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Poland
 
[Poland]
 
     
    c.1764/1791 - 7 Jan 1795 (de facto),
         7 Feb 1831 - 5 Oct 1831 (in revolt)   
 
[Duchy of
                                    Warsaw (Poland) flag 1807-1813]
             9 Jul 1807 - 8 Feb 1813 
                 Duchy of Warsaw 
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
             8 Feb 1813 - Nov 1815,
           12 Apr 1833 - 5 Aug 1915 
       
[Kingdom of Poland flag
                                    1815-1833]
              Nov 1815 - 12 Apr 1833
          "Congress" Kingdom of Poland
 
[Ensign used in the Polish
                                    revolt of 1863-1864]

         22 Jan 1863 - Oct 1864 (in revolt)
 
 
[alternate Ensign used in
                                    Polish revolt of 1863]
   22 Jan 1863 - Apr 1865 (revolt alternate)
 
 
Poland Republic Ensign
                                    (1918-1920)
           1918 - 1 Aug 1919 State Flag 
 
 
[Poland]
   From 5 Nov 1916, 1 Aug 1919 - Sep 1939,
           Restored Aug 1944/Jan 1945
 
[State
                                    Flag of Poland, 1927-1939, from
                                    1990]
              1928 - Sep 1939 State Flag
 
[War
                                    Ensign 1935-1945 (Germany)]
    Oct 1939 - Jan 1945 General-government
 
[State
                                    Flag of Poland,1956-1990]
            1956 - 9 Feb 1990 State Flag
 
[State
                                    Flag of Poland, 1927-1939 from
                                    1990]
                  Re-adopted 9 Feb 1990
Map of Poland
Hear National Anthem
"Mazurek Dąbrowskiego"
(Dabrowski's Mazurka)
a.k.a "Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła"
(Poland has not yet perished)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 28 Feb 1927
(unofficial from 19 Jul 1795)
Constitution
(17 Oct 1997)
--------------------------------------
Former Constitutions
(1791, 1807, 1815, 1919, 1921,
1935, 1947, 1952, 1992

Capital: Warsaw (Warszawa)
(Lublin [de facto] 1944-1945;
Lodsch/Łódź 3 Oct 1939 - 13 Nov 1939; Krakau/Kraków 13 Nov 1939-17 Jan 1945; Warsaw 1596-1795, 1807-1939; Kraków 1039-1079, 1320-1596; Various Cities 1138-1320; Płock 1079-1138; Gniezno & Poznań 90.-1039)
Currency: New Złoty (PLN);
1950-1994 Heavy Złoty (PLZ);
1945-1950 Złoty (PLO);
1940-1945 Cracow Złoty
(PLK); 1939-1945 German
 Reichsmark (DER); 1916-1924
 Polish Marka (PLM); 1795-1915
 Russian Ruble (RUES);
1807-1850 Złoty;
1614-1795 Poland Florin
Złoty (PLF)

National Holiday: 3 May (1791)
Constitution Day
Population: 38,383,809 (2013)
Gen.-govt.: 16,600,000 (1942)
  Warsaw Duchy: 4,334,000 (1809)
Kingdom: 12-14,000,000 (1771)
GDP: $814 billion (2013)
Exports: $202.3 billion (2013)
Imports: $207.4 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Polish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%,
Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 100,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 9 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 89.6%, Polish Orthodox 1.3%,
other Catholic 0.3%, Protestant 0.4%,
Jehovah's Witness 0.3%,
other (mostly non-religious) 8.1% (2005) 
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), AG, ANT (consultative), APM, BIS, BSEC (observer), BTWC, CBSS, CE, CEI, CERN, CFE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Poland Index
Chronology

4..                        Slavs first migrate into the area of modern Poland.
90.                        Reign of first assumed historical duke (Książę 
                             Polski), centralized rule under Piast dynasty.
963                        Mieszko I acknowledged as Dux (Duke) of Poland
                             by Holy Roman Emperor Otto I.
25 May 992 - 17 Jun 1025   Boesław I "Chrobry" temporarily extends the Polish
                             realm over
Lusatia, Bohemia, Moravia, Pomerania,
                             and Slovakia.

7-15 Mar 1000              Poland recognized as a state by the Holy Roman
                             Emperor at a meeting later called "Convention/Act
                             of Gniezno" (Zjazd Gnieźnieński/Akt von Gnesen).
18? Apr 1025 - 17 Jun 1025 Kingdom of Poland (Krolestwo Polskie).
25 Dec 1025 - Nov 1031     Kingdom of Poland.
 7 Jul 1032                Division decreed by imperial diploma (possibly
                             not effected).
1034 - 1039                Civil war leads the state to collapse into anarchy.
25 Dec 1076 - Jun 1079     Kingdom of Poland
 4 Jun 1102 - 1106         Division of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska).
28 Oct 1138                Upon the death of Bolesław III, Poland is divided
                             among his sons into Poland (proper; around
                             Gniezno, Kalisz and Poznań; later [after
                             reunification] called Polonia Maior/Wielkopolska
                             [Greater Poland]); Kraków (Cracow)(later [after
                             reunification] called Polonia Minor/Маłopolska
                            
[Lesser Poland]); Kuyavia (Kujawy [until 1233
                             with Mazowsze]; Sieradz separated in 1288);
                             Łęczyca (until 1233 with
Mazovia), Mazovia
                             (
Mazowsze) and Silesia (Śląsk [for which see
                            
Czech Republic]), with further subdivisions and
                             frequent shifts of territory in
the following two
                             hundred
years. The ruler who possessed Kraków
                             was considered, but not formally named, as the
                             senior ruler. This period is later referred to as
                             "the era of feudal divisions."

1182                       The first Sejm (Diet) meets in Łęczyca.
22 Sep 1234 - Jun? 1241    Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) ruled by dukes of
                             Lesser Poland (Małopolska [Kraków]).   
1240 - 1241                Mongol invasion of Poland (Kraków is sacked on
                             22 Mar 1240, Sandomierz on 13 Feb 1240).
15 May 1253 -  4 Jun 1257  Division of
Greater Poland (Wielkopolska)
                             (by treaty).
1259 - 1260                Second Mongol invasion
(Kraków is sacked on
                             Feb 1260)
.
Sep? 1273 - 13 Apr 1279    Division of
Greater Poland (Wielkopolska).
1287 - 1288                Third Mongol invasion.
Jun 1290 – 21 Jun 1305     Personal union with Bohemia.
26 Jun 1295 -  8 Feb 1296  Kingdom of Poland

Aug 1300 -  4 Aug 1306     Kingdom of Poland
Aug 1300 -  4 Aug 1306     Personal union with Bohemia.
20 Jan 1320                Kingship restored (by coronation)
.
24 Aug 1335                Polish claim on Silesia waived in exchange for
                             Bohemia dropping claim on Poland. Poland also
                             ends its claim to Mazovia by Treaty of Trentschin
                             (
Trenčín)(ratified by Poland 9 Feb 1339).
Dec? 1338                  Sieradz re-incorporated.   
 8 Jul 1343                Claim on Pomerania (
Pomorze) and Kulm (Chełmno)
                            
dropped in exchange for Kujawy and Dobrzyń
                             (ziemia dobrzyńska) by Polish-
Prussian peace
                             treaty of Kalisz (Kalisch)(ratified 23 Jul 1343).
1351                       Łęczyca re-incorporated.
18 Sep 1351                Suzerainty over Mazovia (
renewed 27 Dec 1355).
1363                       Remainder of Kujawy re-incorporated by treaty.
1366                       Volyn (Wołyń) acquired from Lithuania by treaty.   
 
5 Nov 1370                On extinction of Piast dynasty main line the
                             kingship of Poland
becomes elective, but de facto
                             the Diet chooses the kings in hereditary order
                             until 1572.
 
5 Nov 1370 - 11 Sep 1382  Personal union with Hungary (according to 23 Feb
                             1355 agreement).
 4 Mar 1386                Personal union with Lithuania begins by Union of
                             Krewo (Krewie) (of 14 Aug 1385).
29 Jun 1440 - 10 Nov 1444  Personal union with Hungary.
31 May 1505                Legislative powers given to Sejm by constitution.
25 Aug 1526                Mazovia (Mazowsze) inherited.
 1 Jul 1569                Accord of Lublin, colloquially known as "Union of
                             Lublin", joining Poland and Lithuania, as the
                             Republic of Poland (Latin: Res Publica Poloniae,
                             in Polish:
Rzeczpospolita Polska; erroneously
                            
later referred to as the
Rzeczpospolita Obojga
                             Narodów, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth or the
                             United Commonwealth of the Two Nations) or
                             in short as Poland-Lithuania. 
 9 Mar 1589                Austrian claim to the Polish crown dropped by 
                             peace treaty.
27 Nov 1592 -  3 Aug 1599
  Personal union with Sweden.
27 Sep 1610 -  4 Nov 1612  Polish-Lithuanian occupation of Moscow.
14 Jun 1634                Claims on Russia (electus magnus dux Moschoviae)
                             dropped by Polish-Russian peace treaty of
                             Polyanovka (Polanów).
1655 – 1660                Sweden and Russia occupy most the nation during a
                             war, later called "the Great Deluge"
27 Aug 1672 - 22 Sep 1699  Podolia occupied by Ottoman Empire.
27 Jul 1697 - 16 Feb 1704  Personal union with the Duchy of Saxony.
1702 - 1710                Swedish occupation of large parts of the nation.
 8 Aug 1709 -  1 Feb 1733  Personal union with the Duchy of Saxony.
 6 Jan 1734 -  5 Oct 1763  Personal union with the Duchy of Saxony.
29 Feb 1768 - 23 Oct 1772  Civil war led by Bar Confederation (Konfederacja
                             barska) against Russian influence and in
                             opposition to the king.
Dec 1770                   Austria annexes the county of Zips (Polish: Spisz,
                             Hungarian: Szepes), which was settled by Germans,
                             and already occupied by Austria from Feb 1769.
17 Feb 1772                First partition of Poland agreed to by Russia,
                             Prussia (by convention, dated 15 Jan 1772).
 5 Aug 1772                First partition of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and
                             Austria. Royal Prussia together with Warmia and
                             parts of Greater Poland to Prussia (as West
                             Prussia); parts of Lesser Poland and and Red
                             Ruthenia (Ruś Czerwona) to Austria; Polish
                             Livonia (Inflanty Polskie) and
Lithuanian Vitebsk
                             (Witebsk) and Polotsk (Połock)
to Russia.
18 Sep 1773                Eastern Belorussia and Livonia ceded to Russia
                             (by treaty, ratified
by Poland 30 Sep 1773).
18 Sep 1773                Galicia ceded to Austria (by Austro-Polish treaty,
                             r
atified by Poland 30 Sep 1773).
 3 May 1791                Constitution gives formal sanction to the union
                             with Lithuania and makes the state a hereditary
                             monarchy under the Saxon dynasty.
18 May 1792                Russian intervention.
23 Jan 1793                Second partition by Russia and Prussia: Greater 
                             Poland with parts of Mazovia to Prussia; Podolia 
                             Volhynia (Wołyń), and Lithuanian Minsk and
                             Brest-Litovsk to R
ussia.
18 Sep 1793                Belorussia and West Ukraine (excluding Galicia)
                             ceded to Russia (by Russo-Polish treaty).
25 Sep 1793                Wielkopolska and Danzig ceded to Prussia (by
                             Polish-Prussian treaty).
24 Mar 1794 - 16 Nov 1794  Polish "war of independence" uprising
.
 9 Nov 1794 - 30 Nov 1794  Russia occupies Warsaw.
 
2 Jan 1795                Third partition agreed to by Russia and Prussia.
24 Oct 1795                Upon the Third partition by Russia, Prussia, and
                             Austria. The Polish state ceases to exist, 
                             Lithuania and Volhynia to Russia; Mazovia
                             (as
New East Prussia) and Warsaw to Prussia; and 
                             Cracow and Lesser Poland to Austria.
26 Jan 1797                Russian-Prussian convention (with Austrian 
                             approval) declares the "irrevocable abrogation 
                             of the Kingdom of Poland."
 
3 Nov 1806                Polish uprising against Prussian rule begins.
28 Nov 1806 - 12 Jul 1807  Warsaw occupied by France.
14 Jan 1807                Government Commission established by the French.

 9 Jul 1807                Poland ceded to Saxony
Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo
                             Warszawskie
; French Duché de Varsovie; German
                            
Herzogtum Warschau) often erroneously referred
                             to as the "Grand
Duchy of Warsaw" (by French-
                             Prussian treaty ratified 19 Jul 1807; effected
                            
by hand-over 17 Sep 1807).
14 Oct 1809                Western Galicia and
Cracow ceded by Austria to 
                             the Duchy of Warsaw by Treaty of Schönbrunn
                             (ratified 20 Oct 1809).

 8 Feb
1813                Warsaw occupied by Russia.
 3 May 1815                Poland (minus Posen/Poznań, West Galicia, Kraków)
                             ceded to Russia, Emperor taking style of "King of
                             Poland"; Posen ceded to Prussia; Kraków made a
                             free city under protection of Austria, Prussia
                             and Russia (by treaties ratified 9 May 1815).

15 May 1815                Grand Duchy of Posen annexed by Prussia (effected
                             on 9 Jun 1815 by take-over).
18 May 1815                Loss of Poland recognized by Saxony (by Prussian-
                             Saxon peace treaty, ratified 21 May 1815).
21 May
1815                Polish Kingdom (Królestwo Polskie), in (nominally
                             personal, actually
subordinate) union with
                             Russia
(effected 20 Jun 1815 by proclamation).
 
9 Jun 1815                Re-organization of Poland confirmed by Congress of
                             Vienna
. Therefore, Poland in this era is often
                            
referred to as "Congress Poland."
27 Nov 1815                Autonomous (by constitution published 24 Dec 1815).
29 Nov 1830 -  5 Oct 1831  "First (November) Insurrection." On 25 Jan 1831
                            
the king declared dethroned. Warsaw is
                             re-occupied by Russia on 8 Sep 1831.
26 Feb 1832                Kingdom of Poland (restored), autonomous part of
                             Russia. Actual autonomy is slowly disassembled
                             and the Sejm is abolished.
Poland is unofficially
                             known as "Vistula Country
" (Privislinskiy kray)
                            
from c.1888.
16
Nov 1846                Kraków free city annexed to Austria.
22 Jan 1863 - Oct 1864     "Second (January) Insurrection."
13 Jun
1871                Separate publication of laws in Polish ceases.
17 Jan 1905 - Jan 1906     Local rebellions in Poland as part of the Russian
                             Revolution of 1905.
 6 Dec 1914               
Łódz occupied by Germany.
31 Jul 1915                Lublin occupied by Austria-Hungary.
 5 Aug 1915                Warsaw occupied by Germany.
 5 Aug 1915 - 11 Nov 1918  Poland is occupied by Germany and Austria-Hungary. 
                             It is divided into Government General of Warsaw
                             (Generalgouvernement Warschau)(under Germany) and
                             Military Government General of Lublin (Kielce
                             25 Aug - 1 Oct 1915)(Militärgeneralgouvernement
                             Lublin
)(under
Austria-Hungary).
15 Jan 1917                Polish Kingdom (Królestwo Polskie)(proclaimed
                             on 5 Nov 1916), under protection of Germany
                             and Austria Hungary. 

15 Aug 1917                Polish National Committee formed in exile and later
                             recognized by Allies as government of Poland.
 3 Nov 1918                Lublin
General Government taken over by Poland.
14 Nov 1918                Regency council self-dissolved, "responsibility to
                            
the Polish nation
" placed into hands of commander
                             -in-chief of the Polish army.
14 Nov 1918                Poland (Polish Republic, Republic of Poland
                             and Polish State are all used interchangeably
                             until 18 Mar 1921); originating in dissidence
                             from 7 Nov 1918.
Mar 1919                   Polish units begin an offensive, crossing the Neman
                             River, beginning
Polish-Soviet (Russo-Polish) War
30 Jul 1920 - 22 Aug 1920  Provisional Revolutionary ("Communist") Committee
                             of Poland established at Białystok in Soviet
                             occupied territory to form a future
"Polish
                            
Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic", it
                             fails when Soviet forces are forced to withdraw.

