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Russian Civil War Polities

Polities "White" (anti-Bolshevik) central governments - Green republics - North and Northwest:  Government of Russian North-Western region - Ingria (Ingermanland) - Karelia provisional government - Murmansk - Northern Region government - North Ingria (Kirjasalo) - Olonets government of Southern Karelia - Pskov voivodeship - Karelian United government - Karelian Workers' commune - Western Ingria (Kosemkina) - Western Russian Volunteer Army in Baltic - Volga and the Urals: Bashkir autonomous government - Idel-Ural - Orenburg Cossack Host - Tambov - Ural Provisional Provincial government - Volga German commune - South and the Caucasus: All-Great Don Host - Astrakhan Cossack Host - Black Sea Soviet republic - Chechen emirate - Dagestan - Don Soviet republic - Kuban Cossack Host - Kuban Soviet republic - Mountain People's republic - North-Caucasian emirate - North Caucasian Soviet republic - South of Russia - South-East Union of Cossack Hosts - Stavropol Soviet Republic - Terek Soviet Republic - Siberia: Buryat-Mongol - Czechoslovak Legion - Karakorum-Altai (Oriot) - Semirechye Cossack Host - Siberia regional government - Ural Cossack Host - Yakutia - Zabaykalye (Transbaikal) - Far East: Amur - Chinese Eastern Railway Zone - Chukotka - Far Eastern Republic - Kamchatka - Khabarovsk - Primorye (Priamurye) - Tungus Provisional National Government - Ukrainian Far Eastern Secretariat ("Green Ukraine") - Urianay kray (Tannu Tuva) -

Note
:
This record contains a list of the polities that emerged on the territory of the former Russian Empire during the Russian civil war 1918 to 1921. These polities included Bolshevik and "White" Russian polities as well as secessionist states and "Red" Soviet Republics. Many polities referred to here as "republics" are simply given that designation historically and were not actually republics, many in fact never established a form of administration.
classifications: self proclaimed central state; regional (province, etc.); national minority ([non-provincial] ethnic minority); military (wartime front administration); partisan guerrillas, etc.

Party abbreviations: AP = Alash Partiyasy (Alash Party, Kazakh moderate nationalist party of Alash Autonomy, to 1919 anti-Bolshevik, 1917-1920); KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, 12 Oct 1905-12 Dec 1917); NDS = Natsional-Demokraticheskogo Soyuza (National-Democratic Union, right-liberal, anti-socialist, Vladivostok regionalist, 1921-1922); NSP = Narodno-Sotsialisticheskaya Partiya (People's Socialist Party, center-left, 1905-1920); Okt = Soyuz 17 Oktyabrya (Union of October 17, "Octobrists", conservative, Russian moderate constitutionalist, Nov 1905-1918); PLSR = Partiya Levykh Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, democratic socialist, 1917–1923, split from PSR, allied with RSDRP-B/RKP); PSRPartiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries, "SRs", democratic socialist, agrarian socialist, split Aug 1917 into Left and Right wings, Jan 1902-1921); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, former RSDRP-B, state party, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)[All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)]); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Bolsheviks], Russian revolutionary socialist, Marxist communist, 1 Mar 1898-8 Mar 1918, renamed RKP); RSDRP-MRossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Men'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Mensheviks], split from RSDRP, democratic socialist, Orthodox Marxist, 1 Jan 1912-1922); SSO = Soyuz Sibirskikh Oblastey (Union of Siberian Regionalists, Siberian autonomist, 1905-1919); Mil = Military

Note: The data contained at present should not be taken as fully authoritative, assistance is welcome.


"White" (anti-Bolshevik) Central Governments
 
[Russian flag]
8 Jun 1918 - 16 Nov 1920

18 Jan 1918 - 19 Jan 1918  All-Russian Constituent Assembly convened in Petrograd
                             (elected 25 Nov 1917, chairman Viktor Mikhaylovich Chernov
                             [b. 1873 - d. 1952] PSR), it declared Russia a democratic federal
                             republic before it was dissolved by the Soviet government. 
 8 Jun 1918                Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly ("Komuch")
                             created after occupation of Samara by the Czechoslovak Corps,
                             proclaimed itself the provisional supreme authority of the
                             Russian state, but was recognized by few local anti-Bolshevik
                             governments.
23 Sep 1918                Replaced by the Provisional All-Russian Government at Ufa
                             ("Ufa Directory" )by the Act on Establishment of All-Russian
                             Supreme Authority, recognized as supreme authority of the Russian
                             state by most of local anti-Bolshevik governments in the
                             eastern part of Russia.
 4 Nov 1918                "Ufa Directory" declared all local governments dissolved
                             (not fully effected).
18 Nov 1918                "Ufa Directory" disbanded, Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak granted power
                             as the Supreme
Ruler, recognized as supreme authority by all local
                             "White" Russian governments by Aug 1919, and
having the de facto
                             recognition by the Entente (Allied) powers.

15 Jan 1920                Upon arrest of Kolchak, the supreme authority devolved to Anton
                             Denikin, appointed on 4 Jan 1920 as successor, who accepted
                             neither functions nor style of the Supreme Ruler (the supreme
                             authority lapsed).
11 Apr 1920                Baron Vrangel'
(Wrangel), Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in
                             the South of Russia,
assumes the style of Ruler (without specific
                             territorial designation) claiming the supreme Russian authority
                             on the basis of resolution of the Governing Senate (supreme court)
                             of 6 Apr 1920 (his "government in South of Russia" obtained de
                             facto recognition by France on 10 Aug 1920).
16 Nov 1920                Last "White" forces under Baron Vrangel' (Wrangel) are defeated in

                             Crimea by Soviet forces and depart to Turkey.
1922/1924                  End of "White" Russian political authority in exile (Russian
                             Council dissolved, end of diplomatic representation, recognition
                             of Soviet Russia by the U.K. and France).

Chairman of the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly ("Komuch")(in Samara)
 8 Jun 1918 - 23 Sep 1918  Vladimir Kazimirovich Vol'skiy     (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  PSR
Chairmen of the All-Russian Provisional Government
("Ufa Directory")
24 Sep 1918 - 18 Nov 1918  Nikolay Dmitriyevich Avksentyev    (b. 1878 - d. 1943)  PSR
                             (in Ufa to 8 Oct 1918, then in Omsk)
 7 Nov 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Vasiliy Georgiyevich Boldyrev      (b. 1875 - d. 1933)  Mil
                             (acting for Avksentyev, in Omsk)
Supreme Rulers (Verkhovnyy Pravitel')
18 Nov 1918                Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (b. 1863 - d. 1928)  PSR
                             (acting)(chairman of council of ministers)
18 Nov 1918 - 15 Jan 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak      (b. 1874 - d. 1920)  Mil
                             (in Omsk to 12 Nov 1919, in Novo-Nikolayevsk from 20 Nov
                             1919 to 4 Dec 1919, then by Dec 25 1919 in Nizhneudinsk)
15 Jan 1920 - 11 Apr 1920  Supreme "White" central authority lapsed
Ruler (Pravitel')  and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in the South of Russia
11 Apr 1920 - 19 Aug 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (b. 1878 - d. 1928)  Mil
                             (Wrangel)(in Sevastopol')
Ruler (Pravitel') and Commander-in-Chief of
the Russian Army
19 Aug 1920 - 16 Nov 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (s.a.)               Mil
                             (in Sevastopol')
Chairman of the Russian Council
 5 Apr 1921 - Oct 1922     Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (s.a.)               Mil
                             (in Istanbul exile, from Sep 1922 in
                             Sremski Karlovci, Yugoslavia)

Chairman of the Council of Managers
16 Aug 1918 - 23 Sep 1918  Yevgeniy Frantsevich Rogovskiy     (b. 1888 - d. 1950)  PSR 
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

 4 Nov 1918 - 22 Nov 1919  Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (s.a.)             PSR;Dec 1918 KDP
22 Nov 1919 - 15 Jan 1920  Viktor Nikolayevich Pepelyayev     (b. 1885 - d. 1920)  KDP
Chairman of the Council of Managers with the Commander-in-chief
11 Apr 1920 - 19 Aug 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Krivoshein   (b. 1857 - d. 1921)  Non-party
                             (acting to 2 Jun 1920)
Chairman of the Council of Managers of Government in the South of Russia

19 Aug 1920 - 11 Nov 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Krivoshein   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (in Sevastopol')



Green 'republics'

  At first "Greens" was the name of troops who hid in the woods (in the northern Caucasus and Crimean peninsula) and consisted of persons who had avoided mobilization into the army or deserters from both "Red" and "White" armies.  At first "Greens" were non-political and made previously diversionary raids with different "Green" detachments supported various Communist (red), anti-Communist (white), anarchist (black) or nationalist movements. 

  The largest Green Army existed in Black sea coast of Caucasus was the [pro-Communist] Kubano-Black Sea Red-Green Army (est. 15,000 persons) that resisted Denikin's Russian Volunteer Army in the summer of 1919 on the territory between Anapa and Adler. This Army and had no central commander and consisted of separate troops. In the winter of 1920 there were forces
under the Green 'Soviet' Army between Anapa and Tuapse (under commandant P.M. Morits) and Black Sea Peasants' Militia (between Sochi and Adler) that merged in Mar 1920 to form Red Army of Black Sea Land (est. 12,000 persons, under commandant Ye.S. Kazanskiy); it joined together with the "Red" Army to destroy Denikin's forces in the northern Caucasus. 

  pro-Communist "Green" (called "Red-Green") partisan troops in Crimea merged in Aug 1920 into the Rebel Army of Crimea (under commandant A.V. Mokrousov) and joined together with "Red" Army against Vrangel's (Wrangel) "White" forces. 

  Some "Greens" joined the "White" movement, these were often called "White-Greens." The best known of these forces was the Army for Revival of Russia (in 1920 under command of General Fostikov) in the northern Caucasus. 

  By mid-1920 nearly all the "Green" forces were dissolved, with some becoming part of Red Army.


North and Northwest


Government of Russian North-Western Region

ru_noroeste.gif

10 Oct 1918                "White" Russian Pskov Independent Volunteers Corps of the Northern
                             Army established in Pskov–Ostrov–Rezekne area, which was occupied
                             by
Germany from 24 Feb 1918.
Nov 1918                   North-Western Russian Regional Government appointed in Pskov by the
                             North-Western Russian Regional Defense Council.
25 Nov 1918                Pskov occupied by Soviet Russian forces. Many soldiers deserted,
                             and part retreated to Courland (Latvia). About 2,000 men arrived
                             in southern-Estonia.
 
6 Dec 1918                By the terms of an alliance between the "White" Russians and the
                            Estonian government, the army is put under Estonian control.

