Bratslav and southern part of Kiev voivodeship ceded by
                             Poland
to the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Buczacz (Buchach,
                             Bucaş)
as Eyalet-i Kamaniçe.
17 Oct 1676                By the Treaty of Zurawno only Podolia and southern part of Bratslav
                             voivodship retained by the Ottoman Empire.
26 Jan 1699                By the Treaty of Karlowitz, Ottomans agree to restore Podolia
and
                             Bratslav to Poland.
22 Sep 1699                Ottomans evacuate Kamieniec Podolski/Kam'yanets'-Podil's'kyy. 

Governors (Beylerbeys)
 2 Sep 1672 - 1675/76      Köstendili Koca Halil Pasha        (b. c.1620 - d. 1685)
                             (1st time) 
1675/76 - Sep 1677         Arnavut Uzun Ibrahim Pasha         (b. 165. - d. 1683
Sep 1677 - 680             Köstendili Koca Halil Pasha        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1680 - 1682                Defterdar Ahmet Pasha              (d. 1683)
1682 -  4 Jan 1685         Arnavut Abdurrahman Abdi Pasha     (b. c.1605 - d. 1686)
Dec 1684                   Tokatli Mahmud Pasha               (b. 1639/40 - d. 1684)
Feb/Mar 1685 - 11 May 1686 Biyikli Silahdar Mustafa Pasha     (d. 1698)
25 May 1686 - 1688         Bosnali Sari Hüseyn Pasha          (d. af.1690)
1688 - Jan 1689            Yegen Ahmet                        (d. 1689)
Jan 1689 - 22 Sep 1699     Mustafa Ibrahim oglu Kahraman Bey



Bukovina

[Flag of Duchy of
                        Bukovina, 1849-1918 (Austria)]
1849 - 31 Dec 1918

Map of Bukovina
Capital: Czernowitz
(Chernivtsi, Cernăuți)
Population: 800,198 (1910)
228,508 (1820)

1359                       Part of the Principality of Moldavia.
31
Aug 1774                Occupied by Austria.
 7 May 1775                Ceded to Austria by Ottoman Empire (confirmed by peace treaty
                             ratified 13 Aug 1791).

 
2 Jul 1776                Boundaries defined by Austrian-Ottoman convention.
12 Oct 1777                Formal submission of the population.
 1 Nov 1786 -  8 Mar 1849  Amalgamated with Galicia (see
above) as Bukowiner Kreis
                             (
Czernowitzer Kreis also in semi-official use).
 1 Nov 1790                Autonomous in name (patent cancelled 13 Apr 1817).
 8 Mar 1849                Separate Austrian crownland as the Duchy of Bukovina

                             (Herzogtum Bukowina [Bucowina]), with the ruler of Austria
                            
adopting the style Herzog der Bukowina ("Duke of Bukovina").
13 Mar 1849                Kreisamt made separate state authority (Landesbehörde)
                             provisionally.

29 Sep 1849                Imperial patent grants a constitution (cancelled 31 Dec 1851).
29 May 1854                Fully separated from Galicia.
 
1 Sep 1860 - 26 Mar 1861  Subordinated to Galicia.
28 Feb 1861                Autonomous.
21 Dec 1867                Part of "Austrian half" of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
                             (i.e. of the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial 
                             Diet").
30 Aug 1914                Austria evacuates Czernowitz.
31 Aug 1914 - 21 Oct 1914  Russia occupies
Czernowitz under Aleksey Alekseyevich Brusilov
                             (b. 1853 - d. 1826)
(all Russian occupations 1914-1917
                             subject to the Government-General of Occupied Provinces
                             [see under Galicia]).

 
2 Nov 1914 - 26 Nov 1914  Austria re-occupies Czernowitz.
26 Nov 1914 - 17 Feb 1915  Russia re-occuppies Czernowitz.
17 Feb 1915 - 18 Jun 1916
  Austria again re-occupies Czernowitz.
18 Jun 1916 -  3 Aug 1917  Russia again
re-occuppies Czernowitz under Platon Alekseyevich
                             Lechitskiy (b. 1856 - d. 1921).

 3 Aug 1917                Austrian adminstration restored.
 
6 Nov 1918                Ukrainian-Romanian joint administration.
11 Nov 1918                Romanian intervention.
12 Nov 1918                Independence from Austria; Northern Bukovina (Czernowitz) votes

                             to join Ukraine, while Southern Bukovina votes to join Romania.
28 Nov 1918                Union with Romania proclaimed.
31 Dec 1918                All of Bukovina incorporated into
Romania.
27 Jun 1940                Northern Bukovina annexed by Soviet Union (as part of Ukrainian
                             S.S.R.).
25 Jun 1941                Occupied by Germany and Romania.
 5 Jul 1941 - 29 Mar 1944  Northern Bukovina re-incorporated into Romania as Bukovina
                             (Bucovina) governorate.
29 Mar 1944                Occupied by Soviet Union.
15 Sep 1947                Re-incorporation of Northern Bukovina into Ukrainian S.S.R.
                             (as part of Soviet Union; de facto from 29 Mar 1944).

Provincial Administrators (Landes-Administratoren)
 1 Oct 1774 -  6 Apr 1778  Gabriel Freiherr Splény de Miháldy (b. 1734 - d. 1818)
                             (Gábor báró Splény miháldi)
                             (Austrian commander to 30 Sep 1774)
 6 Apr 1778 - 31 Oct 1786  Karl Freiherr von Enzenberg zum    (b. c.1725 - d. 1810)
                             Freyen und Jöchelsthurm
Kreishauptleute
 1 Nov 1786 - 1792         Joseph von Beck
1792 - 1803                Basil Freiherr von Balsch          (b. 1756 - d. 1832)
                             (Vasile baron de Balş)
1803 - 1805                Franz von Schreiber
16 Aug 1805 - 1806         Franz Adam Mitscha                 (b. 1746 - d. 1811)
1806 - 1807                .... (acting)
1807 - Oct 1817            Johann Edler von Platzer   
Oct 1817 - Feb 1823        Aloys Ritter von Stutterheim
Feb 1823 - Aug 1823        Johann Rudolph Ambros von
                             Rechtenberg (acting)
Aug 1823 - Aug 1833        Joseph Ambros Malczek
                             (Malltschek, Malltzeck)
Aug 1833 -  9 Jan 1838     Franz Kratter                      (b. c.1760 - d. 1838)
 9 Jan 1838 - Apr 1838     Cajetan Fickelscheer (acting)
Apr 1838 - Dec 1840        Casimir Ritter von Milbacher       (b. 1784 - d. 1865)
Dec 1840 - Feb 1849        Georg Issetscheskul                (b. 1780 - d. 1860)
                             (Issecescul, Isseczeskul)
                             (Gheorghe Isăcescul)
Landeschefs
Feb 1849 - Jul 1849        Eduard Bach (provisional)          (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
Jul 1849 -  6 Mar 1853     Adalbert Freiherr Henniger von     (b. 1807 - d. 1873)
                             Seeberg (provisional)
Landespräsidenten
 