18 Mar 1921                Treaty of Riga ends the Polish-Soviet War.
 
1 Jun 1921                Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska).
 1 Sep 1939                German invasion from the west.
17 Sep 1939                Soviet invasion from the east.
28 Sep 1939                Polity disintegrates upon the occupation of the
                             seat of government, Warsaw, by Germany.
 6 Oct 1939                Last Polish troops capitulate
.
26 Oct 1939                West Prussia and West Wielkopolska (Posen) annexed
                             by Germany as Reichsgaue Westpreussen and Posen;
                             the non-annexed territories are constituted as
                             the Government General for the Occupied Polish
                             Territories (Generalgouvernement für die
                             besetzten polnischen Gebiete
) and German is made
                             the sole official language.
 1 Nov 1939                Western Ukraine is annexed by Soviet Union.
 2 Nov 1939
                Western Byelorussia is annexed by Soviet Union.
 
1 Aug 1940               
Renamed Government General (Generalgouvernement).
22 Jun 1941                Germany invades the Soviet-annexed areas; on 1 Aug
                             1941 they are divided between the General
                             Government and Reichskommissariate Ostland and
                             Ukraine, while the Bialystok district is
                             subordinated (but not annexed) to the German
                             province of East Prussia
.
22 Jul 1944                Republic of Poland(restored) (by manifesto dated 22
                             Jul 1944 issued on behalf of the Polish Committee
                             of National Liberation)(effective 15 Aug 1944).
17 Jan 1945                Soviet forces occupy Warsaw.
19 Jan 1945               
General Government disintegrates upon occupation of
                             seat of administration (Kraków) by Soviet Union.
22 Jul 1952                Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita
                             Ludowa)
31 Dec 1989                Republic of Poland

Voivodships
(since 1999)
Voivodships
(1919-1939)
Republic
in Exile

(1939-1990)
Districts
of General-

Government
(1939-1945)

Bialystok district
(1941-1944)
Austrian Galicia
(1772-1918)
Cracow Republic
(1815-1846)
Ottoman Podolia
(1672-1699)
Danzig
(1224-1793,
1807-1815,
1919-1939)
Elbing
(1246-1772)
Swedish Prussia
(1629-1635)
Ermland Bishopric
(1243-1772)
Thorn
(1233-1793)

Orthodox Church
of Poland

 

First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Polish Workers' (Communist) Party (PPR)
(from 21 Dec 1948, Polish United Workers' Party [PZPR])
23 Nov 1943 -  3 Sep 1948  Władysław Gomułka                  (b. 1905 - d. 1982)
 3 Sep 1948 - 22 Dec 1948  Bolesław Bierut                    (b. 1892 - d. 1956)
Chairman of the
Central Committee of the
Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR)
22 Dec 1948 - 18 Mar 1954  Bolesław Bierut                    (s.a.)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party
18 Mar 1954 - 12 Mar 1956  Bolesław Bierut                    (s.a.)
12 Mar 1956 - 20 Mar 1956  Secretaries
                           - Edward Ochab                     (b. 1906 - d. 1989)                            - Franciszek Mazur                 (b. 1895 - d. 1975)
                           - Jerzy Morawski                   (b. 1918 - d. 2012)
                           - Władysław Matwin                 (b. 1916 - d. 2012)
                           (acting)
20 Mar 1956 - 21 Oct 1956  Edward Ochab                       (s.a.)
21 Oct 1956 - 20 Dec 1970  Władysław Gomułka                  (s.a.)
20 Dec 1970 -  6 Sep 1980  Edward Gierek                      (b. 1913 - d. 2001)
 6 Sep 1980 - 18 Oct 1981  Stanisław Kania                    (b. 1927) 
18 Oct 1981 - 29 Jul 1989  Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski         (b. 1923 - d. 2014)
29 Jul 1989 - 29 Jan 1990  Mieczysław Franciszek Rakowski     (b. 1926 - d. 2008)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 31 Dec 1989)

Commander-in-chief of the Polish Army and Minister of Military Affairs (de facto dictator)
16 May 1926 - 12 May 1935  Józef Klemens Piłsudski            (b. 1867 - d. 1935)  Mil


Dukes

90. – 92.                  Ziemowit (Zěmowit)                 (b. 8.. - d. 92.)

92. – 94.                  Leszek (Lĭstek)                    (b. 8.. - d. 94.)
94. - 95.                  Ziemomysł (Zěmomysl)               (b. 91. - d. 95.)
95. – 25 May 992           Mieszko I (Měsco)                  (b. c.940 - d. 992)
25 May 992 – 18? Apr 1025  Bolesław I "Chrobry" (the Brave)   (b. c.966 - d. 1025)
King

18? Apr 1025 - 17 Jun 1025 Bolesław I "Chrobry"               (s.a.)
Duke
17 Jun 1025 - 25 Dec 1025  Mieszko II Lambert (Lampert)       (b. 990 - d. 1034)
King
25 Dec 1025 - Nov 1031     Mieszko II Lambert                 (s.a.)

Dukes 

Nov 1031 – Sep? 1032       Bezprym                            (b. 986? - d. 1032)
Sep? 1032 –
10 May 1034    Mieszko II Lambert                 (s.a.)
1032                       Dytryk (Dietrich) (pretender)      (b. af.992 - d. af.1033)
1032 - 1033                Otto "Bolesławowic" (pretender)    (b. c.1000 - d. 1033)

10 May 1039 –
28 Nov 1058  Kazimierz I "Odnowiciel" (Restorer)(b. 1016 - d. 1058)
10 May 1034 - 1039         .... (acting)   
28 Nov 1058 – 25 Dec 1076  Boles
ław II "Śmiały", "Szczodry"   (b. 1039 - d. 1081)
                             (the Bold, the Wild)
King
25 Dec 1076 - Jun 1079     Bolesław II "Śmiały", "Szczodry"   (s.a.)
Dukes

Jun 1079 -  4 Jun 1102     Władysław I Herman                 (b. 1040 - d. 1102)
 4 Jun 1102 - 1106         Zbygniew                           (b. c.1071 - d. 111.)
 4 Jun 1102 - 28 Oct 1138  Boles
ław III "Krzywousty"          (b. 1086 - d. 1138)
                             (Wrymouth) (co-ruler to 1106)
28 Oct 1138 – 1179         Mieszko III "Stary" (the Old)      (b. 1127? - d. 1202)
                             (1st time) (co-ruler to 1106)
1179 - 1181                Odon (Odo) (1st time)              (b. c.1145 - d. 1194)
1181 - 13 Mar 1202        
Mieszko III "Stary" (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1181 - 20 Apr 1194         Odon (2nd time)(co-ruler in Poznań)(s.a.)
1191 -  2 Aug 1193        
Mieszko "Młodszy" (the Younger)    (b. 116. - d. 1193)
                             (co-ruler in Kalisz)
1194 - 1229                Władysław III
"Laskonogi"          (b. 116. - d. 1231)
                             (co-ruler to 13 Mar 1202)
1207 - 1217                Władysław IV "Odonicz"             (b. c.1190 - d. 1239)
                             (co-ruler
in Kalisz)  
1229 - 22 Sep 1234         Władysław IV "Odonicz"             (s.a.) 
                             (continues as pretender
in Gniezno to 5 Jun 1239)
22 Sep 1234 – 19 Mar 1238  Henryk I "Brodaty" (the Bearded)   (b. 1160/65 - d. 1238)
19 Mar 1238 –  9 Apr 1241  Henryk II "Pobożny" (the Pious)    (b. 1196/1207 - d. 1241)
 9 Apr 1241 – Jun? 1241    Bolesław IV "Rogatka" (the Horned) (b. c.1217 - d. 1278)
Jun? 1241 -  4 Jun 1257    Przemysł I (Premisl I)             (b. 1220 - d. 1257)
Jun? 1241 - 19 May 1250    Bolesław V "Pobożny" (the Pius)    (b. 1221 - d. 1279)
                             (1st time) (co-ruler)
15 May 1253 - 13 Apr 1279  Bolesław V "Pobożny" (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (co-ruler to 4 Jun 1257)
Sep? 1273 - 26 Jun 1295    Przemysł I (Premisl II)            (b. 1257 - d. 1296)
                             (co-ruler in Poznań to 13 Apr 1279)
                             (also King of Bohemia Přemysl II Otakar "Vítĕzný")
Jan 1293 – 10 Jun 1294     Kazimierz (III) "Łęczycki"         (b. 1261/62 - d. 1294)
                             (pretender)
King

26 Jun 1295 -  8 Feb 1296  Przemysł                           (s.a.)
Duke
 8 Feb 1296 - Aug 1300     Władysław V "Łokietek" (the Short) (b. 1261 - d. 1333)
                             (pretender from 1289 and Aug 1300 - 4 Aug 1306)
                            
(1st time)
K
ingsą
Aug 1300 - 21 Jun 1305     Wac
ław I                           (b. 1271 – d. 1305)
                             (also King of Bohemia Václav II)
21 Jun 1305 –  4 Aug 1306  Wac
ław II                          (b. 1289 – d. 1306)
                             (also King of Bohemia Václav III)
Bohemian Royal Captains of Poland
Aug 1300 - 2. Jan 1302     Mikuláš knyaz Opava                (b. c.1256 - d. 1318)
                             (
Nikolaus Herzog zu Troppau)
2. Jan 1302 - 1305         Oldřich z Boskovic
                             (
Udalric de Boskowicz)  
1305 - 1305                Friczek de Scassowo (acting)
1305 -  4 Aug 1306         Paul von Pauelstein   
Duke
s
 4 Aug 1306 -  9 Dec 1309  Henryk III            
            (b. 125. - d. 1309)
                             (pretender from 16 Aug 1301)
 9 Dec 1309 - Aug 1314     Henryk IV
                         (b. 1292? - d. 1342)
Aug 1314
– 20 Jan 1320     Władysław V "Łokietek" (2nd time)  (s.a.)
22 Aug 1306 - Oct 1306     Henryk (IV) (1st time) (pretender) (b. c.1207 - d. 1335)
                             (Duke of Carinthia Heinrich VI, Count of Tyrol Heinrich II)
16 Oct 1306 -  3 Jul 1307  Rudolf (pretender)                 (b. 1281 - d. 1307)
                             (King of Bohemia Rudolf I, Archduke of Austria Rudolf III)
15 Aug 1307 - Aug 1310     Henryk (IV) (2nd time) (pretender) (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1310 - 24 Aug 1335  Jan (pretender)                    (b. 1296 - d. 1346)

Kingsą
20 Jan 1320 -  2 Mar 1333  Władysław I "Łokietek"             (s.a.)
 2 Mar 1333 –  5 Nov 1370  Kazimierz II "Wielki" (the Great)  (b. 1310 – d. 1370)
 5 Nov 1370 – 11 Sep 1382  Ludwik I                           (b. 1326 – d. 1382)
                             (also King of Hungary Lájos I)
 5 Nov 1370 – 29 Dec 1380  Elżbieta (f) -Regent               (b. 1305 – d. 1380)
20 Mar 1381 - 16 Oct 1384  Regents
                           - Zawisza z Kurozwęk, biskup       (b. 133. - d. 1382)
                               Krakówski (to 12 Jan 1382)
                           - Dobiesław z Kurozwęk             (b. 131. - d. 1397)   
                           - Jan Radlica z Radliczyc          (b. 133. - d. 1392)
                              (from 5 Feb 1382,
biskup Krakówski)
                           - Sędziwój z Szubina               (b. 133. - d. 1405)
                           - Domarat z Pierzchna              (b. 13.. - d. 1399)
                              (to 8 Mar 1383)
                        
                           -
Peregryn z Węgleszyna            (b. 13.. - d. 1400)
                              (from 8 Mar 1383)

12 Jan 1382 - Oct? 1383    Zygmunt (pretender)                (b. 1368 – d. 1437)
                             (= Sigismund Markgraf zu Brandenburg)
11 Sep 1382 - 16 Oct 1384  Dobiesław z Kurozwęk -Regent       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

28 Mar 1383 –  6 Oct 1384  Ziemowit (Siemowit) (pretender)    (b. c.1352 - d. 1426)
16 Oct 1384 – 17 Jul 1399  Jadwiga (f) -Queen                 (b. 1374 – d. 1399)
                             (co-ruler from 18 Feb 1386)
16 Oct 1344 - 18 Feb 1386  Elżbieta (f) -Regent               (b. c.1340 - c. 1386)
18 Feb 1386 –  1 Jun 1434  Władysław II (Jagiełło)            (b. c.1351 - d. 1434)

                             (also Jogaila Grand Prince of Lithuania
 1 Jul 1434 – 10 Nov 1444  Władysław III                      (b. 1424 – d. 1444)
                            (from 29 Jun 1440 also king of Hungary Ulászló I,  
                             left Poland 22 Apr 1440)
 1 Jun 1434 – 16 Dec 1438  Regents
                           - Zofia (Sonka) (f)                (b. c.1405 - d. 1461)
     
                     - Zbigniew z Oleśnicy, biskup      (b. 1389 - d. 1455)

                               Krakówski
22 Apr 1440 - 25 Jun 1447  Regents
                           - Jan z Czyżowa                    (b. 138. - d. 1458?)

                           - Wojciech z Małego                (b. 138. - d. 1454)
25 Jun 1447 -  7 Jun 1492  Kazimierz III                      (b. 1427 – d. 1492)
                             (also Grand Prince of Lithuania from 29 Jun 1440)
 7 Jun 1492 - 30 Sep 1492  Zbigniew z Oleśnicy, arcybiskup    (b. c.1430 - d. 1493)
                             Gnieźeński
-Interrex
30 Sep 1492 – 17 Jun 1501  Jan I Olbracht (Joannes Albertus)  (b. 1459 – d. 1501)
17 Jun 1501 – 12 Dec 1501  Fryderyk Kardynał Jagiełłończyk,   (b. 1468 – d. 1503)
                             arcybiskup Gnieźeński -Interrex
                             (proclaimed himself as governor

                             of the kingdom "locum tenens regni")
12 Dec 1501 – 19 Aug 1506  Aleksander                         (b. 1461 – d. 1506)
                             (also Grand Prince of Lithuania from 20 Jul 1492)
19 Aug 1506 – 20 Jan 1507  Andrzej Róża Boryszewski,          (b. c.1436 - d. 1510)
                             arcybiskup Gnieźeński -Interrex
20 Jan 1507 –  1 Apr 1548  Zygmunt I "Stary" (the Old)        (b. 1467 – d. 1548)
                             (also Grand Prince of Lithuania from 20 Oct 1506)
20 Feb 1530 -  7 Jul 1572  Zygmunt II August                  (b. 1520 – d. 1572)
                             (co-ruler to 1 Apr 1548)
                             (also Grand Prince of Lithuania from 18 Oct 1529
)
 7 Jul 1572 - 18 Feb 1574  Jakub Uchański z Służewa,          (b. 1502 - d. 1581)
                             arcybiskup Gnieźeński -Interrex                            
                             (1st time)
 7 Jul 1572 – Oct 1572     Janusz Firlej (Firle˙) z           (b. c.1521 - d. 1574)
                            
Dąbrowicy -Interrex  
                             (in dissidence)
18 Feb 1574 - 12 May 1575  Henryk                             (b. 1551 - d. 1589)

                             (from 30 May 1574 also King of France Henri III;
                             left Poland on 18 Jun 1574)
18 Jun 1574 - 16 Feb 1576  Jakub Uchański z Służewa,          (s.a.)
                             arcybiskup Gnieźeński -Interrex                            
                             (2nd time)

16 Feb 1576 - 12 Dec 1586  Stefan                             (b. 1533 - d. 1586)
                             (also István Báthory somlyói, Prince of Transylvania)
12 Dec 1586 -  7 Oct 1587  Stanisław Karnkowski, arcybiskup   (b. 1520 - d. 1603)
                             Gnieźeński -Interrex    
27 Sep 1587 -  9 Mar 1589  Maksymilian (pretender)            (b. 1558 – d. 1618)
                             (
Archduke of Austria Maximilian III)
 7 Oct 1587 - 30 Apr 1632  Zygmunt III                        (b. 1566 - d. 1632)