13 May 1919                North-Western Russian Army, established in Narva, Estonia, in 8 Mar
                             1919, invaded Russia and occupied Yamburg (modern Kingisepp).
25 May 1919                Independent Corps of the Northern Army created in southern part
                             of Estonia in
Feb 1919, which had been invaded Soviet Russia.
15 Jun 1919                Northern Army merged with North-Western Russian Army.
11 Aug 1919                North-Western Regional Russian Government, subordinated to the
                             Supreme Ruler Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak, restored in Tallinn,
                             Estonia by
the Political Conference (established 24 May 1919 in
                             Helsinki,
Finland; moved to Tallinn 29 Jul 1919).
26 Aug 1919 - 15 Oct 1919  Pskov briefly occupied by the Soviet Russian forces.
18 Oct 1919                North-Western Russian Army reaches Tsarskoye Selo, a suburb of
                             Petrograd, but is defeated by Soviet Russian troops.
 5 Dec 1919                North-Western Regional Russian Government dissolved as all
                             territories were lost to Soviet Russia, the army is interned by
                             the Estonian government.

Commanders of Pskov Independent Volunteers Corps of the Northern Army (in Pskov, later Narva)
10 Oct 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  Aleksey Yefimovich Vandam          (b. 1867 - d. 1933)  Mil
17 Nov 1918 -  6 Dec 1918  Heinrich Carl Timoleon von Neff    (b. 1880 - d. 1950)  Mil
Commander of the Independent Corps of the Northern Army (in Narva)
 
3 Jan 1919 -  1 Jun 1919  Anton Fyodorovich Dzerozhinskiy    (b. 1867 - d.bf.1939)Mil
Commander of the North-Western Russian Army (in Narva)
11 Aug 1919 -  5 Dec 1919  Nikolay Nikolayevich Yudenich      (b. 1862 - d. 1933)  Mil

Chairman of the North-Western Regional Russian Government and of the 
North-Western Russian Regional Defense Council
12 Oct 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  Aleksey Yefimovich Vandam          (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of the Political Conference
24 May 1919 -  5 Dec 1919  Anton Vladimirovich Kartashyov     (b. 1875 - d. 1960)  KDP

Chairman of Council of Ministers of North-Western Russian Regional Government (in Tallinn)
11 Aug 1919 -  5 Dec 1919  Stepan Georgiyevich Lianozov       (b. 1872 - d. 1949)  Non-party
                             (Stepan Lianosyan) 


Northern Region (Arkhangelsk)

[Russian flag]

10 Nov 1917                Local Councils (Soviets) refuse to recognize Bolshevik authority.
 7 Dec 1917                Revolutionary Committee assumed "supreme administration of political,
                             administrative and economy affairs" of the governorate.
17 Feb 1918                Bolshevik rule recognized.
 2 Aug 1918                Supreme Administration of the Northern Region ("VUSO")
is
                             declared by "White" Russians on the eve of occupation of Arkhangelsk
                             by Anglo-American military forces.  
28 Sep 1918                Provisional Government of the Northern Region (Severnaya oblast)
                             es
tablished.
Oct 1918                   Recognized supreme authority of the "Ufa Directory."
30 Apr 1919               
Recognizes the supreme authority of the Kolchak government.
27 Sep 1919                British evacuate Arkhangelsk (and Murmansk 12 Oct 1919).
19 Oct 1919                Provisional Government turned into department for civil affairs under
                             chief administrator of Northern Region but use of former name
                             continued.
19 Feb 1920                "White" government evacuates Arkhangelsk by sea to Norway.

21 Feb 1920                Bolsheviks enter Arkhangelsk.               

Chairman of the Arkhangelsk Governorate Revolutionary Committee
 
8 Nov 1917 - Feb 1918     A.A. Zhitkov                       (b. c.1887 – d. 19..)RSDRP-M
Chairman of the Supreme Administration of Northern Region
(Severnaya oblast)
 2 Aug 1918 -  6 Sep 1918  Nikolay Vasilyevich Chaykovskiy    (b. 1850 - d. 1926)  NSP
                             (1st time)
Commander-in-chief of the Russian Army and Navy in the Northern Region
 6 Sep 1918 -  8 Sep 1918  Georgiy Yermolayevich Chaplin      (b. 1886 – d. 1950)  Mil
Chairman of the Supreme Administration of Northern Region
 8 Sep 1918 - 28 Sep 1918  Nikolay Vasilyevich Chaykovskiy    (s.a.)               NSP
                             (2nd time)
Chairman of the Provisional Government of the Northern Region
28 Sep 1918 - 19 Feb 1920  Nikolay Vasilyevich Chaykovskiy    (s.a.)               NSP
                             (from 23 Jan 1919 on diplomatic mission to Paris)
23 Jan 1919 – 10 Feb 1920  Pyotr Yulyevich Zubov              (b. 1871 – d. 1942)  KDP
                             (acting for Chaykovskiy)
10 Feb 1920 – 19 Feb 1920  Yevgeniy Karlovich Miller          (b. 1867 — d. 1937)  Mil
                             (acting for Chaykovskiy)
Chief administrator of Northern Region (Severnyy kray)
10 Sep 1919 – 19 Feb 1920  Yevgeniy Karlovich Miller          (s.a.)               Mil

Commanders of British troops in Northern Russia
Aug 1918 - Oct 1918        Frederick Cuthbert Poole           (b. 1869 - d. 1938)
Oct 1918 - Sep 1919        William Edmond Ironside            (b. 1880 - d. 1959)

Commander of the American Expeditionary Force, North Russia
Sep 1918 - Oct 1919        Wilds Preston Richardson           (b. 1861 - d. 1929) 



Ingria (Ingermanland)

[Ingrian flag, 1919-1920
                (Russia)]
                     8 Sep 1919 - 1920

Western Ingria (Kosemkina)

Chairman of the Interim Governing Council
Jan 1919 - 1920            Pietari Toikka                     (b. 1862 - d. 1930)

North Ingria (Republic Kirjasalo)

23 Jan 1919                Northern Ingermanland declares independence as Republic of North
                             Ingria (Pohjois-Inkerin tasavalta), also referred to as the
                             "Republic of Kirjasalo" (Kirjasalon tasavalta).
 5 Dec 1920                Government collapses with the withdrawal of Finnish forces

Chairmen of the Provisional State Council
 9 Jul 1919 - Sep 1919     Santeri Termona
14 Sep 1919 - Nov 1919     Juho Pekka Kokko                   (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
16 Nov 1919 - May 1920     Yrjö (Georg) Elfvengren            (b. 1889 - d. 1927)  Mil
Jun 1920 -  6 Dec 1920     Jukka Tirranen


Pskov Voivodeship

[Russian flag]

Commandants (subordinated to North-Western Army under Yudenich)
25 May 1919 - 23 Aug 1919  Stanislav Nikodimovich Bulak-      (b. 1883 - d. 1940)  Mil 
                             Balakhovich
23 Aug 1919 - 26 Aug 1919  Boris Sergeyevich Peremykin        (b. 1890 - d. 1971)  Mil
                             (Peremikin)



Karelia

Provisional Government of Karelia

[Karelian flag
                      adopted 1918 (Russia)]
21 Jun 1918 - 1919

(flag of
                      [East Karelia] (Russia), 1919-1920]
1919 - 29 Mar 1920
(flag of [East] Karelia
                      (Russia), 1920]
29 Mar 1920 - 10 Dec 1920

 1 Jul 1919                Provisional Government of Karelia, Arkhangelsk (Arkangelin Karjalan
                             väliaikaisen hallituksen) formed at Uhtua (Kalevala) near the
                             Finnish border.
21 Mar 1920                Renamed the Provisional Government of Karelia (Karjalan väliaikainen
                            
hallitus).
18 May 1920                Uhtua captured by Soviet Red Army, government moves to Vuokkiniemi 
                             (Voknavolok).
Jun 1920                   Most of northern Karelia is conquered by Soviet Army.
10 Dec 1920                Government cross the border into Finnish Karelia, end of
                             administration.

Chairmen of the Government
21 Jul 1919 - 25 Mar 1920  A. Tikhonov (Tihonov)
25 Mar 1920 - 10 Dec 1920  Kh. Tikhanov (Tihonov)


Olonets Government of Southern Karelia

[(East) Karelia flag
                adopted 1918 (Russia]
                       21 Jun 1918 - 20 Dec 1918

Note: South-Eastern Karelian lands between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega.

May 1920                   Olonets Government of Southern Karelia founded in Olonets (Aunus).
Aug 1920                   Olonets and Southern Karelia captured by the Soviet Army;
                             Olonets government flees to Finland.
20 Dec 1920                Merger with Provisional Government of Karelia to form the
                             Karelian United Government.

Chairman of the Government
May 1920 - 20 Dec 1920     G. Kuttuyev (Kuttuev)


Karelian United Government

(flag of [East] Karelia
                (Russia), 1920-1923]
                    20 Dec 1920 - 1923

20 Dec 1920                Karelian United Government formed in Finland exile by merger of
                             remnants of former Provisional Government of Karelia and Olonets
                             Government
of Southern Karelia.
31 Dec 1920                Finland cedes Repola and Porajärvi to Soviet Russia by the Treaty
                             of Tartu.
21 Apr 1921                Republic of Eastern Karelia (Itä Karjala) declared independent.
Oct 1921 - Feb 1922        Intervention of Karelian military troops supported by K.U.G. from
                             territory of Finland into eastern Karelia. During Dec 1920 - Feb
                             1921 conquered territories were again liberated by Russian
                             Red Army.
23 Jul 1923                Permanent Court of Arbitration refuses to make an advisory opinion
                             on the status of Karelia regarding the Russo-Finnish Treaty of
                             Tartu (of 14 Oct 1920).
1923                       Exile government dissolved.

Chairman of the Government
20 Dec 1920 - 1923         P. Kyöttinen (in Finland exile)


Karelian Workers' Commune: see Karelia under Russian S.F.S.R. admin

Murmansk

 9 Nov 1917                Bolshevik rule recognized.
 6 Mar 1918                Landing by British troops according to agreement of 3 Mar 1918.
30 Jun 1918                Local Council (Soviet) declares end of relations with Soviet Russia.
 5 Aug 1918                Recognizes authority of Supreme Administration in Arkhangelsk.
12 Oct 1919                British evacuate Murmansk.
21 Feb 1920                Local Bolsheviks seized Murmansk (on 13 Mar 1920 regular Soviet
                             troops reach Murmansk).