6 Mar 1853 - 27 Nov 1857  Franz von Schmück                  (b. 1797 - d. 1862)
                             (from 22 Apr 1854, Franz Freiherr von Schmück)
                             (provisional to 29 May 1854)

27 Nov 1857 - 18 Feb 1858  .... (acting)
18 Feb 1858 - 31 Aug 1860  Karl Graf von Rothkirch und Panthen(b. 1807 - d. 1870)

Kreishauptmann 
 1 Sep 1860 - 26 Mar 1861  Jakob Ritter von Mikuli
           (b. 18.. - d. 1872)
Landeschefs
26 Mar 1861 - May 1862     Wenzel Ritter von Martina
         (b. 1806 - d. 1873)
31 May 1862 - Nov 1865     Rudolf Graf von Amadei             (b. 1814 - d. 1898)
Nov 1865 - Aug 1868        F
ranz Xaver Ritter Myrbach von     (b. 1818 - d. 1882) 
                             Rheinfeld
Landespräsidenten
Aug 1868 -  6 Sep 1870     F
ranz Xaver Ritter von             (s.a.) 
                             Rheinfeld
20 Aug 1870 - 30 Oct 1870  Joseph Ritter Ettmayer von
                             Adelsburg (acting)    
30 Oct 1870 - 20 Jul 1874  Felix
Freiherr von Pino            (b. 1825 - d. 1906)
                             Friedenthal (1st time)
20 Jul 1874 - 17 Aug 1874  Adolph Pauli (acting)
17 Aug 1874 -  8 Feb 1887  Hieronymus Freiherr von Alesani    (b. 1837 - d. 1887)

 
8 Feb 1887 - 22 Feb 1887  Eduard Strasser (acting)  
22 Feb 1887 -  1 Aug 1890  
Felix Freiherr von Pino            (s.a.)  
                             Friedenthal (2nd time)
 
1 Aug 1890 - 26 Jan 1891  Anton Graf Pace von Friedensberg   (b. 1851 - d. 1923)
                             (1st time)(acting)
14 Jan 1891 - 26 Jan 1891  Orest Renney von Herszény (acting) 
26 Jan 1891 - 29 May 1892
  Anton Graf Pace von Friedensberg   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
29 May 1892 - 20 Jun 1894  Franz Freiherr von Krauss          (b. 1837 - d. 1919)

20
Jun 1894 - 21 Dec 1897  Leopold Graf von Goëss             (b. 1848 - d. 1922)
                            
(acting to 26 Nov 1894)
21 Dec 1897 - 29 Dec 1897  Wilhelm Pompe (acting)
29 Dec 1897 -  5 Apr 1903  F
riedrich Freiherr Bourguignon     (b. 1846 - d. 1907)
                             von Baumberg
 5 Apr 1903 - 21 Apr 1903  Johann Fekete de Bélafalva
                             (1st time) (acting)
21 Apr 1903 -  6 Oct 1904 
Konrad Maria Eusebius Prinz zu     (b. 1863 - d. 1918)
                             Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst
 6 Oct 1904 -  7 Oct 1904  Johann Fekete de Bélafalva
                             (2nd time) (acting) 

 7 Oct 1904 - 20 Dec 1911  O
ktavian Ritter Regner von         (b. 1866 - d. 1945)  
                             Bleyleben (from 25 May 1911, Oktavian
 
                           
Freiherr Regner von Bleyleben)   
20 Dec 1911 - 10 Jan 1912  Rudolf Graf Thun-Hohenstein        (b. 1859 - d. 1943)
                             (acting)
10 Jan 1912 - 18 Jan 1912  Basil Ritter Duzinkiewicz (acting) (b. 1857 - d. 19..)
                             (Vasilij Duzinkevič)
18
Jan 1912 - 30 Aug 1914  Rudolf Johann Franz Graf von Meran (b. 1872 - d. 1959)
                            
(1st time)(acting to ... 1912)
11 Sep 1914 - 21 Oct 1914  Sergey Dmitriyevich Yevreinov      (b. 1869 - d. 1931)
                             (Russian governor of Czernowitz oblast)
                             (1st time) 

1914 - 26 Nov 1914         
Rudolf Johann Franz Graf von Meran (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)
26 Nov 1914 - 17 Feb 1915  Sergey Dmitriyevich Y
evreinov      (s.a.)
                             (Russian governor of
Czernowitz oblast)
                             (2nd time)
17 Feb 1915 - 18 Jun 1916  Rudolf Johann Franz Graf von Meran (s.a.)
                            
(3rd time)
Oct 1916 - Mar 1917        Valeriyan Valeriyanovich Ligin     (b. 1873 - d. 19..)       
                             (Russian governor of Czernowitz oblast)
May 1917 -  3 Aug 1917     Aleksandr Ignatyevich Lototskiy    (b. 1870 - d. 1939)  UPSF
                             (= Oleksandr Ignatovych Lotots'kyy)
                             (Russian commissar of Czernowitz oblast)

 3 Aug 1917 -  6 Nov 1918  Josef Graf von Ezdorf
(Etzdorf)    (b. 1879 - d. 1931)
                            
(appointed 24 Apr 1917; acting to 30 Mar 1918)
National Commissioners
 6 Nov 1918 - 10 Nov 1918  Omelyan Oleksandrovych Popovych    (b. 1856 - d. 1930)  Non-party 
                            (Omelian Popowicz)
                           + Aurel cavaler de Onciul          (b. 1864 - d. 1921)  PD
                             (
Aurel Ritter von Onciul)
Romanian Military Commander
(
of Royal Romanian 8th Division)
11 Nov 1918 - 31 Dec 1918  Iacob Zadik                        (b. 1867 - d. 1970)  Mil
Presidents of the Romanian National Council

10 Nov 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Iancu cavaler de Flondor           (b. 1865 - d. 1924)  PNR
12 Nov 1918 - 28 Nov 1918  Dionisie
cavaler de Bejan          (b. 1837 - d. 1923)  PNR
President of the General Congress of Bukovina
28 Nov 1918 - 31 Dec 1918  Iancu cavaler de Flondor           (s.a.)               PNR
Romanian Military commander
Jun 1941 - Jul 1941        Petre Dumitrescu                   (b. 1882 - d. 1950)  Mil
Governors-general of Bukovina

 7 Jul 1941 - 31 Aug 1941  Alexandru Rioşanu                  (b. 1892 - d. 1941)  Mil
31 Aug 1941 - 13 Apr 1943  Corneliu Calotescu                 (b. 1889 - d. 1970)  Mil
                            
(acting to 5 Sep 1941)
13 Apr 1943 -
29 Mar 1944  Corneliu Dragalina                 (b. 1887 - d. 1949)  Mil