                             (also King of Sweden Sigismund 27 Nov 1592 - 3 Aug 1599)
30 Apr 1632 - 13 Nov 1632  Jan Wężyk, arcybiskup              (b. 1575 - d. 1638)
                             Gnieźeński -Interrex 
13 Nov
1632 - 20 May 1648  W
ładysław IV                       (b. 1595 - d. 1648)
20 May 1648 - 17 Jan 1649  Maciéj Łubieński, arcybiskup       (b. 1572 - d. 1652)
                             Gnieźeński -Interrex 
17 Jan 1649 - 16 Sep 1668  Jan II Kazimierz                   (b. 1609 - d. 1672)

16 Sep 1668 -  7 Jul 1669  Mikołaj Jan Prażmowski,            (b. 1617 - d. 1673)
                             arcybiskup Gnieźeński -Interrex    
 7 Jul 1669 - 10 Nov 1673  Micha
ł                             (b. 1640 - d. 1673)
                             (Michał Tomasz Wiśniowiecki Korybut)
10 Nov 1673 - 15 May 1674  Kazimierz Florian książę           (b. 1614 - d. 1674)
                             Czartoryski -Interrex
10 Nov 1673 –  5 Jun 1674  Andrzej Trzebicki, biskup          (b. 1607 – d. 1679)
                             Krakówski -Interrex
                             (acting interrex [for Czartoryski to 15 May 1674])
 5 Jun 1674 - 17 Jun 1696  Jan III                            (b. 1629 - d. 1696)
                             (Jan Sobieski) 
17 Jun 1696 - 27 Jul 1697  Michał Stefan
Kardynał             (b. 1645 - d. 1705)
                             Radziejowski, arcybiskup
                            
Gnieźeński -Interrex
(1st time)  
27 Jul 1697 - 16 Feb 1704  August II (1st time)               (b. 1670 - d. 1733)

                             (also Elector of Saxony Friedrich August I)
                             (
continues in opposition to 24 Sep 1706)
16 Feb 1704 -  4 Oct 1705  Michał Stefan Kardynał             (s.a.)
                             Radziejowski, arcybiskup
                            
Gnieźeński -Interrex
(2nd time)  

                             (removed as arcybiskup Gnieźeński by Pope)
1704 -  4 Oct 1705        
Mikołaj Stanisław Święcicki,       (b. 1640 - d. 1707)
                             biskup Poznański
                             ("acting"
for Radziejowski)
 4 Oct 1705 -  8 Aug 1709  Stanis
ław I (1st time)             (b. 1677 - d. 1766)
                             (Stanisław Bogusław Leszczyński) 
 8 Aug 1709 -  1 Feb 1733  August II (2nd time)               (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1733 -  6 Jan 1734  Teodor Andrzej Potocki, arcybiskup (b. 1664 - d. 1738)
                            
Warmiński -Interrex
12 Sep 1733 -
28 Jun 1734  Stanisław I (2nd time)             (s.a.) 
                             (in dissidence; in Danzig 2 Oct 1733 -
                            
28 Jun 1734, abdicated 26 Jan 1736)
 6 Jan 1734 -  5 Oct 1763  August III                         (b. 1696 - d. 1763)
                             (also Elector of Saxony Friedrich August II)
 5 Oct 1763 - 25 Nov 1764  Władysław Alexander Łubieński,     (b. 1703 - d. 1767) 
                             arcybiskup Gnieźeński -Interrex
25 Nov 1764 -  7 Jan 1795  Stanisław II August                (b. 1732 - d. 1798)
                             (Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski)
                             (abdicated 25 Nov 1795)
Supreme Leaders of the National Armed Forces
24 Mar 1794 - 12 Oct 1794  Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura        (b. 1746 - d. 1817) 
                             Kościuszko (in rebellion)
12 Oct 1794 - 16 Nov 1794  Tomasz Wawrzecki (in rebellion)    (b. 1759 - d. 1816) 

Commander of Russian Troops

 9 Nov 1794 - 30 Nov 1794  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Suvorov      (b. 1730 - d. 1800) 
                             Graf Rymnikskiy
Commander of French Army (3rd Corps) in Warsaw

28 Nov 1806 - 14 Jan 1807  Louis Nicolas Davout               (b. 1770 - d. 1823)

President of the Government Commission

14 Jan 1807 -  5 Oct 1807  Hrabia Stanisław Małachowski       (b. 1736 - d. 1809)  Non-party
Duke of Warsaw
ą

17 Sep 1807 - 21 May 1815  Fryderyk August I                  (b. 1750 - d. 1827)
                            (also King of Saxony Friedrich August I) 
                            (Allied prisoner 19 Oct 1813, from 26 Oct 1813
                            in Prussia [Feb 1815 Austria] exile to 7 Jun 1815)

Governor-general and Chairman of the Provisional Supreme Council of the Duchy of Warsaw

22 Mar 1813 -  1 Dec 1815  Vasiliy Sergeyevich Lanskoy        (b. 1753 - d. 1831)  Non-party
Kings
20 Jun 1815 - 25 Jan 1831  the emperors of Russia
26 Feb 1832 -  5 Aug 1915  the emperors of Russia
Governors (Naměstnik) in the Kingdom of Poland (often styled 'Viceroy')
 1 Dec 1815 - 28 Jul 1826  Józef Zajączek (= Iosif Zayonchek) (b. 1752 - d. 1826)
                             (from 29 Apr 1818, Józef książę Zajączek)
Presiding Member of the Administrative Board

28 Jul 1826 -  4 Dec 1830  Walenty Faustyn Sobolewski z       (b. 1765 - d. 1831)
                            
Piętek
Chairman of the Provisional Government

 4 Dec 1830 - 21 Dec 1830  Adam Jerzy
książę Czartoryski      (b. 1770 - d. 1861)  Con   
Dictator
 5 Dec 1830 - 18 Jan 1831  Józef Grzegorz Chłopicki           (b. 1771 - d. 1854)  Mil   
Chairman of the Supreme National Council
21 Dec 1830 - 30 Jan 1831  Adam Jerzy
książę Czartoryski      (s.a.)               Con
Chairman of the National Government
30 Jan 1831 - 17 Aug 1831  Adam Jerzy
książę Czartoryski      (s.a.)               Con  
President of the Council of Ministers
17 Aug 1831 -  7 Sep 1831  Jan Stefan hrabia Krukowiecki      (b. 1772 - d. 1850)  Mil   
Chairmen of the National Government
 7 Sep 1831 - 23 Sep 1831  Bonawentura Niemojowski            (b. 1787 - d. 1835)  Lib   
                             (from 8 Sep 1831 in
Płock)
23 Sep 1831 -  5 Oct 1831  Jan Nepomucen Umiński (
in Płock)   (b. 1778 - d. 1857)  Mil
Governors (N
aměstnik) in the King of Poland (often styled 'Viceroy')
Dec 1830 - 10 Jun 1831     Ivan Ivanovich Dibich-Zabalkanskiy (b. 1785 - d. 1831)
                             (Hans Karl Friedrich Anton von Diebitsch)
                             (commander of Russian troops)
13 Jun 1831 -  1 Feb 1856  Ivan Fyodorovich
Graf Paskevich-   (b. 1782 - d. 1856)
                             Yerivanskiy, Knyaz Varshavskiy
                             (
commander to 23 Mar 1832)
1849                       Ivan Ivanovich Den                 (b. 1786 - d. 1859)
                             (Johan Jakob von Daehn)
                             (acting for Paskevich)
1853 - 1855                Fyodor Vasilyevich Graf Ridiger    (b. 1783 - d. 1856)
                             (acting for
Paskevich)
 1 Feb 1856 -  3 Apr 1856  Wincenty Krasiński (acting)        (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
                             (
Vintsenty Krasinskiy)
 3 Apr 1856 - 30 May 1861  Mikhail Dmitriyevich Gorchakov     (b. 1793 - d. 1861)
30 May 1861 - 18 Aug 1861  Nikolay Onufriyevich Sukhozanet    (b. 1794 - d. 1871)

                             (1st time) (acting)
18 Aug 1861 -  3 May 1862  Karl Karlovich Graf Lambert        (b. 1815 - d. 1865)

10 Oct 1861 - 27 Oct 1861  Nikolay Onufriyevich Sukhozanet    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting for Lambert)

27 Oct 1861 -  8 Jun 1862  Aleksey Nikolayevich von Liders    (b. 1790 - d. 1874)
                            
(Alexander von Lüders)
 8 Jun 1862 - 19 Oct 1863  Velikiy Knyaz Konstatin            (b. 1827 - d. 1892)
                             Nikolayevich Romanov                        
 8 Sep 1863 -  6 Jan 1874  Fyodor Fyodorovich Graf fon Berg   (b. 1794 - d. 1874)
                            (Friedrich Graf von Berg)
                            (acting for Romanov to 19 Oct 1863)
Governors-general and Commanders of the Warsaw Military District

11 Jan 1874 - 18 May 1880  Pavel G
raf von Kotzebue            (b. 1801 - d. 1884)
18 May 1880 - 19 May 1883  Pyotr Pavlovich Albedinskiy        (b. 1826 - d. 1883)
 7 Jun 1883 -  6 Dec 1894  Iosif Vladimirovich Gurko (Gurke)  (b. 1828 - d. 1901)
13 Dec 1894 - 12 Dec 1896  Pavel Andreyevich Graf Shuvalov    (b. 1830 - d. 1908)
 1 Jan 1897 - 17 Nov 1900  Knyaz Aleksandr Konstantinovich    (b. 1837 - d. 1900)
                             Bagration-Imeretinskiy 
17 Nov 1900 - 24 Mar 1901  Ivan Grigoryevich Podgorodnikov    (b. 1841 - d. 19..) 
                             (acting)
24 Mar 1901 -
17 Feb 1905  Mikhail Ivanovich Chertkov         (b. 1829 – d. 1905)
19 Feb 1905 - 15 Aug 1905  Konstantin Klavdiyevich Maksimovich(b. 1849 - d. af.1917)

15 Aug 1905 -  1 Feb 1914  Georgiy Antonovich Skalon          (b. 1847 - d. 1914)
 4 Mar 1914 -  3 Sep 1914  Yakov Grigoryevich Zhilinskiy      (b. 1853 - d. 1918)
 9 Sep 1914 - 23 Dec 1914  Antoniy Ottovich fon Essen (acting)(b. 1862 - d. 1919)
23 Dec 1914 -  5 Aug 1915 
Knyaz Pavel Nikolayevich           (b. 1864 - d. 1944)
                             Yengalychev
(in exile to 4 Apr 1917)
German Governor-general of Warsaw
 4 Sep 1915 - 11 Nov 1918  Hans Hartwig von Beseler           (b. 1850 - d. 1921)
Austro-Hungarian Military Governors-general of (Kielce to 1 Oct 1915) Lublin

25 Aug 1915 - 20 Apr 1916  Erich Freiherr von Diller          (b. 1859 - d. 1926)
 1 May 1916 - 23 Apr 1917  Karl Kuk                           (b. 1853 - d. 1935)

Apr 1917 - 28 Feb 1918     Stanisław Graf Szeptycki           (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
Mar 1918 -  3 Nov 1918     Anton Lipošćak                     (b. 1863 - d. 1924)
Marshal of the Crown,
Chairman of the Provisional State Council
14 Jan 1917 - 25 Aug 1917  Wacław Józef Niemojowski           (b. 1864 - d. 1939)  Non-party
Chairman of the Interim Commission of the Provisional State Council
25 Aug 1917 - 27 Oct 1917  Józef Karol Mateusz Mikułowski- 
  (b. 1868 - d. 1935)  Non-party
                             Pomorski
27 Oct 1917 - 14 Nov 1918  Regency Council of the Polish Kingdom
                           - Aleksander Kakowski,             (b. 1862 - d. 1938)  Non-party
                               arcybiskup Warszawski
                           - Zdzisław książę Lubomirski       (b. 1865 - d. 1943)  Non-party
                           - Józef August Ostrowski           (b. 1850 - d. 1923)  Non-party
President of the Polish National Committee
15 Aug 1917 - 16 Jan 1919  Roman Stanisław Dmowski            (b. 1864 - d. 1939)  SND
                             (in Paris exile, recognized by the Allies) 
Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Army

14 Nov 1918 - 22 Nov 1918  Józef Klemens Piłsudski            (s.a.)               Mil
Chief of State (Naczelnik Państwa)

22 Nov 1918 - 11 Dec 1922  Józef Klemens Piłsudski            (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary ("Communist") Committee of Poland ("Polrewkom")
30 Jul 1920 - 22 Aug 1920  Julian Baltazar Marchlewski        (b. 1866 - d. 1925)  KPRP
                             (in rebellion, in Soviet-occupied
Białystok)
Presidents

11 Dec 1922 - 16 Dec 1922  Gabriel Józef Narutowicz           (b. 1865 - d. 1922)  Non-party
16 Dec 1922 - 20 Dec 1922  Maciej Rataj (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1884 - d. 1940)  PSL-P
20 Dec 1922 - 15 May 1926  Stanisław Wojciechowski            (b. 1869 - d. 1953)  PSL-P
15 May 1926 -  4 Jun 1926  Maciej Rataj (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)               PSL-P
 4 Jun 1926 - 28 Sep 1939  Ignacy Mościcki                    (b. 1867 - d. 1946)  Non-party
                             (in Romania exile from 18 Sep 1939, resigned 30 Sep 1939)
German Commanders-in-chief of Army Group North and South (Heeresgruppen Nord und Süd)
28 Sep 1939 -  2 Oct 1939  Fedor von Bock                     (b. 1880 - d. 1945)  Mil
                           + Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt   (b. 1875 - d. 1953)  Mil

German Commanders-in-chief East (Ober Ost) (in Lodsch (Łódź))
 3 Oct 1939 - 19 Oct 1939  Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt     (s.a.)               Mil   
20 Oct 1939 - 25 Oct 1939  Johannes Blaskowitz                (b. 1883 - d. 1948)  Mil    
Governor-general
(to 31 Jul 1940, für die besetzten Polnischen Gebiete)
26 Oct 1939 - 19 Jan 1945  Hans Michael Frank                 (b. 1900 - d. 1946)  NSDAP

Chairman (from 31 Dec 1944, President) of the State National Council
 1 Jan 1944 -  4 Feb 1947  Bolesław Bierut                    (s.a.)               PPR
                             (in Lublin Jul 1944 - 1 Feb 1945)
 4 Feb 1947                Franciszek Trąbalski (acting)      (b. 1870 - d. 1964)  PPS
                             (Marshal of the Constituent Sejm by age)
 4 Feb 1947 -  5 Feb 1947  Władysław Kowalski                 (b. 1894 - d. 1958)  SL
                             (Marshal of the Constituent Sejm)
President
 5 Feb 1947 - 20 Nov 1952  Bolesław Bierut                    (s.a.)             PPR;1948 PZPR
Chairmen of the Council of State
20 Nov 1952 -  7 Aug 1964  Aleksander Zawadzki                (b. 1899 - d. 1964)  PZPR 
 7 Aug 1964 - 12 Aug 1964  Edward Ochab                       (s.a.)               PZPR 
                           + Stanisław Leon Kulczyński        (b. 1895 - d. 1975)  SD
                           + Oskar Ryszard Lange              (b. 1904 - d. 1965)  PZPR 
                           + Bolesław Podedworny              (b. 1898 - d. 1972)  ZSL
                           (acting)
12 Aug 1964 - 11 Apr 1968  Edward Ochab                       (s.a.)               PZPR
11 Apr 1968 - 23 Dec 1970  Marian "Marek" Spychalski          (b. 1906 - d. 1980)  PZPR 
23 Dec 1970 - 28 Mar 1972  Józef Adam Zygmunt Cyrankiewicz    (s.a.)               PZPR 
28 Mar 1972 -  6 Nov 1985  Henryk Jabłoński                   (b. 1909 - d. 2003)  PZPR 
 6 Nov 1985 - 19 Jul 1989  Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski         (s.a.)               PZPR
Presidents
19 Jul 1989 - 22 Dec 1990  Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski         (s.a.)               Non-party
22 Dec 1990 - 22 Dec 1995  Lech Wałęsa                        (b. 1943)            Non-party
23 Dec 1995 - 22 Dec 2005  Aleksander Kwaśniewski             (b. 1954)            Non-party
23 Dec 2005 - 10 Apr 2010  Lech Aleksander Kaczyński          (b. 1949 - d. 2010)  PiS
10 Apr 2010 -  8 Jul 2010  Bronis
ław Maria Komorowski         (b. 1952)            PO
                             (1st time) (acting)
 8 Jul 2010                Bogdan Micha
ł Borusewicz (acting)  (b. 1949)            Non-party
 8 Jul 2010 -  6 Aug 2010  Grzegorz Juliusz Schetyna (acting) (b. 1963)            PO
 6 Aug 2010 -        
     Bronisław Maria Komorowski         (s.a.)               PO
                             (2nd time)


Marshals (chief ministers)
1375 - 1378                Przedbór z Brzezia (1st time)      (b. 13.. - d. 1387)
1378 - c.1380              Jan z Tarnowa                      (b. 134. - d. 1409)
c.1380 - 1387              Przedbór z Brzezia (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1387 - Sep? 1388           Mikołaj z Bogorii (Bogoria)        (b. 13.. - d. 1388)
1388 - 1399                Dymitr z Goraja                    (b. c.1340 - d. 1400)
1399 - Feb? 1425           Zbigniew Lanckoroński z Brzezia    (b. c.1360 - d. 1425)
Feb? 1425 - Sep? 1430      Wawrzyniec Zaremba z Kalinowej     (b. 13.. - d. 1453?)
                             (acting to Mar? 1426)
Sep? 1430 - Mar? 1440      Jan Głowacz z Oleśnicy             (b. c.1400 - d. 1460?)