Chairman of Murmansk Kray Council of Deputies
Jun 1918 – Oct 1918        Aleksey Mikhaylovich Yuryev        (b. 1887 - d.af.1922)Non-party

Commanders of British Troops
Mar 1918 – Jun 1918        Thomas Webster Kemp                (b. 1866 - d. 1928)  Mil
Jun 1918 – Aug 1918        Frederick Cuthbert Poole           (b. 1869 - d. 1938)  Mil
Aug 1918 – Oct 1919        the commanders in Arkhangelsk

Western Russian Volunteer Army in Baltic
 
[Russian flag]

17 May 1919                Western Russian Volunteer Unit formed from "White" Russian
                             prisoners of war in Germany. 
May 1919                   Moved from Germany to Jelgava [Mitau], Latvia.
18 Aug 1919                Upgraded to a Corps.
 2 Sep 1919                Separated from North Western Army as Western Russian Volunteer
                             Army (ZDA).
 3 Oct 1919                Germans transfer command of all units in Jelgava, Latvia,
                             and Lithuania to the Western Russian Volunteer Army. 
 8 Oct 1919                Unilateral offensive against Riga started.
 3 Nov 1919                Allied counter-offensive results in defeat of ZDA.
28 Nov 1919                Evacuated from Latvia.
13 Dec 1919                Evacuated from Lithuania.
 2 Dec 1919                Western Russian Volunteer Army is dissolved.

Commander-in-chief of the Western Russian Volunteer Army (in Jelgava)
 2 Sep 1919 -  2 Dec 1919  Pavel Rafailovich Bermondt Avalov  (b. 1884 - d. 1973)
                             (from 9 Oct 1919, Knyaz' Pavel Rafailovich Bermondt Avalov

Chairman of the Administrative Council (in Jelgava)
 6 Oct 1919 - 19 Nov 1919  Graf Konstantin Konstanovich fon   (b. 1861 - d. 1923)
                             der Palen


Ukraine


Ukrainian Democratic Republic: see Ukraine


Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic: see Ukraine
Bessarabian Soviet: see Moldova

Donetsk and Krivoy Rog Basins Soviet Republic (Donets'k-Kryvyy Rih): see Ukraine
Galician Soviet Republic: see under Ukraine

Green Ukraine: see Ukrainian Republic of the Far East
Odessa Soviet Republic: see Ukraine
Tauride Republic: see Crimea under Ukraine

Volga and the Urals


Volga German Commune: see under Russian S.F.S.R. admin.


Idel-Ural

[Idel Ural flag]

Note: Idel-Ural was the end of the dream of recreating the state of the Golden Horde (Altin Ordu). It was to be a free federation of Turkic and Finno-Ugric peoples of Volga-Ural Region, remembering the glory of the Golden Horde.

20 Nov 1917                Congress of Muslims from Russia's Interior and Siberia proclaimed 
                             Independent State in the territory of Kazan and Ufa governorates
                             (guberni). Selection of the government of th
e state, Milli Idare.
                             Creation of All-Russia Muslim
Military Council. Election of
                             Idel-Ural delegates to Versailles
Conference.
Feb 1918                   Non-Muslim nations of Chuvashia, Udmurtia, Mari El and 
                             Mordovia join the Tatars and Bashkirs in the new state. 
Apr 1918                   After the Brest Peace Treaty is concluded, Red Army liquidates 
                             administration. 
Jul 1918                   With the help of the Czech Legion, the Idel-Ural administration
                             is restored. 
end 1918                   Dissolved.

Head of the National Administration (Milli idar)
12 Dec 1917 - 1918         Sadretdin Nizametdinovich Maxudov  (b. 1872/79 - d. 1957)
                             (= Arsal Sadri Maxudi)
                             (in exile from ... 1918)


Ural Provisional Provincial Government

[Ural Autonomist flag,
                1918]
            18 Aug 1918 - 10 Nov 1918

25 Jul 1918                Yekaterinburg occupied by the Czechoslovak Legion.
13 Aug 1918                Provisional Provincial Government of Ural Region ("VOPU") formed
                             in Yekaterinburg.
26 Oct 1918                Transfers power to Supreme Ruler Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak.
10 Nov 1918                Included within the All-Russian Provisional Government

                            (see PARG above).

Chairman of the Provisional Provincial Government of Ural Region
13 Aug 1918 - 10 Nov 1918  Pyotr Vladimirovich Ivanov                               KDP 



Orenburg Cossack Host


[Orenburg
                          Cossacks Possible flag 1917-1918]
1917 - 1918 Possible Flag

1755                       Orenburg Cossack Host formed.
 
8 Nov 1917                Ataman of the Orenburg Cossack Host does not recognize the Soviet
                             government and assumes supreme authority in the Orenburg
                             governorate and (from 24 Dec 1917) in Turgay oblast (presently
                             north-western part of Kazakhstan).
31 Jan 1918                Bolshevik forces take Orenburg, Dutov falls back to Verkhneuralsk,
                             which also surrenders in Mar 1918, then on 10 May 1918 he retreats
                             to Turgay (Torgay).
 3 Jul 1918                Orenburg Cossacks re-take Orenburg and proclaim (on 12 Aug 1918)
                             the autonomous Orenburg Host Oblast within a federal Russian
                             republic; recognized authority of "Komuch" (from Jul 1918) and
                             Provisional All-Russian Government (from Sep 1918).
Nov 1918                   Orenburg Cossacks recognized the authority of Aleksandr Vasilyevich
                             Kolchak, the Supreme
Ruler (autonomy continued de facto).
22 Jan 1919                Red Army retakes Orenburg, the Cossack capital moved to Troitsk
Sep 1919                   Orenburg Cossack Host evacuated the Orenburg governorate (Troitsk
                             on 4 Aug 1919) and reached first (in Dec 1919) Semirechye (see
                             under Kazakhstan) and then (in Apr 1920) China.       
     
Ataman of Orenburg Cossack Host and (to 5 Nov 1918) Chairman of the Host Government
 8 Nov 1917 -  2 Apr 1920  Aleksandr Ilyich Dutov               (b. 1879 - d. 1921)
                             (in exile in China to 7 Feb 1921)
                             (13 Feb 1919 – Sep 1919 also chief administrator of
                             the Orenburg kray with rights of governor-general)   


Bashkir Autonomous Government


[Bashkir Autonomous
              Government 1917-1919]
                  Adopted 20 Aug 1918

20 Jul 1917                Bashkir Autonomous Government (within Russia).
Apr 1918 - Jun 1918        Suppressed by "White" Russian forces.
23 Mar 1919                Bashkir A.S.S.R. established.

Chairmen of the Bashkir Government

20 Jul 1917 -  4 Feb 1918  Sharif Ahmetzyanovich Manat        (b. 1887 - d. 1936)  RSDRP-B
                            
(= Sharif Ahmetyan uly Manat)
Feb 1
918 - Apr 1918        Abdullah Sibagatullovich Davletshin(b. 1894 - d. 1963)
                             (chairman of Provisional Revolutionary Council)
17 Jun 1918 - 30 Jun 1918  Sagit Gubaydullovich Mryasov       (b. 1880 - d. 1932)
                             (= Meracov Sarit Gheabayzeulla uly)(acting)
Jul 1918 - Dec 1918        Yunus Yulbarisovich Bikbo        (b. 1883 - d. 1942)  RSDRP-B
                            
(= Yunys Yulbary uly Bikbov)
Dec 1918 - 20 Feb 1919  
  Abdullah Kamaletdinovich Adigamov  (b. 1896 - d. 1968)  RSDRP-B
                            
(= Azeshamov Abdullah Kamaletdin uly)
                             (acting)
Feb 1919 - 23 Mar 1919     Mstislav Aleksandrovich Kulayev
    (b. 1873 - d. 1958)
                             (= Muhammethan Sahipgaray uly Kulaev)


Tambov

19 Aug 1920                Union of Working Peasants (Soyuz Trudovogo Krestyanstva)
                             "Antonovshchina" revolt in Tambov region against Bolshevik power.
Jan 1921                   Peasant revolts spread to Samara, Saratov, Tsaritsyn, Astrakhan and
                             Siberia. In Feb 1921, the peasant army reached its peak, numbering
                             up to 70,000 it was known as the "Antonovtsi" or "Blue Army." 
1921                       Uprising was gradually quelled. Total losses among the population
                             of Tambov region in 1920–1922 resulting from the war, executions,
                             and imprisonment in concentration camps have been estimated
                             as at least 240,000.

Chief of Staff
19 Aug 1920 - Jun 1921     Aleksandr Antonov                    (b. 1888 - d. 1922)  PSR


South and the Caucasus

Abkhazia: see under Georgia

Aradayan Republic: see Nakhichevan under Azerbaijan

Araks (Aras, Araz) Republic: see Nakhichevan under Azerbaijan

Astrakhan Cossack Host

1818                       Astrakhan Cossack Host formed.
27 Nov 1917                Kalmyks incorporated in the Host as the Kalmyk Department on the
                             basis of the resolution of the Kalmyk Congress of Nov 12-14, 1917
                             (not fully effected).
30 Nov 1917                Committee of People's Authority formed, on 10 Dec 1917 it proclaimed
                             itself a provisional supreme authority in Astrakhan governorate.
25 Jan 1918                Take-over of Astrakhan by ataman of Astrakhan Cossack Host.
 6 Feb 1918                Bolshevik rule in Astrakhan, the Astrakhan Cossacks retreated to Don
                             and Kuban (latter pro-German party), or joined the Ural Cossacks
                             (latter anti-German party; from Sep 1918 recognized authority of
                             the "Ufa Directory").
Jan 1919                   The re-united Host, then at Rostov-na-Donu, recognized the authority
                             of Denikin, the Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces in the South
                             of Russia.
Jun 1919 – Jan 1920        "White" forces, including Astrakhan Cossacks, in control of the
                             Kalmyk Steppe and Tsaritsyn (which became seat of the Host ataman).
Apr 1920                   Cossacks departed to Crimea through Kuban and Tuapse.
 4 Aug 1920                "Full internal self-government" granted to four Cossack Hosts in
                              Southern Russia by Vrangel', the Ruler in the South of Russia.
Nov 1920                    Cossacks evacuated Crimea for Turkey.