Landeshauptleute

 6 Apr 1861 - 12 Jan 1863  Eugen Hackmann (= Eugenie Hacman)  (b. 1793 - d. 1873)  PC
12 Jan 1862 - 20 Aug 1870  Eudoxius Ritter von Hormuzaki      (b. 1812 - d. 1874)  PC
                             (= Eudoxiu cavaler de Hurmuzachi)
                             (
acting to 18 Apr 1864)(1st time)
20 Aug 1870 - 18 Dec 1871  Alexander Freiherr Wassilko von    (b. 1827 - d. 1893)  PCAR
                             Serecki (1st time)
                             (= Alexandru baron Wassilko de Serecki)
18 Dec 1871 - 10 Feb 1874  Eudoxius Ritter von Hormuzaki      (s.a.)               PC
                             (from 6 May 1872, Eudoxius Freiherr von Hormuzaki)
                             (2nd time)
10 Feb 1874 - 22 Jun 1884  Anton Kochanowski Ritter von       (b. 1817 - d. 1906)  DLP
                             Stawczan (acting to 3 Jun 1874)
22 Jun 1884 -  9 Sep 1892  Alexander Freiherr Wassilko von    (s.a.)               PCAR
                             Serecki (2nd time)
 9 Sep 1892 - 15 Sep 1904  Johann Lupul (Iancu Lupul)         (b. 1836 - d. 1922)PNR;1900 PCR
15 Sep 1904                Stephan Smal-Stocki (acting)       (b. 1859 - d. 1938)  UNDP
                             (= Stepan Smal'-Stots'kyy)
15 Sep 1904 - 26 Jun 1911  Georg
Freiherr Wassilko von Serecki(b. 1864 - d. 1940)PCR;1905 PNR
                             (= Gheorghe baron Wassilko de Serecki)
26 Jun 1911 -  6 Nov 1918  Alexander Freiherr von Hormuzaki   (b. 1869 - d. 1945)  PNR
                             (= Alexandru baron de Hurmuzachi)

Party abbreviations: PD = Partidul Democrat (Demokratische Partei)(Democratic Party, center- left, democratic, Aurel Onciul personalist, 1903-17 Aug 1905, revived 1908-1918); PNR = Partidul Naţional Român din Bucovina (Romanian National Party of Bukovina, conservative, merger of PC & PCAR 7 Mar 1892-1900, revived by merger of PD & PCR 17 Jul 1905-1918?); UNDP = Ukrayins'ka Natsional'na Demokratychna Partiya (Ukrainian National Democratic Party, centrist, Galicia regionalist, 26 Dec 1896-1919, renamed Ukrainian Labor Party); UPSF = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Federalistiv (Ukrainian Party of Socialist Federalists, 7 Apr 1917-1923, renamed 1923-1939 as Ukrainian Radical Democratic Party); Mil = Military;
- Former parties:
DLP = Deutschliberale Partei (German Liberal Party, Austrian liberal, 1867-1879); PC = Partidul Centralist/Zentralistische Partei (Centralist Party, centralist, liberal, 1861 - 7 Mar 1892, merged into PNR); PCAR Partidul Conservator Autonomist Român din Bucovina (Romanian Autonomist Conservative Party of Bucovina, federalist, conservative, 1861-7 Mar 1892, merged into PNR); PCR = Partidul Conservator Român (Rumänische Konservative Partei)(Romanian Conservative Party, conservative, split from PNR, 1900-17 Jul 1905, merged into PNR)



Subcarpathia (Transcarpathia)
 
[Flag of
                          Carpatho-Ukraine 1938-1939 (Czechoslovakia)]
15 Mar 1939 - 16 Mar 1939
[Flag of Soviet of Transcarpathian Ukraine,
                      1945-1946 (USSR)]
12 Jan 1945 - 30 Jan 1946

Map of Carpatho-Ukraine
(1939)
Hear National Anthem
"Shche ne vmerla Ukrayina"
(Ukraine has not Perished)
Text of National Anthem
 (15-16 Mar 1939)
Constitutional Law
(15 Mar 1939; in Ukrainian)
Capital: Uzhhorod
 (Ungvár,
Užhorod)
(Khust 22 Nov 1938 -
16 Mar 1939
)
Currency: 1939-1944
Hungarian Pengő (HUP);
1919-1939 Czechoslovak
Koruna (CSO)

National Holiday: None
Population: 552,124 (1939)
814,000 (1938)
604,745 (1921)
Ethnic groups: Ukrainian/Rusyn 75.9%, Jewish 12.1%,
 Hungarian 4.8%, Czech and
Slovak 3.2%,
Romanian 2.4%, German 1.6% (1939)

Religions: Greek Catholic (Uniate),
Roman Catholic
, Protestant, Jewish
Ruthenian Catholic Church