Mar? 1440 - Mar 1462       Mikołaj Marszałkowicz Lanckoroński (b. 139. - d. 1462)
                             z Brzezia 
Apr? 1462 - 1. Oct 1477    Jan z Rytwian                      (b. 1422 - d. 1478)
1. Oct 1477 - 22 Dec 1493  Rafał Jakób z Jarosławski          (b. c.1436  d. -1493)
                             (Jarosławia)
22 Dec 1493 - 24 Mar 1494  Rafał Leszczyński (acting)         (b. 143. - d. 1501)
24 Mar 1494 - 16 Apr 1505  Piotr Kmita z Wiśnicza             (b. c.1442 - d. 1505)
16 Apr 1505 - Jun 1505     Jan Tęczyński z Rabsztyna (acting) (b. 145. - d. 1505)
15 Jul 1505 - Aug 1505     Stanisław Jarocki z Jaroczyna      (b. 14.. - d. 1515)
                             (acting)
Grand Marshals of the Crown (Marszałkowie Wielcy Koronni)(chief ministers)
Aug 1505 - 30 Apr 1529     Stanisław Chodecki z Chodcza       (b. 145. - d. 1529)   
30 Apr 1529 - 31 Oct 1553  Piotr Kmita (Sobieński) z Wiśnicza (b. c.1477 - d. 1553)
                             (acting to 21 May 1529)
31 Oct 1553 - 21 Jun 1555  Stanisław Maciejowski (1st time)   (b. 151. - d. 1563)
                             (acting)
21 Jun 1555 - 13 Mar 1561  Jan Mielecki                       (b. 1501 - d. 1561)
13 Mar 1561 - 1563         Stanisław Maciejowski (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
1563 - 22 Jul 1563         .... (acting)
22 Jul 1563 - Apr 1574     Janusz Firlej (Firle˙) z Dąbrowicy (s.a.)  
Apr 1574 -  3 Mar 1593     Andrzej Opaliński z Bnina          (b. 1540 - d. 1593)
                             (acting to ... 1574)
 3 Mar 1593 - Sep? 1595    Stanisław Przyjemski               (b. 155. - d. 1595)
                             (acting to 30 Mar 1593)
Sep? 1595 -  9 Mar 1596    Prokop Sieniawski (acting)         (b. 156. - d. 1596)
 9 Mar 1596 - Nov 1601     Mikołaj Zebrzydowski               (b. 1553 - d. 1620)
Nov 1601 - 25 Jan 1603     Mikołaj Wolski z Podhajec (acting) (b. 1553 - d. 1630)
25 Jan 1603 -  5 Jul 1615  Zygmunt Gonzaga-Myszkowski,        (b. c.1562 - d. 1615)
                             margrabia na Mirowie
 5 Jul 1615 -  9 Mar 1630  Mikołaj Wolski z Podhajec          (b. 1553 - d. 1630)
                             (acting to 6 Jul 1616)
19 Mar 1630 - 19 Feb 1650  Łukasz Opaliński z Bnina           (b. 1581 - d. 1654)
                             (acting to 15 Apr 1630)
19 Feb 1650 - 22 Dec 1664  Jerzy Sebastian książę Lubomirski  (b. 1616 - d. 1667)
22 Dec 1664 - 17 Jan 1665  Jan Klemens Branicki (acting)      (b. c.1624 - d. 1673)
17 Jan 1665 -  5 Jun 1674  Jan Sobieski                       (s.a.)
 5 Jun 1674 - 17 Jan 1702  Stanisław Herakliusz książę        (b. 1642 - d. 1702) 
                             Lubomirski (acting to 19 Feb 1676)
17 Jan 1702 - 15 Dec 1702  Józef Karol książę Lubomirski      (b. 1638 - d. 1702)
                             (acting to 25 Feb 1702)
15 Dec 1702 - 24 Mar 1713  Kazimierz Ludwik Bieliński         (b. 166. - d. 1713)  
                             (acting to 20 Dec 1702)
24 Mar 1713 -  2 Apr 1713  Wojciech Andrzej Dąmbski z         (b. 1676 - d. 1725)
                             Lubrańca (acting)
 2 Apr 1713 – 20 May 1742  Józef Wandalin Mniszech            (b. 1670 – d. 1747) 
20 May 1742 -  8 Oct 1766  Franciszek Bieliński               (b. c.1683 – d. 1766)
                             (acting to 21 May 1742)
 8 Oct 1766 - 17 Oct 1766  Jerzy August Wandalin Mniszech     (b. 1715 - d. 1778)
                             (acting)
17 Oct 1766 - 12 Aug 1783  Stanisław książę Lubomirski        (b. 1719? - d. 1783) 
12 Aug 1783 - 23 Aug 1783  Franciszek Rzewuski (acting)       (b. c.1730 - d. 1800)
23 Aug 1783 -  8 Jul 1793  Michał Jerzy Wandalin Mniszech     (b. 1742 - d. 1806)
 8 Jul 1793 - 23 Aug 1793  Kazimiérz Jan Nepomucen Raczyński  (b. 1739 - d. 1824) 
                             (acting)
23 Aug 1793 -  7 Jan 1795  Fryderyk Józef Moszyński           (b. 1738 - d. 1817)  Mil
                             (nominal after 9 Nov 1794)
Russian Administrator

 9 Nov 1794 - 30 Nov 1794  Knyaz Nikolay Vasilyevich Repnin   (b. 1734 - d. 1801)  Mil  
Presidents of the Ministerial State Council (chief ministers)

14 Jan 1807 - 16 Dec 1807  Hrabia Stanisław Małachowski       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (president of the government commission to 5 Oct 1807)
16 Dec 1807 - 25 Mar 1809  Hrabia Ludwik Szymon Gutakowski    (b. 1738 - d. 1811)  Non-party 
25 Mar 1809 - 13 May 1813  Hrabia Stanisław Kostka Potocki    (b. 1755 - d. 1821)  Non-party
                             (from 8 Feb 1813 in Kraków)
Chairman of the Provisional Administration

16 Sep 1831 -  7 Jan 1832  Theodor Engel                      (b. 1769 - d. 1837)  Non-party
                             (Fyodor Ivanovich Engel)
Chief of the Civil Administration

14 Jun 1862 - 16 Jul 1863  Aleksander Ignacy hrabia           (b. 1803 - d. 1877)  Con
                             Wielopolski, margrabia Gonzaga
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Provisional National Government (in rebellion)
22 Jan 1863 - 11 Mar 1863  Stefan Bobrowski                   (b. 1841 - d. 1863)  Rad
                           - together with -
                           Ludwik Adam Mierosławski           (b. 1814 - d. 1878)  Rad
                            (dictator and commander-in-chief of the Polish
                             Insurrection; entered Poland 17 Feb 1863)
Dictator (in rebellion)
11 Mar 1863 - 19 Mar 1863  Marjan Antoni Melchior Langiewicz  (b. 1827 - d. 1887)  Lib

19 Mar 1863 - 20 Mar 1863  Executive Dictatorial Commission
                           - Stefan Bobrowski                 (s.a.)               Rad
                           - Agaton Giller                    (b. 1831 - d. 1887)  Rad

                           - Józef Kajetan Janowski           (b. 1832 - d. 1914)  Rad
                           (acting)
Chairmen of the Provisional National government (in rebellion)
21 Mar 1863 - 12 Apr 1863 
Stefan Bobrowski                   (s.a.)               Rad 
12 Apr 1863 - 10 May 1863  Agaton Giller                      (s.a.)               Rad
Chairmen of the National Government (in rebellion)
10 May 1863 - 23 May 1863  Agaton Giller                      (s.a.)               Rad
23 May 1863 -  9 Jun 1863  Franciszek Dobrowolski (1st time)  (b. 1830 - d. 1896)  Rad

 9 Jun 1863 - 14 Jun 1863  Piotr Kobylański                   (b. c.1823 - d. 1868)Rad
14 Jun 1863 - 17 Sep 1863  Karol Konstanty Majewski           (b. 1833 - d. 1897)  Lib
17 Sep 1863 - 17 Oct 1863  Franciszek Dobrowolski (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Rad
17 Oct 1863 - 11 Apr 1864  Romuald Traugutt                   (b. 1826 - d. 1864)  Mil
11 Apr 1864 - 12 Apr 1864  Józef Kajetan Janowski (acting)    (s.a.)               Rad
12 Apr 1864 - 20 Apr 1864  Józef Gałęzowski (acting)          (b. 1834 - d. 1916)  Mil
20 Apr 1864 - Oct 1864     Bronis
ław Brzeziński               (d. c.1865)          Rad
German Chiefs of Civil Administration for Russian Poland
(
Chief of Civil Administration with the Commander-in-chief East to 25 Mar 1915?)
 5 Jan 1915 - Apr 1915     Hans von Brandenstein (in Posen)   (b. 1849 - d. 1943)  Non-party
17 Apr? 1915 -  4 Sep 1915
Wolfgang Moritz Ludwig von Kries   (b. 1868 - d. 1945)  Non-party
                             (in Posen to 5 May 1915, then in Kalisch [Kalisz])
German Chief Administrators
with the Government General of Warsaw
 4 Sep 1915 - Aug 1917     Wolfgang Moritz Ludwig von Kries   (s.a.)               Non-party

Aug/Sep 1917 - Nov 1917   
Carl Friedrich Wilhelm von Born-   (b. 1878 - d. 1934)  Non-party
                             Fallois
(1st time) (acting)
Nov 1917 - 29 Jan 1918     Maximilian Karl von Sandt          (b. 1861 - d. 1918)  Non-party
29 Jan 1918 - 31 Mar 1918  Carl Friedrich Wilhelm von Born-   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Fallois
(2nd time) (acting)
31 Mar 1918 - 11 Nov 1918
  Otto Adolf Ludwig von Steinmeister (b. 1860 - d. 1937)  Non-party
Austro-Hungarian Chiefs of the Civil State Commissariat

Sep 1915 - Jul 1916        Georg Kornel Graf Wodzicki von     (b. 1865 - d. 1952)  Non-party
                            
Granow (Jerzy Kornel hrabia Wodzicki z Granówa)
Jul 1916 -  1 Mar 1918     Georg Viktor Ritter von Madeyski   (b. 1872 - d. 1939)  Non-party                             
(Jerzy Wiktor rycerz Madeyski) 
Marshal of the Crown,
Chairman of the Provisional State Council
14 Jan 1917 - 26 Aug 1917  Wacław Józef Niemojowski           (s.a.)               Non-party
Chairman of the Interim Commission of the Provisional State Council
26 Aug 1917 -  7 Dec 1917  Józef Karol Mateusz Mikułowski-    (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Pomorski
Minister-Presidents
(prime ministers)
 7 Dec 1917 - 27 Feb 1918  Jan Kucharzewski                   (b. 1876 - d. 1952)  Non-party
27 Feb 1918 -  4 Apr 1918  Antoni Ponikowski (1st time)       (b. 1878 - d. 1949)  SND
 4 Apr 1918 - 23 Oct 1918  Jan Kanty Steczkowski              (b. 1862 - d. 1929)  SPN
27 Jul 1918 - 30 Sep 1918  Stanisław Dzierzbicki              (b. 1854 - d. 1919)  Non-party
                             (acting for Steczkowski)
30 Sep 1918 - 23 Oct 1918  Bohdan Broniewski                  (b. 1855 - d. 1922)  Non-party
                             (acting for Steczkowski)
23 Oct 1918 -  5 Nov 1918  Józef Świeżyński                   (b. 1868 - d. 1948)  SND
 
5 Nov 1918 - 14 Nov 1918  Władysław Wróblewski (acting)      (b. 1875 - d. 1951)  Non-party
 7 Nov 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  Ignacy Ewaryst Daszyński           (b. 1866 - d. 1936)  PPSD
                             (in dissidence in Lublin to 14 Nov 1918)
17 Nov 1918 - 16 Jan 1919  Jędrzej Edward Moraczewski         (b. 1870 - d. 1944)  PPS
D
16 Jan 1919 - 13 Dec 1919  Ignacy Jan Paderewski              (b. 1860 - d. 1941)  Non-party
13 Dec 1919 - 24 Jun 1920  Leopold Skulski                    (b. 1877 - d. 1940)  NZL
24 Jun 1920 - 24 Jul 1920  Władysław Dominik Grabski          (b. 1874 - d. 1938)  ZLN
                             (1st time)   
24 Jul 1920 - 19 Sep 1921  Wincenty Witos (1st time)          (b. 1874 - d. 1945)  PSL-P
19 Sep 1921 - 28 Jun 1922  Antoni Ponikowski (2nd time)       (s.a.)               PSCD
28 Jun 1922 - 31 Jul 1922  Artur Śliwiński                    (b. 1877 - d. 1953)  PPS
31 Jul 1922 - 16 Dec 1922  Julian Ignacy Nowak                (b. 1865 - d. 1946)  SPN
Prime ministers (chairmen of the council of ministers)
16 Dec 1922 - 28 May 1923  Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski       (b. 1881 - d. 1943)  Mil
28 May 1923 - 19 Dec 1923  Wincenty Witos (2nd time)          (s.a.)               PSL-P
19 Dec 1923 - 20 Nov 1925  Władysław Dominik Grabski          (s.a.)               ZLN
                             (2nd time)
20 Nov 1925 - 10 May 1926  Aleksander Józef Skrzyński         (b. 1882 - d. 1931)  SPN
10 May 1926 - 15 May 1926  Wincenty Witos (3rd time)          (s.a.)               PSL-P
15 May 1926 -  2 Oct 1926  Kazimierz Władysław Bartel         (b. 1882 - d. 1941)  PP
                             (1st time)
 2 Oct 1926 - 27 Jun 1928  Józef Klemens Piłsudski (1st time) (s.a.)               Mil 
27 Jun 1928 - 14 Apr 1929  Kazimierz Władysław Bartel         (s.a.)              PP;1928 BBWR
                             (2nd time)
14 Apr 1929 - 29 Dec 1929  Kazimierz Stanisław Świtalski      (b. 1886 - d. 1962)  BBWR
29 Dec 1929 - 29 Mar 1930  Kazimierz Władysław Bartel         (s.a.)               BBWR
                             (3rd time)
29 Mar 1930 - 25 Aug 1930  Walery Jan Sławek (1st time)       (b. 1879 - d. 1939)  BBWR
25 Aug 1930 -  4 Dec 1930  Józef Klemens Piłsudski (2nd time) (s.a.)               Mil
 4 Dec 1930 - 27 May 1931  Walery Jan Sławek (2nd time)       (s.a.)               BBWR
27 May 1931 - 10 May 1933  Aleksander Błażej Prystor          (b. 1874 - d. 1941)  BBWR
10 May 1933 - 15 May 1934  Janusz Jędrzejewicz                (b. 1885 - d. 1951)  BBWR
15 May 1934 - 28 Mar 1935  Leon Tadeusz Kozłowski             (b. 1892 - d. 1944)  BBWR
28 Mar 1935 - 13 Oct 1935  Walery Jan Sławek (3rd time)       (s.a.)               BBWR
13 Oct 1935 - 15 May 1936  Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski       (b. 1892 - d. 1946)  BBWR
15 May 1936 - 28 Sep 1939  Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski        (b. 1885 - d. 1962)  BBWR
                             (in Romania exile from 17 Sep 1939, resigned 30 Sep 1939)
German Chief of the Civil Administration in the Army Group South
 1 Sep 1939 -  2 Oct 1939  Josef Wagner                       (b. 1899 - d. 1945)  NSDAP
German Supreme Chief of Administration (in Lodsch [Łódź])
 3 Oct 1939 - 25 Oct 1939  Hans Michael Frank                 (s.a.)               NSDAP 
Chairman of the Polish Committee for National Liberation
21 Jul 1944 - 31 Dec 1944  Edward Bolesław Osóbka-Morawski    (b. 1909 - d. 1997)  PPS
                             (in Lublin from 15 Aug 1944)
Prime ministers
(chairmen of the council of ministers)
31 Dec 1944 -  6 Feb 1947  Edward Bolesław Osóbka-Morawski    (s.a.)               PPS
                            