Chairman of Committee of People's Authority
30 Nov 1917 – 25 Jan 1918  Aleksandr Semyonovich Perfilyev                           PLSR
Atamans of the Astrakhan Cossack Host
25 Jan 1918 – 15 Feb 1918  Ivan Alekseyevich Biryukov         (b. 1856 - d. 1919)   
                             (in office from 15 Oct 1917)   
Mar 1918 – Jan 1919        Danzan Tundutov (acting)           (b. 1888 - d. 1923)   
Mar 1918 – Dec 1918        German Mikhailovich Astakhov       (b. 1888 - d. 1970)
                             (in opposition, at the Ural Host)
Jan 1919 – Nov 1920        Nikolay Vasilyevich Lyakhov        (b. 1878 - d. 1945)    Mil/KDP
                             (continued after 1920 in exile in Western Europe)

Chairmen of the Astrakhan Host Government
25 Jan 1918 – Mar 1918     Nikolay Vasilyevich Lyakhov        (s.a.)                 Mil/KDP
                             (in office from Nov 1917, continued in opposition to
                             Dec 1918 at the Ural Host)
Mar 1918 – Jan 1919        Boris Emmanuilovich Krishtafovich  (d. 1944)              KDP
                             (acting)
Jan 1919 – Nov 1920        Sandzhi Bayanov                    (b. 1884 - d. af.1937) PSR

Baku Soviet Commune: see Azerbaijan

Batum Republic: see under Georgia

Black Sea Soviet Republic

[Black Sea Soviet Republic]

10 Mar 1918                Black Sea Soviet Republic (Chernomorskaya) proclaimed in Black Sea
                             province.

30 May 1918                United with Kuban Soviet Republic to form Kuban-Black Sea Soviet
                             Republic.
27 Mar 1920                Soviet Russian forces retake Novorossiysk.

Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
10 Mar 1918 - 30 May 1918  Abram Izrailevich Rubin            (b. 1883 - d. 1918)  RKP

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
10 Mar 1918 - 30 May 1918  Yan Vasilyevich Poluyan            (b. 1891 - d. 1937)  RKP


Central Caspian Dictatorship: see under Azerbaijan

Chechen Emirate 1917-1920: see under Russia


All-Great Don Host

[Flag of All-Great Don
                Cossack Host 1918-1920]
              21 Apr 1918 - 8 Jan 1920

1870                       Province of the Don Host.
20 Mar 1917                Last Tsarist appointed Ataman arrested.

25 Feb 1918                Bolsheviks capture N
ovocherkassk, eventually establishing
                             the Don Soviet republic.
 8 May 1918                German and Cossack forces retake the area.
17 May 1918                All-Great Don Host
 8 Jan 1920                Province is lost to Soviet forces, Cossacks retreat toward

                             Kuban and the Crimea.

Chairmen of the Don Executive Committee
16 Mar 1917 - 20 Mar 1917  Andrey Ivanovich Petrovskiy        (b. 1867 - d. 1924)  KDP
Host Ataman
20 Mar 1917 -  1 Jul 1917  Yevgeniy Andreevich Voloshinov     (b. 1881 - d. 1918)  Mil
                             (acting to 8 May 1917, then interim)
 1 Jun 1917 - 11 Feb 1918  Aleksey Maksimovich Kaledin        (b. 1861 - d. 1918)  Mil
12 Feb 1918 - 25 Feb 1918  Anatoliy Mikhaylovich Nazarov      (b. 1876 - d. 1918)  Mil
Chairman of the Council of Defense
15 Apr 1918 - 21 Apr 1921  Georgiy Petrovich Yanov            (b. 1878 - d. 1924)  Mil

Chairman of the Don Provisional Government
21 Apr 1918 - 17 May 1918  Georgiy Petrovich Yanov            (s.a.)               Mil
Don Ataman

17 May 1918 - 15 Feb 1919  Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov         (b. 1869 - d. 1947)  Mil
15 Feb 1919 -  8 Jan 1920  Afrikan Petrovich Bogayevskiy      (b. 1873 - d. 1934)  Mil 
                             (acting to 19 Feb 1919)

Chairman of the Host Government
25 Dec 1917 - 25 Feb 1918  Mitrofan Petrovich Bogayevskiy      (b. 1881 - d. 1918) Non-party
Chairmen of the Council of the Directors of Departments

17 May 1918 - 19 Feb 1919  Afrikan Petrovich Bogayevskiy      (s.a.)               Mil
20 Feb 1919 -  1 Nov 1919  Pyotr Kharitonovich Popov          (b. 1867 - d. 1960)  Mil
Dec 1919 - Jan 1920        Nikolay Mikhaylovich Melnikov      (b. 1882 - d. 1972)  Mil


Don Soviet Republic

[Don Soviet Republic 1918]

23 Jan 1918                Provisional Revolutionary Committee constituted at Kamenskaya.
24 Feb 1918                Bolsheviks capture Rostov-na-Donu.
26 Feb 1918                Bolsheviks capture N
ovocherkassk.
23 Mar 1918                Don Soviet Republic established at Rostov-na-Donu
 8 May 1918                German and Cossack forces retake the Rostov area, the
                             government of Don Soviet Republic goes to Tsaritsyn (Volgograd)
                             and then to Velikoknyazheskaya (Proletarsk) to 28 Jun 1918. 

Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee
23 Jan 1918 - 14 Apr 1918  Fyodor Grigoryevich Podtyolkov     (b. 1886 - d. 1918)  Mil
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
14 Apr 1918 - 28 Jun 1918  Viktor Semyonovich Kovalyov        (b. 1883 - d. 1919)  RKP

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
23 Mar 1918 - 11 May 1918  Fyodor Grigoryevich Podtyolkov     (s.a.)               Mil
11 May 1918 - 11 Jun 1918  Sergey Ivanovich Syrtsov (acting)  (b. 1893 - d. 1937)  RKP
11 Jun 1918 - 28 Jun 1918  Ippolit Antonovich Doroshev        (b. 1896 - d. 1939
)  RKP


Central Caspian Dictatorship: see under Azerbaijan

Kuban Cossack Host

[Flag of Kuban Cossacks
                1918-1920]
               5 Dec 1918 - Mar 1920

Mar 1917                   Kuban Provisional Army Council founded at Yekaterinoslav.
26 Mar 1917                Last imperial Ataman removed, taken over by a commissioner.
30 Apr 1917                Kuban Host Rada constituted.
17 Jul 1917                Kuban Provincial Council dissolved and all executive functions
                             pass to the Host Government.

18 Oct 1917                Kuban Province is renamed Kuban Territory (Kubanskiy Kray).

14 Mar 1918 - 17 Aug 1918  Communist occupation (see Kuban Soviet)
1919 - 1920                Kuban Territory is gradually occupied by Bolshevik forces.
17 Mar 1920                Yekaterinodar (Krasnodar) retaken by Communist forces.
 3 May 1920                Capitulation of "White" Cossack forces in Kuban at Sochi and Tuapse.

Commissioner of Kuban Province
26 Mar 1917 - 23 Oct 1917  Kondrat Lukich Bardizh             (b. 1868 - d. 1918)  KDP
Kuban Host Atamans (Atamans of the Cossack Forces of the Kuban)
23 Oct 1917 - 23 Nov 1919  Aleksandr Petrovich Filimonov      (b. 1867 - d. 1948)  Mil
                            
(outside of Kuban Territory Apr - Jun 1918)
23 Nov 1919 - 24 Nov 1919  Pavel Ivanovich Kurganskiy (acting)(b. 1879 - d. 1957)  Non-party
24 Nov 1919 - 29 Dec 1919  Nikolay Mitrofanovich Uspenskiy    (b. 1875 - d. 1919)
  Mil
29 Dec 1919 - 13 Jan 1920  Filip Semyonovich Sushkov (acting)
13 Jan 1920 - Mar 1920     Nikolay Andrianovich Bukretov      (b. 1876 - d. 1930)  Mil

Chairman of the Kuban Host Government
30? Apr 1917-14? Nov 1917  Alexander Petrovich Filimonov      (s.a.)               Mil
Chairmen of the Kuban Territorial Government

14? Nov 1917 - 31 Dec 1918 Luka Lavrentyevich Bych            (b. 1870 - d. 1945)  SRP
                             (outside of Kuban Territory Apr - Jun 1918)
18 Dec 1918 - 19 May 1919  Filip Semyonovich Sushkov
(1st time)                    Non-party
                             (
acting for Bych to 31 Dec 1918)
19 May 1919 - 25 May 1919  Daniil Yermolayevich Skobtsov      (b. 1884 - d. 1969)  Non-party
                             (acting)
25 May 1919 - 11 Dec 1919  Pavel Ivanovich Kurganskiy         (s.a.)               Non-party
11 Dec 1919 - 18 Jan 1920  Filip Semyonovich Sushkov (2nd time)                    Non-party
18 Jan 1920 - Mar 1920     Vasiliy Nikolayevich Ivanis        (b. 1888 - d. 1974)  Mil


Kuban Soviet Republic

[Kuban Soviet Republic]

13 Apr 1918                Kuban Soviet Republic
30 May 1918                Kuban-Black Sea Soviet Republic (Kubano-Chernomorskaya) created by
                             merger of Kuban Soviet Republic and the Black Sea Soviet Republic.

 7 Jul 1918                Merged into the North Caucasian Soviet Republic.

Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Committee of Kuban oblast
16 Feb 1918 - 13 Apr 1918  Yan Vasilyevich Poluyan            (b. 1891 - d. 1937)  RSDRP-B;1918
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee                                        RKP
13 Apr 1918 - 30 May 1918  Yan Vasilyevich Poluyan            (s.a.)               RKP  
30 May 1918 -  7 Jul 1918  Avram Izrailevich Rubin            (b. 1883 - d. 1918)  RKP

Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council
Apr 1918 -  7 Jul 1918     Yan Vasilyevich Poluyan            (s.a.)               RKP


Mugan Soviet Republic: see under Azerbaijan



South of Russia

[Russian flag]

 1 Nov 1919                Provisional Federal Government of Russia created by Anton Ivanovich
                             Denikin
.

15 Jan 1920                Supreme authority of the Russian state devolved to Denikin,
                             appointed as successor of Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak on 4 Jan
                             1920, but he accepted
neither functions nor style of the Supreme
                             Ruler (the supreme
authority lapsed).
21 Feb 1920 - 27 Mar 1920  Government in Southern Russia created by Denikin (recognized
                             as "head of authority in South of Russia", a status but not
                             style) in Novorossiysk by agreement with three Cossack Hosts.
17 Mar 1920                Yekaterinodar (Krasnodar) occupied by Soviet Russian forces
                             (Novorossiysk on 27 Mar 1920).
11 Apr 1920                Baron Vrangel' (Wrangel) assumes the style of the Ruler claiming
                             the supreme Russian authority (see Alternative "White" Central
                             Governments).