c.1054                     Part of Hungary.
 8 Nov 1918                Assembly in Ólubló (Lyubovnya/Stará L'ubovňa) votes in favor of
                             secession from Hungary and joining Ukraine; it elects the first
                             Rusyn People's Council with Mikhail Mihalich as chairman.
 9 Nov 1918                A 35 member Hungarian-Rusyn (from c.26 Dec 1918 Rusyn People's
                             Council) is established in Ungvár (Užgorod/Uhhorod) under
                             Oreszt Szabó requesting autonomy within Hungary.
17 Nov 1918                Rusyn People's Council established in Huszt (Khust) under Mikhail
                             Brashchayko voting to join Ukraine.
19 Nov 1918                Rusyn People's Council from Ólubló (Stará L'ubovňa) expanded and
                             moves to Eperjes (Prešov) electing Anton Beskid as its chairman.
19 Nov 1918                Carpatho-Russian Central People's Council formed in Eperjes
                             (Prešov). It declares union with Czechoslovakia on 31 Jan 1919.
 1 Dec 1918                Government Commission to prepare for (some form of) autonomy in
                             Hungary for the Ruthenian/Rusyn populated areas in the counties
                             of Máramaros, Ugocsa, Bereg, Ung, Zemplén, Sáros, Szepes, and
                             Abaúj-Torna.
 8 Dec 1918                Meeting at Szolyva (Svalyava) elects a Carpatho-Rusyn People's
                             Council, which denounces the council at Ungvár (Užhorod/Uzhhorod)
                             and demands independence.
10 Dec 1918                17-point "Ruszin nemzet programjá" outlining administration,
                             education, religious and linguistic autonomy adopted in Budapest
                             (ethnic designation officially changed from Rutén/Ruthenian to
                             Ruszin/Rusyn).
18 Dec 1918                County-wide meeting convenes in Máramarossziget (Maramoroshsigot)
                             and elects a Rusyn People's Council under Mikhail Brashchayko.
21 Dec 1918                Rusyn Region (Ruszka Krajna) created by Hungary as an autonomous
                             area from Rusyn inhabited parts of Máramaros, Ugocsa, Bereg,
                             and Ung counties; to be administered by a Rusyn Region ministry
                             and a Regent's commissioner (effective 25 Dec 1918).
12 Jan 1919                Czechoslovakia occupies Ungvár (Užhorod/Uzhhorod) under Colonel
                             Luigi Ciaffi, Hungarian administration moves to Csap (Čop/Chop).
16 Jan 1919 - 18 Jan 1919  (Western) Ukrainian troops occupy Máramarossziget (Maramoroshsigot)
18 Jan 1919                Romania occupies Máramarossziget (Sighetu Marmaţiei).
21 Jan 1919                Nationwide meeting of Hungarian-Ukrainian Rusyns in Hust (Khust)
                             chaired by Mikhail Brashchayko votes to join Ukraine. Then
                             Brashchayko is elected chairman of a Central People's Council.
21 Jan 1919                Western Ukraine claims Ruthenia (to no effect).
11 Feb 1919                Rusyn government council to be elected (effected 8 Apr 1919 by
                             inaugural meeting).
17 Mar 1919                Subcarpathia made part of the Allied (Czechoslovak/Romanian) zone
                             (by peace conference resolution).
12 Apr 1919                Rusyn Region proposed as a separate regional union (not effected).
19 Apr 1919                Romania occupies Huszt (Hust/Khust), Nagyszőllős (Sevlyush/Selyush)
                             on 23 Apr 1919, and Beregszász (Beregovo/Berehove) 28 Apr 1919.
28 Apr 1919                Czechoslovakia and Romania occupy Munkács (Mukačevo/Mukacheve).
 3 May 1919                Czechoslovakia occupies Csap (Čop/Chop).
 8 May 1919                Councils of Prešov, Khust, and Uzhhorod are merged into the Central
                             Rusyn People's Council under Anton Beskid in Uzhhorod, which
                             votes to join Czechoslovakia.
 6 Jun 1919 - 28 Feb 1922  Eastern Slovakia and Subcarpathia are placed under direct
                             Czechoslovak military administration.
21 Jul 1919                Czechoslovakia occupies Beregszász (Beregovo/Berehove).
29 Jul 1919                Basics of Rusyn autonomy defined; boundaries beyond core area to
                             be determined by census after 9 months.
 9 Oct 1919                Central Rusyn People's Council splits into pro-Russian (Beskid) and
                             pro-Ukrainian camps (Voloshyn), both of which continue to lobby
                             the Czechoslovak government until 1939.
 8 Dec 1919                Provisionally called Subcarpathian Rus (Podkarpatská Rus) or
                             Ruthenia (Rusínsko). Rusyn is made primary language of education.
 6 Mar 1920                Czech made official language, minority languages allowed in
                             districts with 20% threshold of citizens.
16 Jul 1920                Austria formally recognizes Subcarpathia as part of Czechoslovakia
                             by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (signed 10 Sep 1919).
30 Aug 1920                Romanian withdrawal from Subcarpthia completed.
26 Jul 1921                Hungary formally recognizes Subcarpathia as part of Czechoslovakia
                             by the Treaty of Trianon (signed 4 Jun 1920).
 1 Jul 1928                Subcarpathian Rus Land (Podkarpatoruská země) within Czechoslovakia
28 Sep 1938                Hungary demands cession of Hungarian populated areas of
                             Czechoslovakia and the autonomy of Slovakia and Subcarpathia.
 8 Oct 1938                Ukrainian Central People's Council chaired by Avgustyn Ivanovych
                             Voloshyn established by the merger of the Ukrainian/Russo-phile
                             councils, claiming to be sole legal representative of
                             Subcarpthian Ukraine and nominating an autonomous government.
12 Oct 1938                Autonomous government takes office.
10 Nov 1938                Southern regions of Slovakia and Subcarpathia ceded to Hungary
                             by the First Vienna Award (of 2 Nov 1938); government relocates
                             to Khust on 22 Nov 1938.
13 Nov 1938                Ceded areas re-annexed by Hungary.
25 Nov 1938                Ukrainian is made the official language.
16 Dec 1938                Autonomous as Subcarpathian Rus' (Podkarpatská Rus') within
                             Czechoslovkia.
30 Dec 1938                Carpatho-Ukraine (Karpats'ka Ukrayina) sanctioned as alternative
                             polity name.
14 Mar 1939                Hungarian invasion launched in consequence of German invasion of
                             Czechoslovakia.
15 Mar 1939                Independence as Carpatho-Ukraine effective, with Ukrainian made
                             state language (proclamation dated 14 Mar 1939).
16 Mar 1939                Hungary occupies Khust (occupation of Subcarpathia completed
                             on 17 Mar 1939), military administration effected 18 Mar 1939.
 7 Jul 1939                Civilian administration under a Regents' Commissioner for
                             Carpathia (Kárpátalja), until 1 Apr 1944 when the area is
                             declared a military Operational Zone.
 8 Sep 1944                Soviet invasion begins.
27 Oct 1944                Occupied by the Soviet Union (Khust liberated on 23 Oct 1944,
                             Berehove on 26 Oct 1944, Uzhhorod on 27 Oct 1944 and Mukacheve
                             on 28 Oct 1944).
28 Oct 1944                Czechoslovak liberated territory of Subcarpathian Rus' placed
                             under the minister of economy as government delegate.
26 Nov 1944                People's Council of Transcarpathian Ukraine established,
                             Transcarpathia to be united with the Ukrainian S.S.R.
 8 Dec 1944                Following intense anti-Czechoslovak campaigning by the Communist
                             Party of Transcarpathian Ukraine, the Czechoslovak administration
                             leaves, thereby effectively relinquishing Czechoslovak authority
                             over the area.
29 Jun 1945                Transcarpathia transferred from Czechoslovakia to Soviet Union
                             (ratified 30 Jan 1946).
30 Jan 1946                Incorporation into Ukrainian S.S.R. (within Soviet Union) as
                             Zakarpattya (Zakarpatskaya) oblast (see Ukraine Admin. divisions)
10 Feb 1947                Frontiers of Hungary as of 1 Jan 1938 restored, Transcarpathia
                             thus recognized as not part of Hungary by Paris Peace Treaty
                             (ratified 15 Sep 1947). 
First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Transcarpathian Ukraine
19 Nov 1944 - 26 Feb 1946  Ivan Ivanovych Turyanytsya         (b. 1901 - d. 1955)  KPZU

Hungarian Commissioner of the Rusyn Region
 3 Jan 1919 - 25 Mar 1919  Ágoston Stéfán (= Avgustyn Shtefan)(b. 1877 - d. 1945)  Non-party
Hungarian Political Special Commissioner
25 Mar 1919 - 28 Apr 1919  József Kaminszky (
=Yosif Kaminskiy)(b. 1878 - d. 1944)  Non-party
Czechoslovak Commander-in-chiefs of Subcarpathian Rus (in Užhorod/Uzhhorod)  
28 Apr 1919 - 29 Dec 1919  E
dmond Charles Adolphe Hennocque   (b. 1860 - d. 1933)  Mil
                            