(in Lublin to 1 Feb 1945)
 6 Feb 1947 - 20 Nov 1952  Józef Adam Zygmund Cyrankiewicz    (s.a.)             PPS;1948 PZPR

                             (1st time)
20 Nov 1952 - 18 Mar 1954  Bolesław Bierut                    (s.a.)               PZPR
18 Mar 1954 - 23 Dec 1970  Józef Adam Zygmund Cyrankiewicz    (s.a.)               PZPR
                             (2nd time)
23 Dec 1970 - 18 Feb 1980  Piotr Jaroszewicz                  (b. 1909 - d. 1992)  PZPR
18 Feb 1980 - 24 Aug 1980  Edward Babiuch                     (b. 1927)            PZPR
24 Aug 1980 - 11 Feb 1981  Józef Pińkowski                    (b. 1929 - d. 2000)  PZPR
                             (acting to 5 Sep 1980)
11 Feb 1981 -  6 Nov 1985  Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski         (s.a.)               PZPR
                            (also chairman of Military Council of National
                             Salvation˛ 13 Dec 1981 - 21 Jul 1983)
 
6 Nov 1985 - 27 Sep 1988  Zbigniew Messner                   (b. 1929 - d. 2014)  PZPR

27 Sep 1988 -  2 Aug 1989  Mieczysław Franciszek Rakowski     (s.a.)               PZPR
 2 Aug 1989 - 24 Aug 1989  Czesław Kiszczak                   (b. 1925)            PZPR 
24 Aug 1989 -  4 Jan 1991  Tadeusz Mazowiecki                 (b. 1927 - d. 2013)  Non-party
 4 Jan 1991 -  6 Dec 1991  Jan Krzysztof Bielecki             (b. 1951)            KLD
 6 Dec 1991 -  5 Jun 1992  Jan Ferdynand Olszewski            (b. 1930)            PC
 5 Jun 1992 - 11 Jul 1992  Waldemar Pawlak (1st time)         (b. 1959)            PSL
11 Jul 1992 - 26 Oct 1993  Hanna Suchocka (f)                 (b. 1946)            UD
26 Oct 1993 -  6 Mar 1995  Waldemar Pawlak (2nd time)         (s.a.)               PSL
 6 Mar 1995 -  7 Feb 1996  Józef Oleksy                       (b. 1946 - d. 2015)  SLD + SdRP
 7 Feb 1996 - 31 Oct 1997  Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz            (b. 1950)            SLD + SdRP
31 Oct 1997 - 19 Oct 2001  Jerzy Karol Buzek                  (b. 1940)            AWS
19 Oct 2001 -  2 May 2004  Leszek Cezary Miller               (b. 1946)            SLD
 2 May 2004 - 31 Oct 2005  Marek Marian Belka                 (b. 1952)            SLD
31 Oct 2005 - 14 Jul 2006  Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz            (b. 1959)            PiS
14 Jul 2006 - 16 Nov 2007  Jarosław Aleksander Kaczyński      (b. 1949)            PiS
16 Nov 2007 - 22 Sep 2014  Donald Franciszek Tusk             (b. 1957)            PO 
22 Sep 2014 -              Ewa Kopacz (f)                     (b. 1956)            PO       

Polish Republic in exileł

[State Flag of Poland]

Presidents
30 Sep 1939 -  6 Jun 1947  Władysław Raczkiewicz              (b. 1885 - d. 1947)  Non-party
 9 Jun 1947 -  7 Apr 1972  August Zaleski                     (b. 1883 - d. 1972)  Non-party
 3 Aug 1954 -  7 Apr 1972  Council of Three
                           - Edward Bernard Raczyński         (b. 1891 - d. 1993)  Non-party
                           - Władysław Anders                 (b. 1892 - d. 1970)Mil/Non-party
                              
(to 12 May 1970)
                           - Tomasz Arciszewski               (b. 1877 - d. 1955)  PPS
                               (to 20 Nov 1955)
                           - Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski           (b. 1895 - d. 1966)Mil/Non-party
                               (1956 - 24 Aug 1966)
                           - Roman Władysław Odzierzyński     (b. 1892 - d. 1975)Mil/Non-party
                               (1966-1968) 
                           - Stanisław Mglej (1968-1969)      (b. 1900 - d. 1976)  SN
                           - Alfred Urbański (from 1969)      (b. 1899 - d. 1983)  PPS
                           - Stanisław Kopański (from 1970)   (b. 1895 - d. 1976)Mil/Non-party
                           (in opposition to Zaleski)
 9 Apr 1972 - 24 Mar 1979  Stanis
ław Ostrowski                (b. 1892 - d. 1982)  Non-party
 8 Apr 1979 -  8 Apr 1986  Edward Bernard Raczyński           (s.a.)               Non-party
 8 Apr 1986 - 19 Jul 1989  Kazimierz Aleksander Sabbat        (b. 1913 - d. 1989)  Non-party
19 Jul 1989 - 22 Dec 1990  Ryszard Kaczorowski                (b. 1919 - d. 2010)  Non-party

Prime ministers
30 Sep 1939 - 18 Jul 1940  Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski       (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time)
18 Jul 1940 - 20 Jul 1940  August Zaleski                     (s.a.)               Non-party
20 Jul 1940 -  4 Jul 1943  Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski       (s.a.)               Mil
                             (3rd time)
 5 Jul 1943 - 29 Nov 1944  Stanisław Mikołajczyk              (b. 1901 - d. 1966)  SL
                             (acting to 14 Jul 1943)
29 Nov 1944 -  2 Jul 1947  Tomasz Arciszewski                 (s.a.)               PPS
 2 Jul 1947 -  7 Apr 1949  Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski             (s.a.)             Mil/Non-party
 7 Apr 1949 - 25 Sep 1950  Tadeusz Tomaszewski                (b. 1881 - d. 1950)  PPS
25 Sep 1950 - 18 Jan 1954  Roman Władysław Odzierzyński       (s.a.)             Mil/Non-party
18 Jan 1954 -  8 Jun 1954  Jerzy Hryniewski                   (b. 1895 - d. 1978)  LNP
 8 Jun 1954 -  8 Aug 1955  Stanisław Cat-Mackiewicz           (b. 1896 - d. 1966)  Non-party
 8 Aug 1955 - 11 Sep 1955  Hugon Hanke                        (b. 1904 - d. 1964)  SP
11 Sep 1955 - 25 Jun 1965  Antoni Pająk                       (b. 1893 - d. 1965)  PPS
25 Jun 1965 - 16 Jul 1970  Aleksander Zawisza                 (b. 1896 - d. 1977)  Non-party
16 Jul 1970 - 15 Jul 1972  Zygmunt Muchniewski                (b. 1896 - d. 1979)  SP
15 Jul 1972 -  2 Jul 1976  Alfred Urbański                    (s.a.)               PSS
 5 Aug 1976 -  7 Apr 1986  Kazimierz Aleksander Sabbat        (s.a.)               Non-party
 7 Apr 1986 - 22 Dec 1990  Edward Franciszek Szczepanik       (b. 1915 - d. 2005)  LNP
 

French Commissioners (Residents) in the Duchy of Warsaw
 9 Jul 1807 - Dec 1807     Étienne Vincent de Margnolas       (b. 1781 - d. 1809)
28 Jan 1808 - 16 Mar 1810  Jean Charles François Serra        (b. 1760 - d. 1813)
                             (from 16 Dec 1810, Jean Charles François baron de Serra)
16 Mar 1811 -  5 Jul 1812  Louis Édouard Bignon (1st time)    (b. 1771 - d. 1841)
 5 Jul 1812 -  9 Dec 1812  Dominique Georges Dufour de Pradt  (b. 1759 - d. 1837)
 9 Dec 1812 - 14 Mar 1813  Louis Édouard Bignon (2nd time)    (s.a.)

 ąUnder the elective kingship, a king assumed office upon his coronation at the Coronation Diet. The record also includes the date of proclamation of the election at the Election Diet. From 6 Jan 1573, during a vacancy in the elective kingship, the primate of Poland ex officio (occasionally another prelate, in emergency situations) headed the state with the style Interrex. Informally from 4 Jul 1569, constitutionally from 3 May 1791, Poland and Lithuania constituted the United Commonwealth of Two Nations; the Polish king also had the style of Grand Prince of Lithuania, and the two countries were governed together and were represented on the Diets. Although de jure the Polish Interrex only dealt with Poland during a vacancy in the kingship (the Lithuanian Council of State dealing with Lithuania), this is de facto a spurious distinction.
 (a) The full style of Polish kings (and Grand Princes of Lithuania) from 1573 was (in official Latin): Dei Gratiae Rex Poloniae, Magnus Dux Lituaniae, Russiae, Prussiae, Masoviae, Samogithiae, Kiioviae, Volhyniae, Podoliae, Podlachiae, Livoniae, Smolensciae, Severiae, Czernichoviaeque, etc., etc.; (in Polish): Z Bożej łaski, Król Polski, Wielki Książę Litewski, Ruski, Pruski, Mazowiecki, Żmudzki, Kijowski, Wołyński, Podolski, Podlaski, Inflancki, Smoleński, Siewierski i Czernihowski ("by the Grace of God, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Russia, Prussia, Mazovia, Samogithia, Kiev, Volhynia, Podolia, Podlachia, Livonia, Smolensk, Severia and Chernigov, etc., etc,");
 (b)  9 Jul 1807 - 21 May 1815 full style of the ruler: z Bożej łaski, Król Saski, Książę [Xiążę] Warszawski ("by the Grace of God, King of Saxony, Duke of Warsaw").

 ˛A Military Council for National Salvation (Przewodniczący Wojskowej Rady Ocalenia Narodowego)(WRON), chaired by Wojciech Jaruzelski (s.a.) ruled in 13 Dec 1981 - 21 Jul 1983 while the martial law (declared 13 Dec 1982) was in force. Its members were: Wojciech Jaruzelski (s.a.), Józef Baryła (b. 1924), Kazimierz Garbacik (b. 1927), Zbigniew Nowak (b. 1926), Mirosław Hermaszewski (b. 1941), Tadeusz Hupałowski (b. 1922 - d. 1999), Ludwik Janczyszyn (b. 1923 - d. 1994), Michał Janiszewski (b. 1926), Jerzy Jarosz (b. 1931), Zygmunt Zieliński (b. 1925), Czesław Kiszczak (b. 1926 - d. 2005), Tadeusz Krepski (b. 1920 - d. 1988), Roman Leś (b. 1924 - d. 1988), Longin Łozowicki (b. 1926 - d. 2013), Tadeusz Makarewicz, Eugeniusz Molczyk (b. 1925 - d. 2007), Włodzimierz Oliwa (b. 1924 - d. 1989), Czesław Piotrowski (b. 1926 - d. 2005), Henryk Rapacewicz (b. 1926 - d. 1991), Florian Siwicki (b. 1925 - d. 2013), Tadeusz Tuczapski (b. 1922 - d. 2009), Józef Użycki (b. 1932) and Jerzy Włosiński (b. 1943). 

 łThe Polish Government in exile lost the diplomatic recognition of the Western Allies 
on 5 Jul 1945, it continued in exile until the end of communist rule 22 Dec 1990.

Noble and Ecclesiastical Titles (Polish, German and Russian): Arcyksiążę/Arcyksiężna = Archduke/Archduchess; Arcybiskup = Archbishop; Baron/Baronesa = Baron/Baroness; Biskup = Bishop; Cesarz/Cesarzowa = Emperor/Empress; Diuk = Duke; Erzherzog = Archduke; Freiherr = Baron; Graf = Count; Herzog = Duke; Hrabia/Hrabina = Count/Countessa; Hrabia Palatyn = Count Palatine; Herzog = Duke; Kardynał = Cardinal; Knyaz = Prince; Król/Królowa = King/Queen; Królewicz/Królewna = Prince/Princess Royal; Książę/Księżna = Prince/Princess (the style Kniaż/Kniahini or Kniagini title was also used is eastern parts of Poland for old families of tribal rulers, equal to Książę, but more distinguished); Margrabia/Markiz = Margrave; Naczelnik = Leader/Chief (not a noble title, but the style used by leaders of national insurrections in Poland); Ritter = Knight; Rycerz = Knight; Velikiy Knyaz = Grand Duke; Wicehrabia = Viscount.

Territorial Disputes: As a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine.