Commanders-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in the South of Russia
18 Nov 1918 -  4 Apr 1920  Anton Ivanovich Denikin            (b. 1872 - d. 1947)  Mil
                             (to Mar 1920 in Novorossiysk, then Feodosiya)
 4 Apr 1920 - 11 Apr 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (b. 1878 - d. 1928)  Mil
                             (Wrangle)(in Sevastopol')

Chairmen of the Special Consultation with the Commander-in-chief
31 Aug 1918 -  8 Oct 1918  Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseyev      (b. 1857 - d. 1918)  Mil
 8 Oct 1918 - 25 Oct 1919  Avram Mikhaylovich Dragomirov      (b. 1868 - d. 1955)  Mil
Sep 1919 - 25 Oct 1919     Aleksandr Sergeyevich Lukomskiy    (b. 1868 - d. 1939)  Mil
                             (acting for Dragomirov)
25 Oct 1919 - 30 Dec 1919  Aleksandr Sergeyevich Lukomskiy    (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of the Council of Managers with the Commander-in-chief
30 Dec 1919 - 21 Feb 1920  Aleksandr Sergeyevich Lukomskiy    (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of Council of Ministers of the Government in the South of Russia
21 Feb 1920 - 27 Mar 1920  Nikolay Mikhaylovich Melnikov      (b. 1881 - d. 1972)  Non-party
                             (in Novorossiysk)



South-East Union of Cossack Hosts, Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, and Free People of the Steppe

 8 Oct 1917                Treaty of union of Cossack hosts of Don, Kuban and Terek, mountain
                             peoples of the Caucasus, and free people of the steppe is signed
                             in Yekaterinodar (Kuban).
20 Oct 1917                Kuban Rada approved the creation of the union.
14 Nov 1917                Treaty of union approved by the Don Host Government.
29 Nov 1917                United government of South-East Union of Cossack Hosts, Mountain
                             Peoples of the Caucasus, and Free People of the Steppe is
                             constituted in Yekaterinodar (Kuban).
28 Feb 1918                United government ceased to function.

Chairman of the United Government
29 Nov 1917 – 28 Feb 1918  Vasiliy Akimovich Kharlamov        (b. 1875 – d. 1957)  KDP


Southwestern Caucasian Republic: see under Turkey


Stavropol Soviet Republic

[Stavropol Soviet Republic]

 1 Jan 1918                Stavropol Soviet Republic founded in Stavropol region.
21 May 1918                Under "White" forces, communist government goes into exile at
                             Nevinnomysskaya.
 
7 Jul 1918                Stavropol Soviet Republic merged into North Caucasian Soviet Republic.
29 Feb 1920                Soviet Russian forces retake Stavropol.

Chairmen of the Government Executive Committee
 1 Jan 1918 - 14 May 1918  Grigoriy Ivanovich Meshcheryakov
14 May 1918 -  7 Jul 1918  A. Deyneko                                         

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

 8 Jan 1918 - 28 Apr 1918  Aleksandr Andreyevich Ponomaryev   (b. 1876 - d. 1941)  RSDRP-B
28 Apr 1918 - 20 May 1918  ...


Syunik Republic: see Nakhichevan under Azerbaijan


Terek Soviet Republic

Communist govt

 3 Mar 1918                Terek Soviet Republic founded on by Congress of Terek 
                             Nations region at Pyatigorsk.
 
7 Jul 1918 - 11 Jan 1919  Merged into the North Caucasian Soviet Republic.
27 Jan 1919                Revolutionary Committee for Defense of Terek Soviet Republic
                             founded.
Feb 1919                   Occupied by Denikin's "White" Russian Voluntary Army.
17 Nov 1920                Some territory part of Mountain Autonomous Socialist Soviet
                             Republic.

Chairman of the Terek People's Council
 5 Mar 1918 - Aug 1918     Ye.S. Bogdanov
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
Aug 1918 - Feb 1919        F.Kh. Bulle

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners
 5 Mar 1918 - 20 Jun 1918  Samuil Grigoryevich Buachidze      (b. 1882 - d. 1918)
20 Jun 1918 - Aug 1918     Yuriy G. Paszkovskiy               (b. 18.. - d. 1918)

Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee for Defense of Terek Soviet Republic
27 Jan 1919 - Feb 1919     Grigoriy Konstantinovich           (b. 1886 - d. 1937)
                             Ordzhonikidze

Dagestan
 
[Dagestan
                            Emirate 1917]
1917 - Dec 1917
[Dagestan
                            Emirate flag 1919-1920]
1919 - 1920 Emirate Flag
[Terek cossacks flag 1917]
Nov 1917 - Dec 1917 Terek Flag

 3 Apr 1917                Daghestan Special Commissariat created, recognizing the rule 
                             of the Russian provisional government.
20 Oct 1917 - Dec 1917     Provisional government of Terek-Dagestan.
Dec 1917                   Petrovsk-Port (Makhachkala) Soviet seizes power. 
 4 Mar 1918                Terek Cossacks declare independence.
30? Mar 1918               Occupied by "White" forces.
19/25 Apr 1918-12 Aug 1918 Communists retake Petrovsk-Port.
Oct 1918 - Nov 1918        Turkish occupation.
Nov 1918                   Occupied by Bolshevik forces.
Sep 1919 - 13 Nov 1920     Emirate of Dagestan
30 Mar 1920                Soviet Red Army takes Petrovsk-Port.
13 Nov 1920                Dagestan A.S.S.R.

Chairman of the Provisional Regional Executive
20 Oct 1917 - Dec 1917     Zubair Temirkhanov                 (b. 1868 - d. 1952)
Chairmen of the Military Revolutionary Soviet in Port Petrovsk
1917 - 1918                Ullubuy Daniyalovich Buynakskiy    (b. 1890 - d. 1919)
1918                       Dzhalaleddin Aselderovich          (b. 1877 - d. 1937)
                             Korkmasov
Chairmen of the National Committee of the Berg-Region (Vedeno)
1918                       Nullah Naghm ad-Din bin            (s.a.)
                             Muhammad (Gozinskiy) (1st time)
1919 - 1921                Nullah Naghm ad-Din bin            (s.a.) 
                             Muhammad (Gozinskiy) (2nd time)
Chairmen of the Executive Committee
1918 - 1920                Dzhalaleddin Aselderovich          (s.a.)
                             Korkmasov
1920 - 1921                Said Ibraimovich Gabiyev           (b. 1882 - d. 1963)

Heads of the government
 1 Dec 1917 - 13 Dec 1917  Mikhail Alexandrovich Karaulov     (b. 1878 - d. 1917)
Dec 1917 - Mar 1918        Rashid-Khan Zabitovich Kaplanov    (b. 1883 - d. 1937)
Prime minister 
Sep 1919 - 13 Nov 1920     Inaluka Dyshinskogo-Arsanukayev
                            (Inaluk Dishniyskim [Dyshninskiy])


Mountain People's Republic
 
[Mountain
                          People's Republic 1917-1918]
1917 - 1918 
[Mountain
                          People's Republic 1918-1919]
1918 - 12 Jun 1919
[Mountain
                          People's Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic
                          1920-21]
1920 - 1921

Nov 1917                   Mountain Republic founded in territories of Chechnya, Ingushetia,
                             North Ossetia and Dagestan.
21 Dec 1917                Independence from Russia declared.
 5 Mar 1918                With founding of Terek Soviet Republic members of government fled
                             into exile in Tiflis, Georgia.
11 May 1918                Republic of the Union of Mountain People's of the Caucasus and 
                             Dagestan (North Caucasian Mountain Republic) founded in
                             western Dagestan.
Aug 1918                   Troops of (Soviet) Republic of Northern Caucasus occupy parts 
                             Dagestan.
Sep 1918 - Nov 1918        Turkish occupation.
Nov 1918                   Government moved to Temir-Khan-Shura (Buynaksk).
May 1919                   Abolished with occupation by Denikin's "White" forces.
17 Nov 1920                Mountain People's Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic proclaimed
                             in Vladikavkaz (included territories of modern Alania
                             (North Ossetia), Kabardino-Balkaria, Chechnya, Ingushetia,
                             Dagestan and part of Karachayevo-Cherkessia.
20 Jan 1921                Mountain A.S.S.R. part of Russian S.F.S.R.

Dictator
May 1919 - Nov 1918        Nuh-Beg Tarkovskiy                 (b. 1878 - d. 1951)

Chairmen of the Government (prime ministers)
Nov 1917 - 1918            Abdulmajid Thapa Chermoyev         (b. 1882 - d. 1937) 
                             (in Georgia exile May - Nov 1918)
1918                       Vassan Giray Izhyevich Dzhabagyev  (b. 1882 - d. 1961)
                             (1st time)

1918 - May 1919            Pshemakho Tamashevich Kotsev       (b. 1884 - d. 1962)
1919                       Vassan Giray Izhyevich Dzhabagyev  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)


Mugan Republic: see under Azerbaijan
Nakhichevan Republic Soviet Socialist Republic: see under Azerbaijan

North-Caucasian Emirate

[Flag of North-Caucasian
                Emirate, 1919-1920]

19 Sep 1919                North Caucasian Emirate founded (in rebellion against Russian                              Volunteer "White" Army) in Mountainous Chechnya, capital Vedeno.
Apr 1920                   Supressed by the Soviet Red Army.

Emirs
19 Sep 1919 - 30 Mar 1920  Uzur Haji Khair Khan               (b. 1848 - d. 1920)
30 Mar 1920 - Apr 1930     Sheikh Dervish Mukhammad

Grand Vizier (chief minister)
Sep 1919 - Apr 1920        Inaluka Dyshinskogo-Arsanukayev
                            (Inaluk Dishniyskim [Dyshninskiy])


North Caucasian Soviet Republic

[North Caucasian Soviet
                Republic]

 7 Jul 1918                North Caucasian Soviet Republic (Severo-Kavkazkaya) founded on First
                             Congress of
Councils of Northern Caucasus in Yekaterinodar by
                             merger of the Kuban-Black Sea Soviet Republic, Stavropol Soviet
                             Republic, and the Terek Soviet Republic.

17 Aug 1918                Yekaterinodar captured by Denikin's Russian Volunteer Army,
                             government is moved to Pyatigorsk.
21 Oct 1918                Some members of Central Executive Committee (A.A. Rubin,
                             V.I. Krayny and others) are arrested and killed on the command
                             of I.L. Sorokin (commander of Red Army of Northern Caucasus).
28 Oct 1918                Second Extreme Congress of Councils of Northern Caucasus removed,
                             I.L. Sorokin and elected new members of Central Executive
                             Committee.
Dec 1918                   Northern Caucasus occupied by Denikin's "White" Russian
                             Volunteer
Army. Soviet Government went to exile to Tsaritsyn
                             (Volgograd).