(commander 3rd Infantry Division to 31 May 1919)
 1 Jun 1919 - Jun 1919     Arnošt (Ernst) Kopfstein           (b. 1867 - d. 19..)  Mil
                             (acting for Hennocque)
Jun 1919 - 25 Oct 1919     Jean Dumon (acting for
Hennocque)  (b. 1863 - d. 1935)  Mil
29 Dec 1919 - 28 Feb 1922  Marie Constantin Robert Paris      (b. 1868 - d. 1953)
  Mil
Czechoslovak Administrator
20 Aug 1919 - 26 Apr 1920  Jan Brejcha                        (b. 1867 - d. 1924)  Non-party
Governors
26 Apr 1920 - 22 May 1920
  Jan Brejcha (acting)               (s.a.)               Non-party
22 May 1920 - 17 May 1921 
Grigoriy Zhatkovich (Zsatkovich)   (b. 1886 - d. 1967)  Non-party
                             (= Gergely Zsatkovics, Řehoř Žatkovič)
17 May 1921 - 18 Nov 1923  Petr Ehrenfeld (acting)            (b. 1866 - d. 1936)  Non-party
                            
(= Peter Körndlmayer Ritter von Ehrenfeld)
18 Nov 1923 - 16 Jun 1933  Anton Beskid (
Beskyd)              (b. 1855 - d. 1933)  Non-party
16 Jun 1933 - 15 Feb 1935  Anton Rozsypal (acting)            (b. 1866 - d. 1937)  RSZML
15 Feb 1935 -  9 Oct 1938  Konstantin Hrabar (Hrabár)         (b. 1877 - d. 1938)  RSZML
 
9 Oct 1938 -  4 Nov 1938  Ivan Parkányi (= Iván Párkányi)    (b. 1896 - d. 1996)  Non-party
 
4 Nov 1938 - 15 Mar 1939  Vacant
President

15 Mar 1939 - 16 Mar 1939  Avgustyn Ivanovych Voloshyn        (b. 1874 - d. 1945)  UNO
                             (= Augustin Vološin)
Hungarian Military Commanders

16 Mar 1939 - 18 Mar 1939  vitéz Alajos Béldy                 (b. 1889 - d. 1946)  Mil
18 Mar 1939 -  7 Jul 1939  Béla Novákovics                    (b. 1886 - d. 1976)  Mil
Hungarian Government Commissioner for the liberated territory
of Carpathia with a Rusyn majority population

20 Mar 1939 -  7 Jul 1939  Gyula Marina (= Yuliy Marina)      (b. 1901 - d. 1983)  Non-party
Regents' Commissioners of Carpathia

 7 Jul 1939 - 15 Sep 1940  Zsigmond báró Perényi perényi      (b. 1870 - d. 1946)  Non-party
15 Sep 1940 -  8 Dec 1941  vitéz Miklós Kozma leveldi         (b. 1884 - d. 1941)  MEP
 
8 Dec 1941 - 17 Jan 1942  Sándor Ilniczky (acting)           (b. 1889 - d. 1947)  Non-party
                             (= Aleksander Ilynickiy)
17 Jan 1942 -  1 Apr 1944  Pál Vilmos Tomcsányi  
            (b. 1880 - d. 1959)  MEP
Government Commissioner in the Operational Zone
 
1 Apr 1944 - 27 Oct 1944  András Vincze                      (b. 1883 - d. 19..)  Mil
Soviet Military Commanders (of the 18th Army)
27 Oct 1944 -  7 Nov 1944  Yevgeniy Petrovich Zhuravlyov      (b. 1896 - d. 1983)  Mil   
                             (Zhuravlev)
 7 Nov 1944 - 26 Nov 1944  Anton Iosifovich Gastilovich       (b. 1902 - d. 1975)  Mil  
Czechoslovak Government Delegate
for the Liberated Area
28 Oct 1944 -  8 Dec 1944  František Němec                    (b. 1898 - d. 1963)  CSSD
Chairman of the People's Council of Transcarpathian Ukraine
26 Nov 1944 - 30 Jan 1946  Ivan Ivanovych Turyanytsya         (s.a.)               KPZU


Chairmen of the Rusyn People's Council (in Eperjes/Prešov)   
 8 Nov 1918 - 19 Nov 1918  Mikhail Mihalich (Mihály Mihálics) (b. 1859 - d. 1944)  Non-party
                            
(in Ólubló/Stará L'ubovňa)
19 Nov 1918 -  8 May 1919 
Anton Beskid (= Antal Beszkid)     (s.a.)               Non-party
Chairman of the Rusyn People's Council (in Ungvár/Uzhhorod)     
 9 Nov 1918 -  8 May 1919  Simeon Sabov (= Simon Szabó)       (b. 1863 - d. 1929)  Non-party
18 Dec 1918 - 21 Jan 1919  M
ikhail Brashchayko                (b. 1883 - d. 1969)  Non-party
                             (= Mihály Brascsajko)

                             (in dissidence, in
Máramarossziget/Maramoroshsigot)
Chairmen of the Central People's Council
(in Huszt/Khust)  
21 Jan 1919 -  8 May 1919  Mikhail Brashchayko                (s.a.)               Non-party

 8 May 1919 -  9 Oct 1919  Anton Beskid                       (s.a.)               Non-party
President of the Autonomous Directory

10 Nov 1919 - 19 Feb 1920  Grigoriy Zhatkovich (Zsatkovich)   (s.a.)               Non-party
Vice Governors

26 Apr 1920 - Nov 1923     Petr Ehrenfeld                     (s.a.)               Non-party
Nov 1923 - 30 Jun 1928     Anton Rozsypal                     (s.a.)               RSZML

Land Presidents of the Subcarpathian Rus Land
 
1 Jul 1928 - 
1 Jan 1937  Anton Rozsypal                     (s.a.)               RSZML
 1 Jan 1937 -  1 Oct 1938  Jaroslav Mezník                    (b. 1884 - d. 1941)  Non-party
 
1 Oct 1938 - 12 Oct 1938  Alexander (Aleksander) Beskid      (b. 1887 - d. 1975)  Non-party
                             (= Sándor Beszkid)
Ministers for the Management of Subcarpathian Rus
'
12 Oct 1938 - 26 Oct 1938  Andrey Brodiy (Bródy)              (b. 1895 - d. 1946)  AZS
                             (= András Bródy)
26 Oct 1938 - 16 Dec 1938  Avgustyn Ivanovych Voloshyn        (s.a.)           KNP;29 Oct 1938
Prime ministers
(Minister-presidents)                                              Non-party
16 Dec 1938 - 15 Mar 1939  Avgustyn Ivanovych Voloshyn        (s.a.)             Jan 1939: UNO
15 Mar 1939 - 16 Mar 1939  Yulian Ivanovych Revay             (b. 1899 - d. 1979)  UNO
                             (= Július Révay)

Hungarian Government Commissioner
(in Budapest)
(from 29 Dec 1918, Minister of Rusyn Region)