Party abbreviations: PiS = Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, national conservative, populist, national clericalism, est.13 Jun 2001); PO = Platforma Obywatelska Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (Civic Platform of the Republic, christian-democratic, centrist, est.1 Jul 2001); PSL = Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe (Polish People's Party, agrarian, christian-democratic, 1945-21 Dec 1948, merged into PZPR, re-est.5 May 1990); SD = Stronnictwo Demokratyczne (Alliance of Democrats, centrist, est.15 Apr 1939); SLD = Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (Union of Left Democrats, social-democratic, former SdRP and PZPR, to 15 Jun 1999 parliamentary coalition incl. SdRP, est.9 Jul 1991); UP = Unia Pracy (Labour Union, social-democratic, est.7 Jun 1992); Mil = Military;
- Former Parties: AWS = Akcja Wyborcza Solidarność Prawicy (Solidarity Electoral Action of the Right, conservative, 8 Jun 1996-18 Oct 2001); BBWR = Bezpartyjny Blok Współpracy z Rządem (Non-Partisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government, populist, pro-government grouping, J. Piłsudski personalist, "Sanacja" [Sanation] movement, Nov 1927-30 Oct 1935); KLD = Kongres Liberalno-Demokratyczny (Liberal Democratic Congress, center-right, liberal, 29 Jun 1990-24 Apr 1994, then UW); KPRP = Komunistyczna Partia Robotnicza Polski (Polish Communist Party of Workers, Marxist-Lenininst communist, 16 Dec 1918 - 5 Feb 1925, merged into KPP); KPP = Komunistyczna Partia Polski (Polish Communist Party, communist, former KPRP, 5 Feb 1925-16 Aug 1938); Lib = Biali/Stronnictwo Białych (Whites/White Party, liberals, opposed Rad, c.1858); LNP = Liga Niepodległości Polski (Polish Independence League, est.1944); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, "Nazi" German fascist, 1920-1945, only legal party in General government Oct 1939-Jan 1945); NZL = Narodowe Zjednoczenie Ludowe (National Peoples' Union, split from ZLN, Oct 1919-1922, merged into Polskie Stronnictwo Katolicko-Ludowe); PP = Partia Pracy (Labour Party, split from PSL-W, 1925-Nov 1928, merged into BBWR); PPR = Polska Partia Robotnicza (Polish Workers' Party, communist, 5 Jan 1942-21 Dec 1948, merged into PZPR); PPS = Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (Polish Socialist Party, socialist, 23 Nov 1892-21 Dec 1948, merged into PZPR); PPSD = Polska Partia Socjalno-Demokratyczna Galicji i Śląska Cieszyńskiego (Polish Social Democratic Party of Galicia and Silesia, 1897-Apr 1919, merged into PPS); PSCD = Polskie Stronnictwo Chrześcijańskiej Demokracji (Polish Christian Democratic Party, christian democratic, center-right, 1919-10 Oct 1937, merged into SP); PSL = Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe (Polish People's [Peasant] Party, agrarian, Polish nationalist, 3 Feb 1903-1 Feb 1914, split into PSL-P and [from 6 Dec 1915] PSL-W); PSL-P = Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe - "Piast" (Polish Peasant Party "Piast", agrarian, christian-democratic, 1 Feb 1914-15 Mar 1931, merged into SL); PSL-W = Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe - "Wyzwolenie" (Polish Peasant Party "Liberation", agrarian socialist, 6 Dec 1915-15 Mar 1931, merged into SL); PZPR = Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (Polish United Workers' Party, communist, merger of PPR and PPS, 21 Dec 1948-29 Jan 1990); Rad = Czerwoni/Stronnictwo Czerwonych (Reds/Red Party, radical liberals, opposed Lib, c.1861); SdRP = Socjaldemokracja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland, social democratic, former PZPR; 27 Jan 1990 - 15 Apr 1999, merged into SLD); SKL = Stronnictwo Konserwatywno-Ludowe (Conservative People's Party, christian-democratic, 12 Jan 1997-Dec 2003, as Stronnictwo Konserwatywno-Ludowe – Ruch Nowej Polski [Conservative People's Party-New Polish Movement (SKL-RNP)] 25 Sep 2007-1 Mar 2014); SL = Stronnictwo Ludowe (People's Party, agrarian, populist, merger of PSL-P, PSL-W & Stronnictwo Chłopskie, 15 Mar 1931-27 Nov 1949, merged into ZSL); SND = Stronnictwo Narodowo-Demokratyczne (National Democratic Party, 1897-Oct 1919, merged into ZLN); SP = Stronnictwo Pracy (Labour Party, christian-democratic, merger of NPR and PSCD, 10 Oct 1937-1950); SPN = Stronnictwo Prawicy Narodowej (Party of National Right, 1907-1927, merged into BBWR); SPR = Stronnictwo Polityki Realnej (Party of Real Politics, conservative liberal, 18 Oct 1905-Mar 1923); UD = Unia Demokratyczna (Democratic Union, christian-democratic, 2 Dec 1990-24 Apr 1994, merged into UW); UW = Unia Wolności (Union of Freedom, christian-democratic, centrist, merger of KLD and UD, 24 Apr 1994 - 7 May 2005, renamed Partia Demokratyczna); ZLN = Związek Ludowo-Narodowy (National-Populist Union, former ND, Oct 1919 - 7 Oct 1928, merged into SN); ZSL = Zjednoczone Stronnictwo Ludowe (United People's Party, agrarian, 27 Nov 1949-29 Nov 1989)



Galicia and Lodomeria

[Galicia and
                            Lodomeria 1772-1849]
                   c.1772 - 1849
 
[Galicia and
                            Lodomeria flag 1849-1890]
                     1849 - 1890
 
[Galicia and
                            Lodomeria flag, 1890 - 1918]
                 1890 - 1 Nov 1918
 
Map of Galicia& Lodomeria
Capital: Lemberg (Lwów/L'vov)
Population: 8,025,675 (1910)
2,600,000 (1773 est.)
 
...                        Part of Poland.
c.998 - 1084               Galicia-Volynia
1084                       Part of Przemysl.
1188 - 1189                Hungarian occupation.
1189                       Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Halych-Volynia).
1210 - 1211                Hungarian occupation.
1214 - 1232                Hungarian occupation.
1253                       Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia (Halych-Volynia).
1349                       Galicia occupied by Poland and Hungary, Volhynia - Lithuania.
1379 - 1387                Hungarian occupation.
 5 Aug 1772                Parts of Lesser Poland (Małopolska) and Red Ruthenia (Ruś Czerwona)
                             annexed to Austria in the First Partition of Poland.
18 Sep 1773                Galicia ceded to Austria (by Austro-Polish treaty, ratified
                             
by Poland 30 Sep 1773).
18 Nov 1773                Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria with the Duchies of Auschwitz and
                             Zator created within Austria (Königreichs Galizien und Lodomerien
                             mit den Herzogtümern Auschwitz und Zator).
16 Sep 1786 -  4 Mar 1849  Bukovina (see under Ukraine) amalgamated with Galicia.
24 Oct 1795                Remainder of Lesser Poland (Małopolska) ceded to Austria as
                             Western Galicia by the Third Partition of Poland.
27 Apr 1796                Western Galicia (including Cracow) annexed to Austria.
14 Oct 1809                Western Galicia ceded to Duchy of Warsaw, and the area around
                             Tarnopol is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Schönbrunn
                             (ratified 20 Oct 1809).
 9 May 1815                Western Galicia, as ceded to Duchy of Warsaw, part of Russia,
                             the Tarnopol area is restored to Austrian Galicia.
16 Nov 1846                Cracow Free City annexed by Austria and incorporated into Galicia.
18 Mar 1848 - Nov 1848     Polish rebellion in Galicia.
 4 Mar 1849 - 15 Nov 1849  Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the Grand Duchy of Kraków
                             with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator (Königreich Galizien und
                             Lodomerien mit dem Grossherzogtum Krakau und den Herzogtümern
                             Auschwitz und Zator) made a crownland of Austria (not effected).
26 Sep 1850                Imperial patent grants a constitution, but it is not implemented.
 1 Sep 1860 - 26 Mar 1861  Bukovina briefly re-incorporated into Galicia.
30 Oct 1860                Granted autonomy by imperial diploma (not effected).
 6 Apr 1861                Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the Grand Duchy of Kraków
                             with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator made
a crownland of
                             Austria.
21 Dec 1867                Part of "Austrian half" of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (i.e. of
                             the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Diet").
 5 Sep 1914 - 14 Jul 1915  Russian occupation of most of Galicia (in Lemberg [Lvov] 3 Sep 1914
                             - 22 Jun 1915 and Premissel [Przemyśl] 22 Mar - 3 Jul 1915)
                             which is organized as General Government of Galicia and Bukovina.
 4 Oct 1916 -  2 Aug 1917  Russian re-occupation of parts of Galicia.
 1 Nov 1918                Former Austrian crownland of Galicia and Lodomeria is divided;
                             Western Galicia (incl. Kraków/Cracow, Nowy Sącz/Neu Sandez,
                             Oświęcim/Auschwitz, Tarnów/Tarnau, and Zator/Neuenstadt) is
                             incorporated into Poland (s.a.); while Eastern Galicia (incl.
                             Lwów/L'vov, Ternopil/Tarnopol, Kolomyia/Kołomyja, and
                             Stanislau/Stanisławów) becomes part of Western Ukraine
                             (from this point that region follows Ukraine).
30 Apr 1920 -  1 Nov 1939  Eastern Galicia annexed to Poland.

Governors
20 Oct 1772 - Jan 1774     Johann Anton Graf von Pergen       (b. 1725 - d. 1814)
Jan 1774 - Jun 1774        Andreas Reichsgraf Hadik von Futak (b. 1710 - d. 1790)
                            
(András gróf Hadik futaki)
Jun 1774 - Jun 1780        Heinrich Josef Johann Graf von
    (b. 1697 - d. 1783)
                             Auersperg
Jun 1780 - Oct 1794        Joseph Graf Brigido                (b. 1733 - d. 1817)
Oct 1794 - Jul 1795        Joseph Graf von Mailath-Szekely    (b. 1737 - d. 1810)
                            
(József gróf Mailáth székhelyi)
 1 Jul 1795 - Feb 1801    
Johann Jakob Graf von Gaisruck     (b. 1739 - d. 1801)
Feb 1801 - Aug 1801        Joseph Graf Swéerts-Spork (Sporck) (b. 1756 - d. 1823)
                             (acting)
Sep 1801 - Jul 1806        Joseph Graf von und zu Urmenyi     (b. 1741 - d. 1825)
                            
(Józef gróf Ürményi)
Jul 1806 - Mar 1809        Christian Graf von Wurmser        
(b. 1768 - d. 1844)
                             (1st time)
Military governors
1806 - 1813                Heinrich Joseph Johannes           (b. 1756 - d. 1845)
                             Graf von Bellegarde
1813 - 1814                Michael Freiherr von Klienmayr     (b. 1755 - d. 1828)
Governors
1809 - 1810                Christian Graf von Wurmser         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Mar 1810 - 1815            Peter Graf von Goëss               (b. 1774 - d. 1846)

1815                       Georg Oechsner (acting)
26 Apr 1815 - 1815         Ferdinand Prinz von Württemberg    (b. 1763 - d. 1834)
                             (civil and military governor)
Aug 1815 - Nov 1822        Franz Freiherr von Hauer           (b. 1777 - d. 1822)

                             (acting to Sep 1817)
Nov 1822 - Aug 1826        Ludwig Graf von Taaffe             (b. 1791 - d. 1855)
Statthalter (Namiestnik)
Aug 1826 - Sep 1832        August Longin Fürst von Lobkowitz  (b. 1797 - d. 1842)
Sep 1832 -  2 Jul 1846     Ferdinand Karl Joseph Erzherzog    (b. 1781 - d. 1850)
                             von Österreich-Este
 2 Jul 1846 - Aug 1847     Franz Freiherr Krieg von           (b. 1776 - d. 1856)
                             Hochfelden (acting)
 1 Aug 1847 - Jun 1848     Franz Seraph Graf Stadion von      (b. 1806 - d. 1853)
                             Warthausen und Thannhausen
15 Apr 1848 - Nov 1848     Jan Dobrzański                     (b. 1819/20 - d. 1886)
                             (chairman of Polish Central National Council, in rebellion)
Jun 1848 - Jul 1848        Wilhelm Karl Konrad Freiherr von   (b. 1808 - d. 1870)

                             Hammerstein (acting) 
30 Jul 1848 - 15 Jan 1849  Wacław Michał Zaleski              (b. 1799 - d. 1849)
15 Jan 1849 - 13 Dec 1859  Agenor Romuald Onufry Graf         (b. 1812 - d. 1875)
                             Gołuchowski (1st time)
1859 - 1860                Joseph Freiherr von Kalchberg      (b. 1801 - d. 1882)
                             (acting)
1860 - 1861                Karl Freiherr von Mosch (acting)   (b. 1806 - d. 1885)
1861 - 27 Oct 1864         Alexander Graf Mensdorff-Pouilly   (b. 1813 - d. 1871)
1864 - 19 Oct 1866         Franz Xaver Freiherr von           (b. 1811 - d. 1866)
                             Baumgarten
20 Oct 1866 -  7 Oct 1867  Agenor Romuald Onufry Graf         (s.a.)
                             Gołuchowski (2nd time)
1867 - 1871                Ludwik von Freiherr Possinger      (b. 1823 - d. 1905)
                             von Choborski (interim)
20 Jul 1871 -  3 Aug 1875  Agenor Romuald Onufry Graf         (s.a.)
                             Gołuchowski (3rd time)
24 Nov 1875 - 10 Aug 1883  Alfred Józef Potocki               (b. 1817 - d. 1889)
10 Aug 1883 - Sep 1888     Filip Krzysztof Artur Zaleski      (b. 1836 - d. 1911)
Oct 1888 - Sep 1895        Kazimierz Feliks Graf Badeni       (b. 1846 - d. 1909)
25 Sep 1895 - Mar 1898     Eustachy Stanisław Sanguszko       (b. 1842 - d. 1903) 
31 Mar 1898 - Jun 1903     Leon Piniński                      (b. 1857 - d. 1938)
 8 Jun 1903 - 12 Apr 1908  Andrzej Kazimierz Graf Potocki     (b. 1861 - d. 1908)
28 Apr 1908 - 14 May 1913  Michał Hieronim Bobrzyński         (b. 1849 - d. 1935)
14 May 1913 - 20 Aug 1915  Witold Korytowski z Korytowa       (b. 1850 - d. 1923)
Aug 1915 -  8 Apr 1916     Hermann von Colard                 (b. 1857 - d. 1916)
Apr 1916 - Mar 1917        Erich Freiherr von Diller          (b. 1859 - d. 1926)
Mar 1917 -  1 Nov 1918     Karl Georg Graf Huyn               (b. 1857 - d. 1938)
 1 Nov 1918  (hours)       Wołodymyr Decykiewicz (Decikevich) (b. 1865 - d. 1949)
                              (acting)
Russian Military Governors and Commissioners of General
Government of Galicia and Bukovina

 5 Sep 1914 - 14 Jul 1915  Georgiy Aleksandrovich Bobrynski   (b. 1863 - d. 1928)
 4 Oct 1916 - 31 Mar 1917  Fyodor Fyodorovich Trepov          (b. 1854 - d. 1938)
22 Apr 1917 -  2 Aug 1917  Dmitriy Ivanovich Doroshenko       (b. 1882 - d. 1951)

General Commissioner of the Regency of the Polish Kingdom

1917 - Nov 1918            Witold Leon książę Czartoryski     (b. 1864 - d. 1945)


Landmarschälle (Marszałek krajowy)
11 Apr 1861 - 19 Mar 1875  Leon Ludwik Sapieha                (b. 1803 - d. 1878)
19 Mar 1875 - Dec 1875     Alfred Józef Potocki               (s.a.)
 7 Mar 1876 - 26 Apr 1876  Włodzimierz Ksawery Tadeusz        (b. 1825 - d. 1899)
                             Dzieduszycki 
 8 Aug 1877 - 14 Sep 1881  Ludwik Graf Wodzicki               (b. 1834 - d. 1894)  Con
14 Sep 1881 -  6 Nov 1886  Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz               (b. 1825 - d. 1886)
18 Nov 1886 - 1890         Jan Dzierżysław Graf Tarnowski     (b. 1835 - d. 1894)  Con
14 Oct 1890 - 24 Sep 1895  Eustachy Stanisław Sanguszko       (s.a.)               Con
31 Oct 1895 -  7 Oct 1901  Stanisław Marcin Graf Badeni       (b. 1850 - d. 1912)
                             (1st time)
 9 Oct 1901 -  8 Jun 1903  Andrzej Kazimierz Graf Potocki     (s.a.)
26 Jun 1903 - Jun 1912     Stanisław Marcin Graf Badeni       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
14 Jun 1912 - 15 Apr 1914  Adam Gołuchowski                   (b. 1855 - d. 1914)  Con
15 May 1914 -  1 Nov 1918  Stanisław Ritter von Niezabitowski (b. 1860 - d. 1941)

Ministers of State for Galicia
(in Vienna)
11 Apr 1871 - 22 Nov 1871  Kazimierz Grocholski (interim)     (b. 1815 - d. 1888)
25 Nov 1871 - 21 Apr 1873  Joseph Unger (interim)             (b. 1828 - d. 1913)
21 Apr 1873 - 11 Oct 1888  Florian Ziemiałkowski              (b. 1817 - d. 1900)
                             (from 1880, Florian Freiherr Ziemiałkowski)
11 Oct 1888 - 12 Nov 1892  Filip Zaleski                      (b. 1836 - d. 1911)

12 Nov 1892 - 11 Nov 1893  Vacant?
11 Nov 1893 - 29 Sep 1895  Apolinary Jaworski                 (b. 1825 - d. 1904)
29 Sep 1895 - 17 Jan 1897  Leon Biliński (interim)            (b. 1846 - d. 1923)  Con
17 Jan 1896 - 30 Nov 1897  Edward Rittner                     (b. 1845 - d. 1899)
30 Nov 1897 - 16 Dec 1897  Vacant
16 Dec 1897 -  5 Mar 1898  Hermann Adolf Freiherr von Loebl   (b. 1835 - d. 1907)
 5 Mar 1898 -  2 Oct 1899  Adam Jędrzejowicz                  (b. 1847 - d. 1924)
 2 Oct 1899 - 18 Jan 1900  Kazimierz Chłędowski               (b. 1843 - d. 1920)
19 Jan 1900 - 28 May 1906  Leonard Piętak                     (b. 1841 - d. 1909)
 2 Jun 1906 -  9 Nov 1907  Wojciech Dzieduszycki              (b. 1848 - d. 1909)  Con
 9 Nov 1907 -  3 Mar 1909  Dawid Abrahamowicz                 (b. 1839 - d. 1926)  Con
 3 Mar 1909 -  9 Jan 1911  Władysław Dulęba                   (b. 1851 - d. 1930)
 9 Jan 1911 - 19 Nov 1911  Wacław Zaleski                     (b. 1868 - d. 1913)  Con
19 Nov 1911 - 28 Dec 1913  Władysław Długosz                  (b. 1864 - d. 1937)  PSL
28 Dec 1913 -  2 Jan 1914  Vacant
 2 Jan 1914 - 21 Oct 1916  Zdzisław Karol Dzierżykraj-Morawski(b. 1859 - d. 1928)
31 Oct 1916 - 23 Jun 1917  Michał Bobrzyński                  (s.a.)               LPP
23 Jun 1917 - 25 Jul 1918  Juliusz Twardowski                 (b. 1874 - d. 1945)
26 Jul 1918 -  5 Nov 1918  Kazimierz Ritter von Gałecki       (b. 1863 - d. 1941)

Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative; LPP = Liga Państwowości Polskiej (Polish Statehood, League, supported equal status with Austria and Hungary for Galicia, 1915-1918); PSL = Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe (Polish People's [Peasant] Party, agrarian, Polish nationalist, 3 Feb 1903-1 Feb 1914, split into PSL-P and [from 6 Dec 1915] PSL-W)


West Galicia

24 Oct 1795                Western or New Galicia (Westgalizien or Neugalizien) to
                             Austria by the Third Partition of Poland.
21 Mar 1796                Western Galicia (including Cracow) annexed to Austria (effective
                             by proclamation on 27 Apr 1796).
 