11 Jan 1919                North Caucasian Soviet Republic liquidated.


Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
 
7 Jul 1918 - 21 Oct 1918  Avraam Azorgivich Rubin            (b. 1883 - d. 1918)  RKP
28 Oct 1918 - 11 Jan 1919  M.S. Akulov

Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Defense of the North Caucasus and Dagestan

 
7 Jul 1918 - Dec 1918     Yan Vasilyevich Poluyan            (b. 1891 - d. 1937)  RKP


Syunik Republic: see Nagorno-Karabakh under Azerbaijan


Transcaucasia Democratic Federative Republic: see under Georgia


Central Asia

Autonomous Government of Turkestan: see under Uzbekistan

Khorazmian People's Soviet Republic: see under Uzbekistan
Provisional People's Council of Kazakh Autonomy ("Alash Orda"): see Kazakhstan

Bukharan Soviet Republic: see under Uzbekistan
Turkestan Soviet Socialist Republic: see under Uzbekistan

Siberia

Siberia Region

[Siberian Autonomist flag,
                1917-1918]
             28 Oct 1917 - 4 Nov 1918


28 Oct 1917               First Siberian Regional Congress elects a council at Tomsk.
 7-15 Dec 1917            All-Siberian Extraordinary Congress of Delegates from Public
                            Organizations is convened in Tomsk, and declares its opposition
                            to the Bolsheviks in Petrograd.
26 Dec 1917               Provisional Siberian Regional Soviet (15[28] Dec 1917 accepted
                            'regulations' for the provisional institutions of the
                             Siberian administration [provisional constitution]).
25-26 Jan 1918            Bolshevik forces begin arresting local autonomy leaders.
28 Jan 1918               Provisional Siberian Government (PSG) is established at Tomsk by the
                            first session of regional Duma (chairman of Siberian Regional Duma
                            I.A. Yakushev).
Mar 1918                  Derber, head of the PSG, flees Bolshevik forces for Harbin, later
                            Vladivostok.            
25-26 May 1918            Bolshevik forces in central Siberia are overthrown by the
                            Czechoslovak Legion and "White" Russian forces. Bolsheviks
                            evacuate Novo-Nikolayevsk on 26 May 1918, Tomsk on 31 May 1918 and
                            Omsk on 7 Jun 1918.
30 May 1918               Western Siberian Commissariat (WSC)(Zapadno-Sibirskiy Komissariat)
                            established by PGAS at Novo-Nikolayevsk (in Tomsk from 7 Jun 1918)
                            to organize the anti-Bolshevik resistance (nominally represented
                            by the Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia, located in
                            Vladivostok).
29 Jun 1918               Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia (PGS) formed in Omsk,
                            at a meeting
featuring several members of the former body who were
                            still in
Western Siberia.
30 Jun 1918               Derber, head of PSG in Vladivostok, and his successor Lavrov, refuse
                            to recognize the reformed PSG in Omsk and continue in dissidence
                            claiming to be the legitimate Siberian government.
 4 Jul 1918               Declaration on Siberian sovereignty (Deklaraciyu o gosudarstvennoy
                            samostoyatelnosti Sibiri
) adopted by PGS "until such time as its
                            territory [European Russia] was cleared of Bolshevik and German
                            occupation." The declaration was opposed by Derber and Dmitriy
                           
Horvath
, who later proclaims himself the Provisional Supreme Ruler.
                            The declaration rescinded on 3 Nov 1918.
23 Jul 1918               Council of ministers of the Provisional Government of Siberia formed
                            and Omsk is made capital of Siberia.
 8 Sep 1918               Dmitriy Horvath, director of the Chinese Eastern Railway, is appointed
                            by the PGS as its viceroy
to the Far East
22 Oct 1918               PGAS in Vladivostok recognizes the Provisional All-Russian Government
                            "Ufa Directory" (see PARG above) and dissolves itself.
 
3 Nov 1918               Provisional Government of Siberia passes power to Provisional All-
                            Russian Government, with Vologodskiy as premier (see PARG above).

Chairman of the Siberian Regional Executive Committee (in Tomsk)
15 Oct 1917 - 13 Dec 1917  Vladimir Mikhaylovich Krutovskiy   (b. 1856 - d. 1938)  SSO
Chairmen of the Provisional Siberian Regional Council

13 Dec 1917 -  1 Jan 1918  Grigoriy Nikolayevich Potanin      (b. 1835 - d. 1920)  AP
 1 Jan 1918 - 28 Jan 1918  Pyotr Yakovlevich Derber           (b. 1888 - d. 1929)  PSR
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Siberian Government
(from 29 Jun 1918, Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia)
28 Jan 1918 - 21 Jul 1918  Pyotr Yakovlevich Derber           (s.a.)               PSR
                             (in Tomsk, Mar - Jun 1918 in Harbin, from 7 Jun 1918 Vladivostok;
                             in dissidence from 30 Jun 1918)
21 Jul 1918 - 22 Oct 1918  Ivan Aleksandrovich Lavrov         (b. 1871 - d. 1942)  PSR
                             (in dissidence, in Vladivostok)
West Siberian Commissariat of the Provisional Siberian Government

(in Novo-Nikolayevsk [Novosibirsk]; from 7 Jun 1918 in Tomsk)
30 May 1918 - 30 Jun 1918  Mikhail Yakovlevich Lindberg       (b. 1889 - d. 1938)  PSR
                           + Boris Dmitriyevich Markov        (b. 1884 - d. 1920)  PSR
                           + Vasiliy Osipovich Sidorov                             PSR  
                           + Pavel Yakovlevich Mikhaylov      (b. 1889 - d. 1920)  PSR
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Siberian Government
30 Jun 1918 -  3 Nov 1918  Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (b. 1863 - d. 1925)  PSR
                             (in Omsk) 


Buryat-Mongol

[Buryat possible flag 1917 -
                1919]
                1917 - 1919 Possible Flag

25 Apr 1917                Buryat-Mongol state proclaimed at All-Buryat Congress, the Congress
                             requests autonomy of Buryat areas.
 3 Jul 1918                Autonomy recognized by Transbaikal Soviet (confirmed by Transbaikal
                             Ataman Semyonov Oct 1918).
Nov 1919                   National Council suspended by Ataman Semyonov (dissolved Oct 1920).


Chairmen of the Central National Committee
Apr 1917 – Dec 1917        Elbek-Dorzhi Rinchino (1st time)  (b. 1888 – d. 1938)  PSR
Dec 1917 – Mar 1918        Tsyben Zhamtsarano (1st time)     (b. 1881 – d. 1942)  PSR
Mar 1918 – May 1918        Elbek-Dorzhi Rinchino (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PSR?
May 1918 – Sep 1918        Tsyben Zhamtsarano (2nd time)     (s.a.)               PSR
Sep 1918 – Nov 1918        Dashi Sampilon                    (b. 1891 – d. 1937)  PSR
Chairman of the National Council
Nov 1918 – Nov 1919        Dashi Sampilon                    (s.a.)               PSR



Czechoslovak Legion

Czechoslovak Legion

1914                       Czech Centuria (Česká setnina) or Czech Company (Česká družina)
                             established and is attached to the Russian Army.
Feb 1916                   Re-organized as the regimental-sized Czechoslovak Rifle Regiment
                             (Československý střelecký sbor).
May 1916                   Transformed into the Czechoslovak Rifle Brigade (Československá
                             střelecká brigáda) which was 7,300 strong.
Jun 1917                   Stationed on the left-bank Ukraine, in Kyiv and Poltava regions.
15 Jan 1918                Building an autonomous part of the French army.
Oct 1917                   First Hussite Rifle Division merged with the Second Rifle Division
                             (created in Jul 1917), forming the Czechoslovak Corps in Russia
                             (Československý sbor na Rusi).
Mar 1918                   Moved to the area of ​​Tambov and Penza.
26 Mar 1918                Soviet Russian government declares its readiness to facilitate the
                             evacuation of the Corps through Vladivostok, provided they remain
                             loyal.
 2 May 1918                Supreme Council of the Entente decided to use the Legion to fight
                             against the Soviets in northern Russia and Siberia.
14 May 1918                Members of the Legion stormed the Chelyabinsk railway station, and
                             subsequently occupied the city of Chelyabinsk. This incident
                             triggers further hostilities between the Legion and the
                             Bolsheviks. Czechoslovaks began to occupy the cities on their
                             route: Chelyabinsk, Petropavlovsk, Kurgan, Novo-Nikolayevsk,
                             Mariinsk, Nizhneudinsk and Kansk. At the same time as the Czechs
                             moved in, organizations of Russian officers' overthrew Bolsheviks
                             in Petropavlovsk and Omsk. Within a month, the "Whites" control
                             most of the Trans-Siberian Railway from Lake Baikal to the Ural
                             Mountains regions.
Jun 1918                   Legion defeats the "Red" Guards near Samara and captures the city.
27 Jan 1919                Jan Syrový (commander-in-chief of all Czechoslovak troops in Russia)
                             claimed the Trans-Siberian Railway between Novo-Nikolayevsk and
                             Irkutsk as a "Czechoslovak zone of operation."  This makes it
                             impossible for the "White" Army to use the railway for retreat at
                             the end of 1919.
Dec 1919                   Evacuation of the Czechoslovak Corps begins.
14 Jan 1920                Legion captures Admiral Kolchak and hands him over to the Left
                             Social Revolutionaries of the Political Centre in Irkutsk.
 7 Feb 1920                The Soviet government and the Command of the Czechoslovak
                             Corps sign a truce.
 2 Sep 1920                67,739 soldiers (actually 53,455 soldiers; 3,004 officers; 6,714
                             civilians; 1,716 wives; 717 children; 1,935 foreigners; 198
                             others) are evacuated via Vladivostok.

Commanders-in-chief of the Czechoslovak Legion
10 Sep 1917 -  1 Sep 1918  Vladimir Nikolayevich Shokorov     (b. 1868 - d. 1940)  Mil
 1 Sep 1918 — Sep 1919     Jan Bohumír Syrový                 (b. 1888 - d. 1970)  Mil

Chief of Staff of the Czechoslovak Legion
Mar 1918 - 26 Nov 1918     Mikhail Konstantinovich Diterikhs  (b. 1874 - d. 1937)  Mil
                             (Diterichs)

Karakorum-Altai (Oriot)

[
                          Karakorum-Altai District, "Oirot
                          Republic", 1918-1919 (Russia)]
1918 - 1919
[Oirot republic
                          proposed flag 1921-22 (Russia)]
1921 - 1922 Proposed

 1-6 Jul 1917              Congress of representatives of indigenous districts of Altai takes                                place in Biysk. They adopted declaration "On Recognition of
                             Self-Determination of Indigenous People of Altai" and calls for
                             a separate Oriot zemstvo (provincial council) in the future.
12 Mar 1918                Constituent Congress of Indigenous and Peasants Deputies' of the
                             Mountainous Altai Land in Ulala (modern Gorno-Altaysk) proclaims
                             the separation of Mountainous Altai region from the Biysk
                             district. The new entity is called the Karakorum-Altai District
                             or Karakorum District (it was sometimes referred to as the
                             "Oriot Republic").
Dec 1918                   New district recognized by the Provisional Government of Siberia.
1919                       Dissolved by Bolshevik forces.
1921 - 1922                Establishment of an Oriot republic is proposed by local Bolshevik
                             leaders in Biysk, leading
to the establishment of the Oirot
                            (Oyrot)
Autonomous Oblast.