 1 Dec 1918 -
21 Mar 1919  Oreszt Szabó (= Orest Sabov)       (b. 1867 - d. 1944?) Non-party
Hungarian People's Commissar for the Rusyn Region
(in Budapest) 
21 Mar 1919 - 25 Mar 1919  Vacant      
25 Mar 1919 -  1 Aug 1919  Ágoston Stéfán                     (s.a.)               Non-party 
Czechoslovak Minister for Affairs of Subcarpathian Rus'

 4 Oct 1938 - 14 Oct 1938  Ivan Parkányi                      (s.a.)               Non-party
Hungarian Minister without Portfolio responsible for
Upland Affairs
(for formerly Southern Slovakia and Subcarpathia)(in Budapest)
16 Nov 1938 -  1 Apr 1940  Andor Jaross
                      (b. 1896 - d. 1946)  EMP

Party abbreviations (all local parties banned 29 Oct 1938-18 Jan 1939): AZS = Avtonomnyy-Zemledyel'cheskiy Soyuz (Autonomous Agrarian Union, agrarian, Subcarpathian autonomist, 26 Jan 1924-29 Oct 1938); CSSD = Česká Strana Sociálně Demokratická (Czech Social Democratic Party, social-democratic, 1893-27 Jun 1948, merged into KSC); EMP = Egyesült Országos Keresztényszocialista és Magyar Nemzeti Párt (United Country-wide Christian-Socialist and United Hungarian Party, Hungarian nationalist with Slovakia, Christian socialist, 21 Jun 1936-15 Mar 1940); KNP = Khristiansko-Narodnaya Partiya Podkarpatskoy Rusy/Křes'ansko-Lidová Strana Podkarpatské Rusi (Christian People's Party of Subcarpathian Rus', populist, conservative, Rusyn nationalist, formerly 1920-23 Russkaya Krest'yanskaya Partiya [Rusyn Peasants' Party], 1923-29 Oct 1938); KPZU = Komunistychna Partiya Zakarpats'koyi Ukrayiny (Communist Party of Transcarpathian Ukraine, communist, 19 Nov 1944-26 Feb 1946, merged into Communist Party of Ukraine [KPU]); MEP = Magyar Élet Pártja (Party of Hungarian Life, far-right, 22 Feb 1939-1944?); RSZML = Republikánska Strana Zemedelského a Malorol'níckeho L'udu/Republikánská Strana Zemědělského a Malorolnického Lidu "Agrárníci" (Republican Party of Farmers and Peasants "Agrarians", center-right, Czechoslovak agrarian party, 29 Jun 1922 - 22 Nov 1938, merged into Party of National Unity); UNO = Ukrayins'ke Natsional'ne Ob'yednannya (Ukrainian National Federation, Rusyn nationalist, conservative, authoritarian, Carpatho-Ukraine state party, 18 Jan 1939-16 Mar 1939); Mil = Military


Hutsul' 

[Ukrainian flag used in Hutsul'
                1918-1919 (Subcarpathia)]

 8 Nov 1918                Meeting in Kőrösmező (Yasinya) in Eastern Subcarpathia declares
                             union with Ukraine and elects a 42 person Rusyn People's
                             Council, which in turn later that day forms a 10 man executive
                             Main board.

22 Dec 1918                Hungarian occupation of Kőrösmező (Yasinya), local council
                             dispersed.
 8 Jan 1919                Ukrainian-backed uprising in Kőrösmező (Yasinya); local council
                             is restored. This is retrospectively referred to as the
                             "Hutsul' Republic" (Hutsul'ska Republika).
11 Jun 1919                Romanian occupation, local administration is dispersed (for not
                             having joined the Central Rusyn People's Council).

Chairman of the Hutsul' People's Council
 8 Nov 1918 - 11 Jun 1919  Stepan Stepanovych Klochurak       (b. 1895 - d. 1980)  Non-party
                             (= Stepan Stepanovich Klochurak)



Crimea (Krym)
 
[Crimean Khanate
                          flag (Crimea)]
Khanate to 1783
  
[Flag of Tatar
                          National Government, 1917-1918 (Crimea,
                          Russia)]
26 Dec 1917 - 26 Jan 1918
Tatar National Government Flag
   
[Tavrida
                          (Tauride) Soviet Republic flag, 1918
                          (Russia)]
26 Jan 1918 - 21 Apr 1918,
10 Apr 1919 - 24 Jun 1919
 
[Crimean
                          Regional Government, 1918-1919 (Crimea,
                          Russia)]
25 Jun 1918 - 15 Nov 1918
Crimean Regional Government Flag
 
[Russia flag]
15 Nov 1918 - 15 Apr 1919,
24 Jun 1919 - 15 Nov 1920
 
[Crimean
                          Socialist Soviet Republic, 1920-1921
                          (Russia)]
13 Nov 1920 - 7 Nov 1921
 
[Crimean Soviet
                          Socialist Republic, 1921-1928 (Russian SFSR)]
7 Nov 1921 - 1928
 
[Crimean ASSR
                          flag, 1929-1937 (Russian SFSR)]
5 May 1929 - 4 Jun 1937
 
[Crimean ASSR
                          flag, 1937-1938 (Russian SFSR)]
4 Jun 1937 - 1938
 
[Crimean ASSR
                          flag, 1938-1945 (Russian SFSR)]
1938 - 1942, 1944 - 30 Jun 1945
[Crimean
                          Autonomous Republic flag from 1992]
Adopted 24 Sep 1992
Map of Crimea Hear Local Anthem
"Gimn Avtonomnoy
 Respubliki Krym"
("Himn Avtonomnoyi
 Respubliky Krym")
(Hymn of the Autonomous
Republic of Crimea)
Text of Anthem
26 Feb 1992-2014
(lyrics 18 Oct 2000)
Constitution
(12 Jan 1999-17 Mar 2014)
-----------------------------------

1992 Constitution

(6 May 1992 - 17 Mar 1995,
restored 17 Mar 2014;
 in Russian
)
Capital: Simferopol'
(
Bakhchisaray [Bağçasaray]
 1532 - 1783
; Karasubazar
[Qarasuvbazar] 1783 - 1784;
Qyrym 1428-1532)
Currency: from 17 Mar 2014
Russian Ruble (RUR);
1993-1 Jun 2014 Hryvnya
(UAH); Qyrym Para
 c.1684-1783; Qyrym
Akche 1441-c.1684
Local Holidays (from 1992):
20 Jan (1991)
Day of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
----------------------------------
(from 2015): 16 Mar (2014)
Day of the Reunification of
 the Crimea with Russia
Population: 1,966,556 (2014)
2,024,000 (2001)
1,634,700 (1906)
580,000 (1780)
GDP (1992-2014): $N/A
(included in Ukraine GDP)
Exports (1992-2014): $N/A
Imports (1992-2014): $N/A
(included in Ukraine figures)
Ethnic groups: Russian 58.5%, Ukrainian 24.4%, Crimean
Tatar 12.1%, Belarusian 1.5%, Tatar 0.5%, Armenian 0.4%,
Jews 0.2%, Poles 0.2%, Moldovan 0.2%, Azeri 0.2%,
others 1.8%
(2001)
Total Local Russian Forces: 26,000 (2015)
[Ukrainian Forces: 14,500 (in 2014)]
Merchant marine: N/A (2014)
Religions: Eastern Orthodox, Muslim,
 Jewish, others
Sevastopol'