1 Nov 1803                Incorporated into Galicia and Lodomeria.
Jun 1809                   Occupied by the Duchy of Warsaw.
14 Oct 1809                Annexed to the Duchy of Warsaw (see under Poland).
 7 Dec 1809                Formally incorporation into the Duchy of Warsaw.

Commissioner
16 Mar 1796 - 1801         Johann Wenzel von Margelik         (b. c.1750 - d. 1805)
Governors
 6 Feb 1801 - 1803         Johann Nepomuk Graf zu             (b. 1757 - d. 1809)
                             Trauttmannsdorf-Weinsberg
Jun 1803 -  1 Nov 1803     Anton Baum von Appelshofen (acting)(b. 1763 - d. 1829)
President of the Military Provisional Central Government of Both Galicias
 2 Jun 1809 - 31 Dec 1809  Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski          (b. 1775 - d. 1856) 

Cracow (Kraków)
[Cracow (Kraków) Free
                  City 1815-1846]
                      1815 - 3 Mar 1846
Map of Cracow Republic
Capital: Cracow (Kraków)
Currency: 1815-1846
 Austrian Gulden
 (XATG)
Population: 146,000
(1843 est.)

Constitutions
(3 May 1815,
15 Jul 1818,
30 May 1833;
in French/German)
   
24 Oct 1795                Ceded to Austria by the Third Partition of Poland.
21 Mar 1796                Western Galicia (including Cracow) annexed to Austria (effective
                             by proclamation on 27 Apr 1796).
15 Jul 1809                Occupied by Duchy of Warsaw.
20 Oct 1809                Part of Duchy of Warsaw (see above).

13 May 1813                Cracow (Kraków) occupied by Russia (see under Poland)
 3 May 1815                Cracow made a free city under protection of Austria, Prussia
                             and Russia according to the Congress of Vienna (by treaty
                             of 21 Apr 1815).
18 Oct 1815                Free City of Cracow and its Territory (sometimes poetically "Free,
                             Independent and Strictly Neutral City with its
Territory" and
                             often styled simply "Cracow Republic") established
under the
                             protection of Austria, Prussia and Russia.
27 Sep 1831 - Nov 1831     Russian occupation in response to the "First Insurrection" in
                             Poland;
under Friedrich Graf von Rüdiger (Fyodor Vasilyevich
                             Graf
Ridiger
)(b. 1783 - d. 1856) to 30 Sep 1831, then under
                            
Carl Rennenkampff (Karl Pavlovich Rennenkampf)(b. 1788 - d. 1848)
17 Feb 1836 - 20 Feb 1841  Austrian occupation.
18-22 Feb 1846             Austrian intervention under Ludwig Collin von Collstein
                             (b. 1781 - d. 1849).   
22 Feb 1846 -  3 Mar 1846  National Government of Republic of Poland declared, in rebellion.

 3 Mar 1846 - 16 Nov 1846  Occupied by Austria, Russia (to 12 Mar 1846) and Prussia
                             (7-12 Mar 1846).
 6 Nov 1846                The protecting powers in Vienna agree to void city's status
                             reverting the city and its surroundings to Austria.
16 Nov 1846                Annexed to Austria (as part of Galicia); styled the "Grand Duchy
                             of Cracow (Grossherzogtum von Krakau)."
21 Dec 1867                Part of the "Austrian" half of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy 
                             (i.e. of the "kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial
                             Diet").
 1 Nov 1918                Part of Poland.

Chairman of the Plenipotentiary Commissioners (of the Protecting Powers)
18 Oct 1815 - 20 Nov 1815  Joseph Franz de Paula Graf von     (b. 1756 - d. 1822)
                             Sweerts-Spork (Austria)

Chairmen of the Governing Senate of the Free City of Cracow

20 Nov 1815 - 18 Jan 1831  Stanisław Karol hrabia Wodzicki    (b. 1764 - d. 1843)
18 Jan 1831 - 23 Mar 1833  No permanent chairman
                           [senators with no apparent sequence or term]
23 Mar 1833 - 30 May 1833  Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
                          
Commissioners (of the Protecting Powers)
                           - Wilhelm Freiherr von Pflügl      (b. 1790 - d. 1869)
                               (Austria)
                           - August von Forckenbeck (Prussia) (b. 1792 - d. 1871)
                           - Ludwik Tęgoborski (Russia)       (b. 1793 - d. 1857)
                              (Lyudvig Tengoborskiy)
23 Mar 1833 - 24 Feb 1836  Kasper Wielogłowski z Wielogłów    (b. c.1780 - d. 1847)
25 Feb 1836 - 26 Apr 1839  Józef Haller de Hallenburg         (b. 1783 - d. 1850)
                             (Joseph Haller von Hallenburg)
27 Apr 1839 - May 1839     Antoni Onufry książę Bystrzonowski (b. 1768 - d. 1848)
                             z Bystrzanowic (1st time)
(acting)
May 1839 - Jul 1839        Jan Chrzciciel Michał Schindler    (b. 1802 - d. 1890)
                             (1st time) (acting) 
Jul 1839 - Sep 1839        Antoni Onufry książę Bystrzonowski (s.a.)
                             z Bystrzanowic (2nd time)
(acting)
Sep 1839 - Jun 1840        Jan Chrzciciel Michał Schindler    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting) 
Jun 1840 - Jul 1840        Ludwik Łętowski z Łętowa (acting)  (b. 1786 - d. 1886)
Jul 1840 - Aug 1840        Ludwik Sobolewski (1st time)       (b. 1781 - d. 1858)
                             (acting)
Aug 1840 - Sep? 1840       Jacenty (Jacek) Księżarski (acting)(b. 1800 - d. 1862)
Sep 1840 - Oct 1840        Jan Chrzciciel Michał Schindler    (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) (acting) 
Oct 1840 - Nov 1840        Ludwik Sobolewski (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting) 
Dec 1840 - 22 Feb 1846     Jan Chrzciciel Michał Schindler    (s.a.)
                             (4th time) (acting to 5 Mar 1841) 
22 Feb 1846                Provisional Committee of Safety of
                           Citizens of the City of Cracow

                           [no chairman indicated]
                           - Józef Wincenty Dionizy hrabia    (b. 1775 - d. 1847)
                             Wodzicki (1st time)(senior member)
                           - Piotr Stanisław Moszyński        (b. 1800 - d. 1879)
                               (1st time)
                           -
Józef Kossowski (1st time)       (b. 1793 - d. 1859)
                           - Leon Bochenek (1st time)         (b. 1801 - d. 1886)
                           - Antoni Zygmunt Helcel (Hölzel)   (b. 1808 - d. 1870)
                               (1st time)
22 Feb 1846 - 24 Feb 1846 
National Government of the Republic of Poland
                           - Ludwik Jędrzej Gorzkowski        (b. 1811 - d. 1857?)
                           - Jan Józef Tyssowski              (b. 1811 - d. 1857)
                           - Aleksander Grzegorzewski         (b. 1806 - d. 1855)
Dictator of the
National Government of the Republic of Poland
24 Feb 1846 -  3 Mar 1846  Jan Józef Tyssowski                (s.a.)
 
3 Mar 1846                Provisional Committee of Safety of
                           Citizens of the City of Cracow

                           [no chairman indicated]
                           - Józef Wincenty Dionizy hrabia    (s.a.)
                             Wodzicki (2nd time)(senior member)
                           - Piotr Stanisław Moszyński        (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)
                           -
Józef Kossowski (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           - Leon Bochenek (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           - Antoni Zygmunt Helcel (Hölzel)   (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)
Presiding Member of the Provisional Civil Administration
 3 Mar 1846 - Apr 1846     Wiktor Adam Karol Kopff            (b. 1805 - d. 1889)
                             (Victor Adam Carl Kopff)
Chief of the Military and Civil Administration
 7 Mar 1846 - 16 Nov 1846  Heinrich Graf von Castiglione      (b. 1790 - d. 1853)
                             (Austria)
Director of the Civil Administrative Council

Apr 1846 - 16 Nov 1846     Jacenty (Jacek) Księżarski         (b. 1800 - d. 1862)


Commanders of the forces occupying the territory of the free
state
in the name of the three protecting powers (all from Austria)
17 Feb 1836 - 23 Jan 1838  Franz Kaufmann von Trauensteinburg (b. 1777 - d. 1838)
26 Feb 1838 - 20 Feb 1841  Joseph Ignaz Malter                (b. c.1785 - d. 1864)


Residents of the Protecting Powers
- Austrian Residents and Consul generals -
18 Oct 1815 - 30 Dec 1818  Joseph Franz de Paula Graf von     (s.a.)
                             Sweerts-Spork
                             (plenipotentiary commissioner)
30 Dec 1818 - 27 Mar 1827  Emanuel Anton Freiherr Lipowsky    (b. 1763 - d. 1827)
                             von Lipowicz
27 Mar 1827 - 1828         Joseph Freiherr von Oechsner
                             (acting)
1828 -  5 Oct 1835         Franz von Lorenz (Lorentz)         (b. 17.. - d. 1864)
                             (acting to 6 Nov 1830)
 5 Oct 1835 - 16 Nov 1846  Ignaz Franz Mathias von Liehmann   (b. 1798? - d. 1876)
                             (from 1842, Ignaz Franz Mathias
                             
Ritter Liehmann von Palmrode) 
                            
(acting to 21 Nov 1837)
- Prussian Residents -
18 Oct 1815 -  6 Jun 1818  Ernst Carl Wilhelm Freiherr von    (b. 1766 - d. 1829)
                             Reibnitz
                             (plenipotentiary commissioner)
 6 Jun 1818 -  7 Jul 1830  Georg Ludwig Darrest (d'Arrest)    (b. 1768 - d. 1830)
 7 Jul 1830 - May 1831     Friedrich Dollega (acting)
May 1831 - 4 Dec 1832      Friedrich Wilhelm Constantin von   (b. 1792 - d. 1832)
                             Knobelsdorff
 4 Dec 1832 - 1833         August von Forckenbeck (acting)    (s.a.)
1833 - 14 Jul 1843         Otto Emil von Hartmann             (b. 1786 – d. 1854)
14 Jul 1843 - 16 Nov 1846  Ludwig Wilhelm von Engelhardt      (b. 17.. - d. 1853)
- Russian Residents and Consul generals -
18 Oct 1815 -  6 Jun 1818  Ignacy hrabia Miączyński           (b. 1767 - d. 1840)
                             (Ignatiy Graf Mionchinskiy)
                             (plenipotentiary commissioner)
 6 Jun 1818 - 22 Aug 1835  Stanisław Kostka Zarzecki          (b. 1765 - d. 1853)
                             (Stanislav Zarzhetskiy)
22 Aug 1835 - 16 Nov 1846  Ernst Wilhelm Rembert Freiherr     (b. 1794 - d. 1879)
                             von Ungern-Sternberg
                            (
Ernest Romanovich Baron Ungern-Shternberg)


Podolia
Ottoman flag]

27 Aug 1672                Turkish occupation of Podolia (or Kamieniec Podolski/Kamyanets-
                             Podilskyi).
18 Oct 1672                Podolian voivodeship ceded by Poland-Lithuania to Ottoman Empire 
                             by Treaty of Buczacz (Buchach) as Eyalet-i Kamaniçe (confirmed
                             by Treaty of Żurawno 17 Oct 1676).
26 Jan 1699                By the Treaty of Karlowitz, Ottomans agree to restore Podolia
                             to Poland.
22 Sep 1699                Ottomans evacuate Kamieniec Podolski.
23 Jan 1793                Podolia annexed by Russia (part of Ukraine).

Ottoman governors (Beylerbeys)
 2 Sep 1672 - 1675/76      Köstendili Koca Halil Pasha        (b. c.1620 - d. 1685)
                             (1st time) 
1675/76 - Sep 1677         Arnavut Uzun Ibrahim Pasha         (b. 165. - d. 1683
Sep 1677 - 680             Köstendili Koca Halil Pasha        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1680 - 1682                Defterdar Ahmet Pasha              (d. 1683)
1682 -  4 Jan 1685         Arnavut Abdurrahman Abdi Pasha     (b. c.1605 - d. 1686)
Dec 1684                   Tokatli Mahmud Pasha               (b. 1639/40 - d. 1684)
Feb/Mar 1685 - 11 May 1686 Biyikli Silahdar Mustafa Pasha     (d. 1698)
25 May 1686 - 1688         Bosnali Sari Hüseyn Pasha          (d. af.1690)
1688 - Jan 1689            Yegen Ahmet                        (d. 1689)
Jan 1689 - 22 Sep 1699     Mustafa Ibrahim oglu Kahraman Bey



Danzig
 
[Danzig to 1457
                          (Prussia, Germany)]
                        to 1457

[Danzig
                          1457-1939 (Prussia, Germany)]
       24 May 1457 - 23 Jan 1793;
         27 May 1807 - 13 Feb 1814;
           9 Dec 1920  - 1 Sep 1939
 
[Danzig variant
                          (Prussia, Germany)]
                        Variant 
   
   
 