Chairman of the Constituent Congress of Indigenous and Peasants Deputies'
of the
Mountainous Altai
12 Mar 1918 - 1919         Vasiliy Ivanovich Anuchin         (b. 1875 - d. 1943)  PSR

Chairmen of the Karakorum District Executive Council

1918 - Nov? 1918           Grigoriy Ivanovich Gurkin         (b. 1870 - d. 1937)  PSR
Nov? 1918 - 1919           Viktor Timofeyevich Tiber-Petrov  (b. 1879 - d. 1927)  RSDRP-M

Chief of the Nationalities Department of the Altai District
1921 - 1922                Leonid Aleksandrovich Sary-Sep    (b. 1891 - d. 1937)  RSDRP-B
                             Konzychakov

Semirechye Cossack Host: see under Kazakhstan
Ural Cossack Host: see under Kazakhstan

Zabaykalye (Transbaikal)

[Russian flag]

1851                       Transbaikal Cossack Host formed.
 4 Jan 1918                People's Council established, it claimed provisional authority in
                             Transbaikal oblast (previously authority of Provisional Siberian
                             Council was recognized).
16 Feb 1918                Bolshevik rule established in Chita.
 6 May 1918 – Sep 1918     Transbaikal Provisional Government formed in Borzya, in opposition
                             to the Bolshevik rule (dissolved upon recognition by Ataman
                             Semyonov of authority of the "White" "Ufa Directory" government).
26 Aug 1918                Chita taken by Siberian and Cossack troops.
Aug 1918 – 15 Oct 1920     Japanese troops present in Transbaikal.
Nov 1918 – 26 May 1919     Ataman Semyonov refuses to recognize authority of Aleksandr
                             Vasilyevich Kolchak
as the Supreme Ruler.
 4 Jan 1920                Admiral Kolchak authorizes Semyonov to assume all civil and 
                             military authority in the east part of Russia (no specific style;
                             effectively only in Transbaikal).
 7 Mar 1920                Provisional Local Government of Pribaikal proclaimed at
                             Verkhneudinsk by "Red" partisans (on 6 Apr 1920, became Far Eastern
                             Republic) in opposition to "White" Transbaikal government.
20 Sep 1920                Semyonov recognizes the supreme authority of Baron Vrangel'
                             (Wrangel), Ruler of the South of Russia and Commander-in-Chief
                             of the Russian Army.
22 Oct 1920                Chita occupied by the Far Eastern Republic, Semyonov had moved to
                             Borzya.
21 Nov 1920                Semyonov and his troops are forced to leave Transbaikal for China.

Chairman of Commissariat of People's Council
 4 Jan 1918 – 16 Feb 1918  Ivan Afanasyevich Butin               (b. 1886 – d. 1919)  PLSR
Chairman of Provisional Government 
 6 May 1918 – Sep 1918     Grigoriy Mikhaylovich Semyonov        (b. 1890 - d. 1946)  Mil
                             (in opposition to Bolshevik rule to Aug 1918)
Atamans of the Transbaikal Cossack Host
Sep 1918 -  9 Jun 1919     Vasiliy Vasilyevich Zimin (nominal)   (b. 1874 - d. 1942)   
Sep 1918 - 19 Nov 1920     Grigoriy Mikhaylovich Semyonov        (s.a.)               Mil
                            (to 9 Jun 1919 as "Field Ataman" de facto acting for Zimin;
                             from 18 Jul 1919, with authority of governor-general of
                             Transbaikal oblast granted by Kolchak; from Jan 1920 also
                             authority in the east part of of Russia)
Chairman of the Provisional Local Government of Pribaikal
 7 Mar 1920 -  6 Apr 1920  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Krasnoshchekov (b. 1880 - d. 1937)  RKP
                             (at Verkhneudinsk, in opposition)

Assistants for Civil Affairs to authority in the east part of of Russia

16 Jan 1920 – 26 Jun 1920  Sergey Afanasyevich Taskin            (b. 1876 – d. 1952)  KDP
26 Jun 1920 - 18 Sep 1920  A.V. Volgin                       
Chairman of the Council of Managers
18 Sep 1920 -  3 Nov 1920  Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Vinogradov   (b. 1877 - d. 1938)  KDP


Yakutia

[Yakut (Sakhan) 1918
                  flag]
             22 Feb 1918 -  1 Jul 1918;
             5 Aug 1918 - 14 Dec 1919;
                  Mar 1922 - Jul 1922
Feb 1918                   Following the Bolshevik putsch against the Constituent Assembly in
                             Petrograd, Yakutia's acting government proclaims the independence
                             of Yakutia from Russia.
 1 Jul 1918                Bolshevik forces overthrow the pro-independence Yakut government. 
 5 Aug 1918                "White" Russian forces overthrow the Bolsheviks in Yakutsk.
14/15 Dec 1919             Bolsheviks regain control of Yukutia following the withdrawal of
                             Kolchak's "White" Russian forces.
Mar 1922                   Provisional Yakut Provincial People's Administration is formed at
                             Churapcha by "White" Russian forces who seize town of Yakutsk on
                             23 Mar 1922.
27 Apr 1922                Soviet Russia establishes the Yakut A.S.S.R. (see RSFSR Admin.)
Summer 1922                "White" forces are ousted from Yakutsk and withdraw to the Pacific
                             coast occupying the port towns of Okhotsk and Ayan.
 2 Sep 1922                "White" forces are reinforced from Vladivostok by General Anatoliy
                             Pepelyayev disembarks in Ayan and moves upon Yakutsk. From Ayan
                             they advanced through the Jugjur mountains driving the Bolsheviks
                             back to the Amga River.
Mar 1923                   Soviets oust the "White" Army from Amga.
 6 - 16 Jun 1923           Remainder of the "White" Army is defeated near Okhotsk on 6 Jun
                             1923 and near Ayan on 16 Jun 1923.
Autumn 1923                A further Soviet expedition landed at Kolyma to crush the last of
                             the resistance to Soviet rule.

Chairmen of the Yakutsk Committee of Public Safety
Feb 1917 - May 1917         G.I. Petrovskiy                                         RSDRP-B
May 1917 - Oct 1917         ....
Chairman of the Committee to Safeguard the Revolution
Oct 1917 - 1918             ....
Chairman of the Yakutsk Revolutionary Committee

 1 Jul 1918 -  5 Aug 1918   ....                                                    RSDRP-B
Provincial Commissar of the Siberian Provisional Government

1918 - 14/15 Dec 1919       V.N. Solovyov                      (b. 18.. - d. 1919)  PSR
Chairmen of the Provisional Yakut Provincial People's Administration

(in Churapcha, then later Okhotsk)
Mar 1922 - 1922             G. Yefimov                                              KDP
Sep 1922 -  7 Jun 1923      Vasiliy Alexandrovich Rakitin      (b. 1894 - d. 1923)  Mil


Far East
Anadyr: see Chukotka
 
Amur

[Amur Soviet]
           13 Mar 1918 - 18 Sep 1918

28 Nov 1917                Amur regional self-administration formed by Bolshevik forces.
 7 Mar 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Occupied by "White" Russian forces.
13 Mar 1918 - 18 Sep 1918  
Bolshevik rule restored, Amur Labor Socialist Republic formed.
18 Sep 1918                Japanese and "White" Russian military forces enter Blagoveshchensk.
10 Nov 1918                A joint gathering of democratic groups decided (a) to recognize
                             the Provisional All-Russian Government (PARG) and it's superiority
                             and (b) to dissolve the government and hand over power to
                             the self-administration.
 6 Feb 1920                Bolshevik forces regain control of Amur the region.
 
5 Aug 1920                Amur oblast part of the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).


Chairman of the Amur Regional Self-Administration
28 Nov 1917 -  2 Mar 1918  Ivan Nikolayevich Shishlov         (b. 1881 - d. 19..)
Chairman of the Regional Executive Committee
 2 Mar 1918 -  7 Mar 1918  Fyodor Nikanorovich Mukhin         (b. 1878 - d. 1919)
Ataman of the Amur Cossack Forces
(head of military administration)
 7 Mar 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Ivan Mikhaylovich Gamov            (b. 1885 - d. 1969)  Mil
Chairman of the People's Council (head of civil administration)
 7 Mar 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Nikolay Grigoryevich Kozhevnikov   (b. 1884 - d. 19..)  PSR
Chairman of the Regional Self-Administration

18 Sep 1918 - 20 Sep 1918  Nikolay N
ikolayevichh Rodionov     (b. 1886 - d. 1937)
Chairman of the Government of the Amur
18 Sep 1918 - 10 Nov 1918  Aleksandr Nikolayevich            
(b. 1878 - d. 19..)  PSR 
                             Alekseyevskiy 
Chairman of the Regional Self-Administration
10 Nov 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  A
leksandr Nikolayevich             (s.a.)               PSR
                             Alekseyevskiy

Oblast Commissioner
17 Nov 1918 - 20 Feb 1919  A
leksandr Nikolayevich             (s.a.)               PSR
                             Alekseyevskiy 

Chairman of the Regional Self-Administration
20 Feb 1919 - 191.
        Aleksandr Nikolayevich             (s.a.)               PSR
                             Alekseyevskiy

Administrator (for Kolchak)
1918 -  4 Feb 1920         I.D. Prishchepenko
Ataman of the Amur Cossack Forces

 5 Mar 1919 -  6 Feb 1920  A.D. Kuznechov
Chairmen of the Regional Executive Committee
 6 Feb 1920 - 16 Feb 1920  Yakov Fyopentovich Yakovlev        (b. 1884 - d. 1955)  RKP
                             (temporary)
16 Feb 1920 -  5 Apr 1920  Stepan Samoylovich Shilov          (b. 1885 - d. 1954)  RKP
Chairman of the Amur Military-Revolutionary Committee
 5 Apr 1920 -  9 Aug 1920  Stepan Samoylovich Shilov          (s.a.)               RKP


Chinese Eastern Railway Zone: see under China Foreign Colonies

Chukotka

[Free State of Chutkotka flag 1922]
                     Jul 1922 - Apr 1923

1918 - 1920                Bolsheviks take power in Chukotka and Anadyr.
12 Dec 1920                Part of the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
22 Mar 1921               
Chukotka ceded to Russian S.F.S.R. by the Far Eastern Republic.
Jul 1922                   Chukotka Free State declared by "White" forces.
Apr 1923                   Bochkarev is killed at Nayakhan by Soviet forces.
Jun 1923                   Siberian volunteer army captured at Ayan by Soviet forces.