Note: Names are given in Russian (with various notes) from 1917. For the period 1991-2014 names are given in Russian with Ukrainian in parentheses. Russian and Ukrainian BGN/PCGN romanization system.

c.480 BC - 341 AD          Southern Crimean coast part of Bosporan (Bosporos) Kingdom.
114 BC - 63 BC            
Bosporos a vassal of the Pontic (Pontos) Kingdom.
63 BC - 341 AD            
Bosporos a vassal of the Roman Empire (Crimea briefly
                             annexed by Rome 62-68 AD as part of Moesia Inferior).
c.300 - c.375              Ruled by the Goths.
c.375 - c.500              Ruled by the Huns.
c.500 - c.750             
Rule by the Goths (restored).
c.750 - c.900              Khazar rule.

c.900 - c.1030             Pechenegs (Pachinak) rule.
c.1030 - 1239             
Cuman-Kipchak (Kypchak) rule.
1239 - 1428                Mongol Golden Horde (Ulus of Jochi) rule.

1428                       Geray (Giray) dynasty takes control and establishes the Crimean
                             Khanate
(Khanate of Qyrym).
1434 - 1441                Re-occupied by the Golden Horde.
 
1 Jun 1475               
Crimean khans vassals of the Ottoman Empire.
 6 Jun 1475                Ottoman Empire takes control of Kaffa, ending Genoese rule.
1568 - 21 Jul 1774         Eyalet of Kefe (province of Kaffa) created from the Southern
                             coast of Crimea under direct Ottoman rule.
Jul 1771 - Sep 1774        Russian occupation.
12 Aug 1771                Under Russian protectorate.

 
9 Feb 1773                Russia-Crimea treaty of peace and alliance (signed 12 Nov 1772).
21 Jul 1774                Crimean declared independent of both Ottoman and Russian rule by
                             Treaty
of Küçük Kaynarca (Kuchuk-Kainarji)(ratified 24 Jan 1775).
Mar 1777 - Jun 1779        Russian occupation.
Jan 1783                   Russian occupation.
19 Apr 1783                Annexed to
Russia (public proclamation 9 Jul 1783; from 8 Aug 1783
                             militarily administered as part of Novorossiya to 13 Feb 1784
                             [effectively to 22 Jun 1784], as Taurian oblast 13 Feb 1784 -
                             23 Dec 1796, as part of Novorossiya guberniya [
governorate]
                             23 Dec 1796 - 20 Oct
1802, and from 20 Oct 1802 separated again
                             as
governorate of Tauria).

13 Sep 1854 - 12 Jul 1856  Parts of the Crimea occupied by Allies during Crimean War (forces
                             occupy
Yevpatoria on 13 Sep 1854, Balaklava on 26 Sep 1854,
                            
Kerch on 24 May 1855, and Sevastopol' is occupied on 9 Sep 1855
                             following a 337-day siege. Following the Treaty of Paris of
                             30 Mar 1856 the Allies evacuate the Crimea on 12 Jul 1856).

 3 Dec 1917                Tauria Governorate Council of People's Representatives established
                             as 'temporary supreme authority'.
 9 Dec 1917                Tatar Kurultay (Qurultay), the Tatar parliament, inaugurated at
                             Bakhchisaray (Bağçasaray).
26 Dec 1917                Crimean People's Republic
proclaimed by the Tatar Kurultay, as part
                             of Russia, the Tatar constitution (Fundamental Law) adopted, but
                             the Tatar government deferred to the supreme authority of the
                             Council of People's Representatives.
29 Dec 1917                Bolshevik uprising in Sevastopol' establishes a local Revolutionary
                             Committee
(which on 10 Jan 1918
is renamed Taurian Governorate
                             Military Revolutionary Committee).
27 Jan 1918                Simferopol' occupied by the Bolsheviks; the Council of People's
                             Representatives and Tatar government are suppressed.
22 Mar 1918                Soviet Socialist Republic of Taurida (Tavrida, part of the Russian
                             S.F.S.R.
23 Apr 1918 - 15 Nov 1918  German occupation (Simferopol' occupied 23 Apr 1918 and Sevastopol'
                             on 1 May 1918, on 21 Apr 1918
Communist government flees.
27 Apr 1918 - 25 Jun 1918  Three successive local administrations (Commissariat, Council of
                             Directory and Board of Zemstvo) all attempted to obtain German
                             recognition.
25 Jun 1918                Crimean Kray Government established at Simferopol' (under

                             German occupation and claiming "sovereignty" of Crimea within
                             Russia until 15 Nov 1918).

15 Nov 1918                Kray Government declared itself only a "temporary authority", and
                             recognized supreme authority of the commander-in-chief of the
                             "White" Russian Volunteer Army (from 8 Jan 1919, Armed Forces in
                             the South of Russia) by agreement.
25 Dec 1918 - 29 Apr 1919  Allied (French) occupation of Sevastopol' under Jean-François
                             Charles Amet (b. 1861 - d. 1940),
French troops arrive on 23 Nov
                             1918.

10
Apr 1919                Soviet Russian forces occupy Simferopol' and then Sevastopol' on
                            
18 Apr 1919.

11 Apr 1919                "White" Russian forces evacuate Yalta.
 5 May
1919                Crimean Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Russian S.F.S.R. 
24 Jun 1919 - 15 Nov 1920  "White" Russian Armed Forces in the South of Russia (from 19 Aug
                             1920, the Russian Army) occupy Crimea (Simferopol' occupied on
                             24 Jun 1919, Communists flee 23 Jun 1919)(for "White" Russian
                             governments see under Russia).

13 Nov 1920                Soviet Russian forces regain control (taking Simferopol' on 13 Nov
                            
1920, Feodosiya 14 Nov 1920, Sevastopol' on 15 Nov 1920, Kerch
                             on 16 Nov 1920 and Yalta 17 Nov 1920).

 
7 Nov 1921                Socialist Soviet Republic of the Crimea (within Russian S.F.S.R.)
 5 Oct 1929                Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of the Crimea (within Russian
                             S.F.S.R).
 
5 Dec 1936
               Renamed Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Crimea.
 1 Nov 1941 -  9 May 1944  German military occupation
(Simferopol' occupied on 1 Nov 1941,
                             Kerch on 18 May 1942, Sevastopol' on 1 Jul 1942).
On
1 Sep
                             1942,
Generalbezirk Krim (Teilbezirk Taurien) established within
                             the Reichskommissariat Ukraine (s.a.) for Melitopol' area
                             and intended to eventually also include the peninsula itself
                             (which never occurs).

13 Apr
1944                Soviet Union re-occupies Crimea (Kerch re-taken on 11 Apr 1944,
                            
Simferopol' on 13 Apr 1944 and Sevastopol' on 9 May 1944).
18 May 1944                Deportation of the Tatars from Crimea by Soviet government
                             (from 26 Jun 1944 Greeks, Armenians, and Bulgarians as well).
25 Jun 1946                Reduced to Crimean oblast (by decree of 30 Jun 1945).

19 Feb 1954                Crimea transferred to the Ukrainian S.S.R. by the Russian S.F.S.R.
20 Jan 1991                In referendum 93.3% vote for the restoration of the Crimean
                             A.S.S.R. within the Soviet Union.
26 Feb 1991                Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Crimea (restored).
 4 Sep 1991                State sovereignty declared by Crimea.
26 Feb 1992                Republic of Crimea (name adopted by resolution of the Supreme
                             Council of Crimea, confirmed by new constitution 6 May 1992).
29 Apr 1992                Ukrainian law declares Crimea to be an integral part of Ukraine
                             that not be exchanged with another country.
 5 May 1992                Crimean government declares independence, to be approved by
                             a referendum, which is never held.
21 May 1992                Act on independence cancelled.

21 Sep 1994                Ukraine renames Crimean A.S.S.R. the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
                            
in its constitution (not recognized by Crimea).
31 Mar 1995 - 19 Aug 1995  Direct rule by the government of Ukraine.

14 May 1998                Autonomous Republic of Crimea (name recognized by Crimea).
21 Jan 1999                Russian recognized as dominant language (by new local constitution
                             of 21 Oct 1998).

27 Feb 2014                Parliament occupied by pro-Russian demonstrators.
 6 Mar 2014                Crimean parliament and Sevastopol' city council vote in favor of
                             joining Russia, to be a approved by referendum.

15 Mar 2014                Ukraine government declares direct rule (to no effect).
16 Mar 2014                Referendum votes 96.7% to join Russia (recognized by Russia,
                             but not Ukraine).
17 Mar 2014                Independence declared (Republic of Crimea) and application for
                             accession to Russia; recognized by Russia, but not Ukraine.
21 Mar 2014                Crimea annexed to Russia, creating two new federal subjects:
                             Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol' (not
                             recognized by Ukraine).

Chairman of the Taurian Governorate Committee of the Russian Social Democratic
Workers' (from 8 Mar 1918, Communist) Party (Bolsheviks)

14 Jan 1918 - 23 Apr 1918  Yan Yulianovich Tarvatskiy         (b. 1879 - d. 1918)
                             (= Jan Tarwacki)
                             (
in Tatar captivity from 21 Apr 1918)
Chairman of the Crimean Oblast Committee of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
 
1 May 1919 - 24 Jun 1919  Yuriy Petrovich Gaven              (b. 1884 - d. 1936)
                            
(= Jānis Daumanis)
Executive Secretaries of the Regional Committee of the Russian Communist Party
(Bolsheviks)
(of the All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks] 31 Dec 1925-13 Oct 1952;
from 13 Oct 1952, of Communist Party of the Soviet Union)
20 Nov 1920 -  6 Jan 1921  Rozaliya Samoylovna Zemlyachka     (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
                             (Zalkind)(f)     
 6 Jan 1921 - 13 Mar 1921  Adol'f Mikhaylovich Lide           (b. 1895 - d. 1941)
28 Mar 1921 -  6 Nov 1921  Ivan Alekseyevich Akulov           (b. 1888 - d. 1937)
 6 Nov 1921 - 24 Oct 1922  Abram Ilyich Izrailovich           (b. 1883 - d. 1937)
25 Oct 1922 - 13 May 1924  Nikolay Ivanovich Ufimtsev         (b. 1888 - d. 1938)
16 May 1924 - Jun 1925     Ivan Petrovich Nosov               (b. 1888 - d. 1937)
Jun 1925 -  7 Aug 1925     Vasiliy Vasilyevich Vashkevich     (b. 1892 - d. 1972)
                             (acting)
 7 Aug 1925 - 30 Aug 1927  Sergey Dmitriyevich Petropavlovskiy(b. 1886 - d. 194.)
Sep 1927 - 17 Dec 1929     Dmitriy Yegorovich Zhivov          (b. 1896 - d. 1938)
17 Dec 1929 - 11 May 1930  Nikolay Kuz'mich Kozlov            (b. 1893 - d. 1973)
12 May 1930 - Dec 1930     Aykaz Arkadyevich Kostanyan        (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
                            
(= Haykaz Arshaki Kostanyan)
Dec 1930 -  6 May 1931
    Yevgeniy Ilyich Veger (Weger)      (b. 1899 - d. 1937)
First Secretaries of the Regional Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
 
6 May 1931 -  3 Feb 1933  Yevgeniy Ilyich Veger (Weger)      (s.a.)
 
3 Feb 1933 - 28 Dec 1936
  Boris Aleksandrovich Semyonov      (b. 1890 - d. 1937)
28 Dec 1936 - 14 Jul 1937  Lavrentiy Iosifovich Kartvelishvili(b. 1890 - d. 1938)
14 Jul 1937 - 10 Oct 1938  Nikolay Ivanovich Shchuchkin       (b. 1895 - d. 1938)
                            
(acting to Jul 1938)
10 Oct 1938 - 28 Jan 1939  .... (acting)
28 Jan 1939 - 14 Jun 1944  Vladimir Semyonovich Bulatov       (b. 1910 - d. 1999)

                             (in Russian S.F.S.R. exile from 1942) 
14 Jun 1944 - 30 Jul 1946  Pavel Fyodorovich Tyulyayev        (b. 1905 - d. 1946)
30 Jul 1946 -  7 Aug 1949  Nikolay Vasilyevich Solov'yov      (b. 1903 - d. 1950)
                             (Solovyev)
 
7 Aug 1949 - 16 Jan 1954  Pavel Ivanovich Titov              (b. 1907 - d. 1990)
16 Jan 1954 - 19 Feb 1954  Dmitriy Stepanovich Polyanskiy     (b. 1917 - d. 2001)
First Secretaries of the Regional Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine

19 Feb 1954 - 14 Dec 1955
  Dmitriy Stepanovich Polyanskiy     (s.a.)
14 Dec 1955 -  3 Jan 1961  Vasiliy Grigoryevich Komyakhov     (b. 1911 - d. 1966)
 
3 Jan 1961 -  5 Apr 1967  Ivan Kondratyevich Lutak           (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
                             (for Agriculture 9 Jan 1963 - 4 Dec 1964)
11 Jan 1963 -  4 Dec 1964  Nikolay Prokofyevich Surkin        (b. 1910 - d. 19..)
                             (for Industry)
 5 Apr 1967 -  1 Jul 1977  Nikolay Karpovich Kirichenko       (b. 1923 - d. 1986)
                             (Kyrychenko)