Chairmen of the Council of Soviet Deputies of Chukotka
Dec 1919 - 1920            A.M. Bychkov 
                           + G.G. Rudykh
Leader of the "White" Russian Forces
Jul 1922 - Apr 1923        Valerian Ivanovich Bochkarev       (d. 1923)


Kamchatka

[Flag of Kamchatka Free
                State, 1921]
                   Oct 1921 - Oct 1922

1917 - Feb 1918            Petropavlovsk (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy) Soviet formed under
                            
Communist rule. 
Jul 1918 - Jan 1920        Administered by Kolchak's "White" government.
Jan 1920                   Kamchatka Revolutionary Committee formed.

12 Dec 1920                Part of the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
22 Mar 1921                Kamchatka ceded to Russian S.F.S.R. by Far Eastern Republic.
Oct 1921 - Nov 1922        Kamchatka occupied by the "White" forces led by Bochkarev under
                             the government of Provisional Government of Priamurye.

Nov 1922                   "White" forces expelled from the oblast.


Chairman of the Committee of Public Safety of Provisional Government
Mar 1917 - Jul 1918        ....
Chairman of the Petropavlovsk Soviet

1917 - Feb 1918            Ivan Yemelyanovich Larin           (b. 1890 - d. 1980)
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Kamchatka Oblast Soviet
Mar 1918 - Jul 1918        Ivan Yemelyanovich Larin           (s.a.)               RKP
Commissioner of Kolchak's "White" Government
Jul 1918 - Jan 1920        ....
Chairman
of the Kamchatka Regional Revolutionary Committee
10 Jan 1920 - 12 Mar 1920  Pyotr Sergeyevich Malovechkin      (b. 1891 - d. 19..)  RKP

Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the Kamchatka Oblast Soviet
Apr 1920 - Jun 1920        Pyotr Sergeyevich Malovechkin      (s.a.)               RKP
Jun 1920 - Dec 1920        Ivan Yemelyanovich Larin           (s.a.)
Chairman of the
Kamchatka Oblast People's Revolutionary Committee
Dec 1920 - 18 Nov 1922     Ivan Yemelyanovich Larin           (s.a.)               RKP
Leader of the "White" Russian Forces

Oct 1921 - Nov 1922        Valerian Ivanovich Bochkarev       (d. 1923)


Khabarovsk 

[Russian flag]

 4 Sep 1918                Bolshevik ruled ended by Japanese occupation.
 6 Apr 1920                "White" Russian government proclaimed at Khabarovsk.
23 Oct 1920                Japanese forces depart; part of the Far Eastern Republic 
                             (see under Russia).

22 Mar 1921 - 13 Feb 1922  Far Eastern Republic rule interrupted by Provisional Government
                             of Priamurye (see Primore).

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
May 1917 - 12 Aug 1917     Luka Yevdokimovich Gerasimov       (b. 189. - d. 1918)  RSDRP-B
12 Aug 1917 - 12 Dec 1917  N.A. Vakulin                                            RSDRP-M
12 Dec 1917 -  4 Sep 1918  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich
             (b. 1880 - d. 1937)  RSDRP-B
 
                           Krasnoschchokov 

Commander-in-chiefs of "White" Forces in Khabarovsk
 5 Sep 1918 - 13 Feb 1920  Ivan Pavlovich Kalmykov            (b. 1890 - d. 1920)
                             (Ataman of the Ussuriy Cossacks)
12 Feb 1920 - 16 Feb 1920  Modest Aleksandrovich Demishkhan   (b. 1888 - d. 1963)
                             (acting)
Head of the Khabarovsk Government

Apr 1920 - 23 Oct 1920     Konstantin Tikhonovich Likhoydov
Administrator of the Provisional Government of Priamurye
22 Mar 1921 - 13 Feb 1922  Viktorin Mikhaylovich Molchanov    (b. 1886 - d. 1975) 


Far Eastern Republic: see Russia
Trans-Amur (Priamur Republic): see Primore

Tungus Provisional National Government

[Provisional Tungus
                National Government, 1924-25 (Russia)]
 
10 May 1924                A group of Tungus (Evenks), Yakuts and Russians, under the
                             leadership of M.K. Artemyev (Yakut) and P. Karamzin (Tungus) take
                             the port of Ayan on the Okhotsk Sea coast.
Jun - Jul 1924             At Nelkan, Yakut Nationalists led by M.K. Artemyev and Yusup
                             Galibarov gain the support of the local Tungus for a campaign
                             which gained control of the Okhotsk coast and penetrate north
                             along the Indigirka River to the Arctic coast and as far west as
                             Bulun at the north of the Lena River.
14 Jul 1924                All-Tungus Congress of the Okhotsk Coast formed in Nelkan and it
                             establishes the Provisional Tungus National Government, which
                             proclaims autonomy.
 9 May 1925                Extinguished by Soviet Red Army.
1927 - 1928                Yaukut nationalists led by M.K. Artemyev form "Young Yakuts" party
                             and again attempted a rebellion in the countryside.

Head of the Provisional Tungus National Government
1924 - 1925                A. Ammosov


Ukrainian Far Eastern Secretariat ("Green Ukraine")
 
[Ukrainian
                          Republic of the Far East (Green Ukraine) first
                          proposal]
First Proposed Flag
[Ukrainian
                          Republic of the Far East (Green Ukraine)
                          second proposal]
Second Proposed Flag

24 Jun 1917                First All-Ukrainian Far Eastern Congress at Nikol'sk-Ussuriyskiy.
                             (Ussuriysk) forms the Far Eastern Regional Council (Kray Rada).
30 Jan 1918                Second All-Ukrainian Far Eastern Congress at Khabarovsk. Green
                             Ukraine (
Zelenyy Ukrayiny) proclaimed as part of Ukrainian State
                            
(in spite of the lack of geographical connection).
 
7 Apr 1918                Third All-Ukrainian Far Eastern Congress asked for creation of
                             an independent Ukrainian State on the Pacific Ocean.
20 Jun 1919 - 31 Jan 1920  Suppressed by Kolchak's "White" Russian forces.
11 Apr 1920                Order of Hetman Semyonov about right of Far Eastern Ukrainians
                             for national self-determination and autonomy in the limits of
                             united
Far eastern state of Cossacks, Buryats, and Ukrainians
 
5 Nov 1922                Ukrainian Far Eastern Secretariat dissolved after the Soviet
                             takeover of Vladivostok. 

Chairmen of the Ukrainian Far Eastern Secretariat
25 Oct 1918 - 20 Jun 1919  Yuriy Kos'mych Glushko (1st time)  (b. 1882 - d. 1942)
                            
(= Yuriy Kos'mich Glushko)
31 Jan 1920 -  5 Nov 1922  Yuriy Kos'mych Glushko (2nd time)  (s.a.)


Urianay kray: see Tannu Tuva under Russia

Primorye (Priamurye)

[Provisional Priamurye (Maritime)
                            Government 1921-1922, a Japanese
                            protectorate]
1921 - 1922
[Priamurye
                            (Primorye) 1922]
1922 - 25 Oct 1922

31 Jan 1920                Authority of the representatives of Admiral Kolchak in Primorskiy
                             kray (Maritime territory) overthrown; Provisional Government of
                             the Zemstvo Administration of Primorskaya (Maritime) oblast.
 4 Apr 1920 - 30 Apr 1920  Japanese military forces prevent local government from functioning.
11 Dec 1920                People's Assembly (Narodnoye Sobraniye) of Primorskaya oblast passes
                             a law for incorporation into the Far Eastern Republic.
12 Dec 1920 - 26 May 1921  Primorskaya oblast part of Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
1921                       In official use 'Primorye' is replaced with 'Priamurye' (probably to
                             extend territorial claims to the lands west of Primorye, adjacent
                             to the Amur River).
26 May 1921                Provisional Priamurye (Maritime) Government established.

 3 Aug 1922                People's Assembly (Zemskiy Sobor) of Priamurye decides that supreme
                             power in Russia belongs to the Romanov dynasty, and voiced the
                             wish to make a member of Romanov dynasty a Supreme Governor of
                             Priamurye. On 8 Aug 1922, former Tsarist officer and former
                             commander of Admiral Kolchak's Siberian Army, General
                             Mikhail Konstantinovich Diterikhs installed as Supreme Governor
.
25 Oct 1922                Annexed by Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).


Chairmen of the Executive Committee
 4 Nov 1917 - Dec 1917     Arnold Yakovlevich Neybut          (b. 1889 - d. 1919)  RSDLP-B
Dec 1917 - 29 Jun 1918     Konstantin Aleksandrovich Sukhanov (b. 1894 - d. 1918)  RSDLP-B
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Siberian Government
(from 29 Jun 1918, Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia)
29 Jun 1918 - 21 Jul 1918  Pyotr Yakovlevich Derber           (b. 1888 - d. 1929)  PSR
                             (
in dissidence, in Vladivostok)
21 Jul 1918 - 22 Oct 1918  Ivan Aleksandrovich Lavrov         (b. 1871 - d. 1942)  PSR
                             (in dissidence, in Vladivostok)

Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee
Oct 1918 - 1918            Ivan Vasilyevich Kharitonov        (b. 1881 - d. 1921)  RSDRP-B
Oblast Commissar
1918 - Jan 1920            Ivan Innokentyevich Zimmermann     (b. 1868 - d. 1931)  KDP
Chairman of the Provisional Government of the Zemstvo Administration of Maritime Province
31 Jan 1920 - 11 Dec 1920  Aleksandr Semyonovich Medvedev     (b. 1880 - d. 1928)  PSR
                             (prevented from exercising functions 5-30 Apr 1920)
Chairman of the Provisional
Government of Priamurye
26 May 1921 -  8 Aug 1922  Spiridon Dionisyevich Merkulov     (b. 1870 - d. 1957)  NDS
Supreme Governor
 8 Aug 1922 - 25 Oct 1922  Mikhail Konstantinovich Diterikhs  (b. 1874 - d. 1937)  Mil
                             (Diterichs)

Commander-in-chiefs of Japanese Expeditionary and (from 18 Aug 1918) Allied Forces 
 3 Aug 1918 - 26 Aug 1919  Kikuzō Ōtani                       (b. 1855 - d. 1923)  Mil
26 Aug 1919 -  6 Jan 1921  Shigemoto Ōi (Ooi)                 (b. 1863 - d. 1951)  Mil
 6 Jan 1921 - 25 Oct 1922  Koichirō Tachibana                 (b. 1861 - d. 1929)  Mil


Commander of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) in Siberia  
 2 Sep 1918 -  1 Apr 1920  William Sidney Graves              (b. 1865 - d. 1940)  Mil





©  Ben Cahoon