 
Map of Danzig
(1919-1939)
Hear National Anthem
"Für Danzig" (For Danzig)
Text of National Anthem
(1920-1 Sep 1939)
Constitution
(17 Nov 1920 - 2 Sep 1939;
in German)
Capital: Danzig
Currency: Danzig Gulden (DZGG) Dec 1923 - 1 Sep 1939;
Danzig Mark (DZGM)
Oct 1920-Dec 1923
National Holiday: 15 Nov (1920)
Free City of Danzig Day
Population: 407,000 (1938)
357,000 (1919)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $227.08 million (1937)
Imports: $238.2 million (1937)
note: includes Polish figures
due to customs union
Ethnic groups (by language): German 95.47%, Polish and
 Kashubian 3.28%, Russian and Ukrainian 0.72%,
other 0.47% (1923)
Armed Force: Heinweher 1,542 (July-1 Sep. 1939)
Polish Westerplatte Force: 90 (1938)
Defense was the Responsibility of Poland 1920-39
Merchant marine: 32 ships (1939)
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 54.7%, Roman Catholic 34.5%,
 other Christian 1.6%,
Jewish 2.3%, others 1.1% (1924)
International Organizations/Treaties 1920-1939: BIS, ICPC, ICRM, ITU, LORCS, UIBPIP, UPU
 9th cent.                 First written mention about settlement.
997                        Visit of St. Adalbert (= St. Wojciech).
1123                       Part of the Principality of Pomerania, which is a Polish 
                             fief and (from 1138) a division of Poland.
1178                       Pomerelia (also called East, Upper or Little Pomerania), having
                             been informal subdivision of Pomerania from 1137, has gradually
                             became a separate Polish division. Rulers of Pomerelia styled
                             Princes of Danzig (from 1234, the Princes of Pomerelia).
1224                       City rights granted.
1227                       Pomerelia independent.
25 Dec 1294                Pomerelia inherited by the prince of Greater Poland and 
                             restored to Poland.
1301 - 1302                Occupied by the Teutonic Order.
13 Nov 1308                Danzig (and Pomerelia) conquered by the Teutonic Order.
13 Sep 1309                Danzig (and Pomerelia)(Herzogtum der Pommerellen) incorporated 
                             into the territories of the Teutonic Order (recognized by
                             Poland 1343).
1342                       First mayors elected (Bürgermeister); four mayors were elected
                             by the Council until 1793. The first had the title of President 
                             (Präsident) or Presiding Mayor (Präsidierende Bürgermeister) and
                             had the highest executive authority, the second had the title
                             had the title of Vice-President (Vice-Präsident). The mayors
                             rotated their positions: after a year in the office, the
                             President gave power to the Vice-President and became the 
                             fourth mayor, etc.
1361                       Danzig a member of the Hanseatic League.
1410 - 1411                Occupied by Poland.
1440                       Accession of Danzig to the Prussian League (Preussischer Bund).
11 Feb 1454                Teutonic knights driven from Danzig in a rebellion.
 6 Mar 1454                Incorporated into Poland as part of Royal (West) Prussia.
25 May 1457                Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig) under the sovereignty 
                             of Poland.
19 Oct 1466                Polish sovereignty over Danzig and West Prussia recognized by 
                             the Teutonic Order.
Nov 1520 (4 days)          Under siege by the Teutonic Order.
13 Jun 1577 - 15 Jun 1577  Under siege by Stefan Batory, King of Poland.
 8 Aug 1577 -  3 Sep 1577  Under siege by Stefan Batory, King of Poland.
16 Dec 1577                City finally pays homage to the King of Poland.
1626 - 1629                Under siege by Sweden.
1655 - Sep 1656            Under siege by Sweden (Danziger Haupt [Głowa Gdańska]
                             occupied by Sweden 1655 - 22 Dec 1659).
 3 May 1660                Oliwa incorporated into Danzig.
 2 Oct 1733 - 30 Jun 1734  Russia and Saxony lay siege to Danzig against Stanisław
                             Leszczyński.
 5 Aug 1772                West Prussia annexed by Prussia in the First Partition of
                             the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Danzig becomes an enclave 
                             separated from Poland, but under Polish suzerainty.
 4 Apr 1793                Occupied by Prussia.
 7 Apr 1793                Annexed to Prussia.
 7 Mar 1807 - 24 May 1807  Under siege by French troops under François Joseph Lefebvre.
24 May 1807                French occupation.
 9 Jul 1807                Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig)(theoretically under the
                             joint protection of Prussia and Saxony, but de facto a 
                             French protectorate).
22 Jan 1813 - 30 Dec 1813  Under siege by Russian troops under Alexander Herzog von 
                             Württemberg (b. 1771 - d. 1833).
 2 Jan 1814                French withdraw, Danzig occupied by Prussia and Russia.
13 Feb 1814                Part of Prussia (and from 1871 Germany).
 9 Jun 1815                Danzig recognized as part of Prussia by Congress of Vienna.
10 Jan 1920                Under the authority of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers,
                             City of Danzig (Stadt Danzig).
15 Nov 1920                Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig)(under League of Nations 
                             auspices).
17 Apr 1924                League of Nations allows Poland to maintain a small garrison
                            (about 90 men) on the Westerplatte peninsula (effective Jan 1926).
 6 Mar 1933 - 16 Mar 1933  Poland occupies the port of Danzig in an effort to reassert
                             Polish prestige in the Free City.
 1 Sep 1939                Danzig incorporated into Germany (as the state of Danzig).
 7 Sep 1939                Polish defenders of Westerplatte fort in Danzig harbor surrender.
26 Oct 1939                United with occupied parts of Poland as Reichsgau Westpreussen.
Jan 1940                   Renamed Danzig-Westpreussen.
30 Mar 1945                Occupied by Soviet forces.
 2 Apr 1945                Incorporated into Poland, renamed Gdańsk.
 2 Aug 1945                At the Potsdam Conference, the Allies decide on a provisional
                             Polish administration over Danzig pending a future peace
                             treaty (annexed 26 Dec 1945)(border recognized by East Germany
                             6 Jun 1950 [signed 6 Jul 1950] and West Germany 7 Dec 1970,
                             confirmed by Treaty of Warsaw 14 Nov 1990).
Mayors (serving jointly)
1457 - 1459
               Reinhold Niederhoff (1st time)     (b. c.1401 - d. 1480)
1472 - 1480                Reinhold Niederhoff (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1452 - 1462                Hermann Stargardt
1454 - 1461                Wilhelm Jordan
1457 - 1461                Jacob Falcke
1461 - 1475                Johann von Scheren
1462 - 1478                Johann von Walde
1462 - 1478                Johann Veere
1470 - 1438                Philipp Bischoff
1477 - 1483                Johann Angermünde
1479 - 1501                Johann Ferber
1483 - 1485                Marten Bock
1484 - 1502                Georg Buck
1484 - 1490                Johann Schewecke
1489 - 1505                Heinrich Falcke
1492 - 1501                Heinrich von Süchten
1502 - 1513                Georg Mand
1503 - 1512                Johann Schewecke "der Jüngere"
1504 - 1513                Matthias Zimmerman
1506 - 1507                Anton Backelman
1510 - 1526                Eberhard Ferber
Presiding Mayors (title Präsidierende Bürgermeister)
18 Jun 1526 - 1527         Philipp Bischoff (1st time)        (b. 1465/70 - d. 1535)

1527 - 12 Apr 1529         Matthias Lange                     (b. c.1480 - d. 1529)
12 Apr 1529 - 19 May 1530  Eduard Niederhoff (1st time)       (b. 1480/85 - d. 1634
19 May 1530 - 31 Mar 1531  Johann von Werden (1st time)       (b. 1495 - d. 1554)
31 Mar 1531 - 1532         Philipp Bischoff (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1532 -  3 Apr 1533         George Schewecke (1st time)        (b. 1491 - d. 1547)
 3 Apr 1533 -  5 Jan 1534  Eduard Niederhoff (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 5 Jan 1534 - 16 Apr 1535  Johann von Werden (2nd time)       (s.a.)
16 Apr 1535 -  4 Apr 1536  Philipp Bischoff (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 4 Apr 1536 - 22 Mar 1537  George Schewecke (2nd time)        (s.a.)
22 Mar 1537 - 28 Mar 1538  Peter Böhm (2nd time)              (s.a.)
28 Mar 1538 - 27 Mar 1539  Johann von Werden (3rd time)       (s.a.)
27 Mar 1539 -  8 Mar 1540  Barthel Brandt (1st time)          (b. c.1490 - d. 1549)
 8 Mar 1540 - Mar 1541     George Schewecke (3rd time)        (s.a.)
Mar 1541 - 30 Mar 1542     Tiedemann Giese (1st time)         (b. 1491 - d. 1556)
30 Mar 1542 - 1543         Johann von Werden (4th time)       (s.a.)
1543 - Apr 1544            Barthel Brandt (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Apr 1544 - 25 May 1545     George Schewecke (4th time)        (s.a.)
25 May 1545 - 1546         Tiedemann Giese (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1546 - Mar 1547            Johann von Werden (5th time)       (s.a.)
Mar 1547 - 25 Mar 1548     Barthel Brandt (3rd time)          (s.a.)
25 Mar 1548 -  4 Apr 1549  Tiedemann Giese (3rd time)         (s.a.)
 4 Apr 1549 -  7 Mar 1550  Johann Brandes (1st time)          (b. 1503 - d. 1577)
 7 Mar 1550 - Mar 1551     Johann von Werden (6th time)       (s.a.)
Mar 1551 -  7 Apr 1552     Johann Stotte                      (b. 1494 - d. 1554)
 7 Apr 1552 - 23 Apr 1553  Tiedemann Giese (4th time)         (s.a.)
23 Apr 1553 - 20 Mar 1554  Johann Brandes (2nd time)          (s.a.)
20 Mar 1554 -  9 Apr 1555  Johann Stotte (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 9 Apr 1555 - 1556         Tiedemann Giese (5th time)         (s.a.)
1556 -  8 Apr 1557         Constantin Ferber (1st time)       (b. 1520 - d. 1588)
 8 Apr 1557 -  5 Apr 1558  Johann Brandes (3rd time)          (s.a.)
 5 Apr 1558 - 21 Mar 1559  Johann Prewte (1st time)           (b. 1511 - d. 1578)
21 Mar 1559 - Feb/Mar 1560 George Kleeveldt (1st time)        (b. 1522 - d. 1576)
Feb/Mar 1560 -  9 Apr 1561 Johann Brandes (4th time)          (s.a.)
 9 Apr 1561 - 24 Mar 1562  Constantin Ferber (2nd time)       (s.a.)
24 Mar 1562 - 1563         Johann Prewte (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1563 - 20 Apr 1564         George Kleeveldt (2nd time)        (s.a.)
20 Apr 1564 - 23 Apr 1565  Constantin Ferber (3xrd time)      (s.a.)
23 Apr 1565 - 1566         Johann Brandes (5th time)          (s.a.)
1566 - 26 Mar 1567         Johann Prewte (3rd time)           (s.a.)
26 Mar 1567 - 1568         George Kleeveldt (3rd time)        (s.a.)
1568 - 1569                Constantin Ferber (4th time)       (s.a.)
1569 - 22 Mar 1570         Johann Brandes (6th time)          (s.a.)
22 Mar 1570 - 11 Apr 1571  Johann Prewte (4th time)           (s.a.)
11 Apr 1571 - 1572         George Kleeveldt (4th time)        (s.a.)
1572 - 30 Mar 1573         Constantin Ferber (5th time)       (s.a.)
30 Mar 1573 - 22 Apr 1574  Johann Prewte (5th time)           (s.a.)
22 Apr 1574 - 21 Apr 1575  George Kleeveldt (5th time)        (s.a.)
21 Apr 1575 - Feb/Mar 1576 Constantin Ferber (6th time)       (s.a.)
Feb/Mar 1576 -  3 Jun 1578 Johann Prewte (6th time)           (s.a.)
 3 Jun 1578 - 28 Apr 1579  Reinhold Möllner (1st time)        (b. 1530 - d. 1585)
28 Apr 1579 - 21 Apr 1580  George Rosenberg (1st time)        (b. 1531 - d. 1592)
21 Apr 1580 - 14 Apr 1581  Constantin Ferber (7th time)       (s.a.)
14 Apr 1581 - 1582         Reinhold Möllner (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1582 - 1583                Hans von der Linde (1st time)      (b. 1542 - d. 1619)
1583 - 1584                George Rosenberg (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1584 - 21 May 1585         Constantin Ferber (8th time)       (s.a.)
21 May 1585 - 18 Mar 1586  Hans von der Linde (2nd time)      (s.a.)
18 Mar 1586 - 19 Mar 1587  George Rosenberg (3rd time)        (s.a.)
19 Mar 1587 - Feb/Mar 1588 Daniel Czirenberg (1st time)       (b. 1547 - d. 1602)
Feb/Mar 1588 - 23 Mar 1589 Hans von der Linde (3rd time)      (s.a.)
23 Mar 1589 - 1590         George Rosenberg (4th time)        (s.a.)
1590 - 21 Mar 1591         Constantin Giese (1st time)        (b. 1542 - d. 1605)
21 Mar 1591 - 19 Mar 1592  Daniel Czirenberg (2nd time)       (s.a.)
19 Mar 1592 - 18 Mar 1593  Hans von der Linde (4th time)      (s.a.)
18 Mar 1593 - 17 Mar 1594  Gerhard Brandes  (1st time)        (b. 1555 - d. 1612)
17 Mar 1594 - 13 Apr 1595  Constantin Giese (2nd time)        (s.a.)
13 Apr 1595 - 14 Mar 1596  Daniel Czirenberg (3rd time)       (s.a.)
14 Mar 1596 - 20 Mar 1597  Hans von der Linde (5th time)      (s.a.)
20 Mar 1597 - 26 Feb 1598  Gerhard Brandes (2nd time)         (s.a.)
26 Feb 1598 - 16 Mar 1599  Constantin Giese (3rd time)        (s.a.)
16 Mar 1599 - 17 Mar 1600  Daniel Czirenberg (4th time)       (s.a.)
17 Mar 1600 - 27 Mar 1601  Johann von der Linde (6th time)    (s.a.)
27 Mar 1601 - 26 Mar 1602  Gerhard Brandes (3rd time)         (s.a.)
26 Mar 1602 - 15 Apr 1603  Constantin Giese (4th time)        (s.a.)
15 Apr 1603 - 10 Mar 1604  Johann von der Linde (7th time)    (s.a.)
10 Mar 1604 - 24 Mar 1605  Johann Thorbecke (1st time)        (b. 1547 - d. 1611)
24 Mar 1605 -  9 Mar 1606  Gerhard Brandes (4th time)         (s.a.)
 9 Mar 1606 - 12 Mar 1607  Barthol Schachmann (1st time)      (b. 1559 - d. 1614)
12 Mar 1607 - 18 Mar 1608  Johann von der Linde (8th time)    (s.a.)
18 Mar 1608 - 17 Mar 1609  Johann Thorbecke (2nd time)        (s.a.)
17 Mar 1609 - 18 Mar 1610  Gerhard Brandes (5th time)         (s.a.)
18 Mar 1610 - 17 Mar 1611  Barthol Schachmann (2nd time)      (s.a.)
17 Mar 1611 - 27 Mar 1612  Johann von der Linde (9th time)    (s.a.)
27 Mar 1612 -  5 Mar 1613  Barthol Schachmann (3rd time)      (s.a.)
 5 Mar 1613 - 18 Mar 1614  Andreas Borckmann                  (b. 1560 - d. 1616)
18 Mar 1614 - 26 Feb 1615  Hans Speimann (1st time)           (b. 1563 - d. 1625)
26 Feb 1615 - 18 Mar 1616  Andreas Borckmann (2nd time)       (s.a.)
18 Mar 1616 - 16 Mar 1617  Barthel Brandt                     (b. 1564 - d. 1617)
16 Mar 1617 - 10 Apr 1618  Hans Speimann (2nd time)           (s.a.)
10 Apr 1618 - 19 Mar 1619  Arnold von Holten (1st time)       (b. 1561 - d. 1629)
19 Mar 1619 - 26 Mar 1620  Eggert von Kempen (1st time)       (b. 1571 - d. 1636)
26 Mar 1620 - 17 Mar 1621  Valentin Bodecker von Bodeck       (b. 1578 - d. 1635)
                             (1st time)
17 Mar 1621 - 17 Mar 1622  Hans Speimann (3rd time)           (s.a.)
17 Mar 1622 - 21 Mar 1623  Arnold von Holten (2nd time)       (s.a.)
21 Mar 1623 - 19 Mar 1624  Eggert von Kempen (2nd time)       (s.a.)
19 Mar 1624 - 17 Mar 1625  Valentin Bodecker von Bodeck       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
17 Mar 1625 -  3 Sep 1625  Hans Speimann (4th time)           (s.a.)
 3 Sep 1625 - 16 Mar 1627  Arnold von Holten (3rd time)       (s.a.)
16 Mar 1627 - 16 Mar 1628  Ernst Kerl                         (b. 1574 - d. 1629)
16 Mar 1628 - 28 Mar 1629  Eggert von Kempen (3rd time)       (b. 1571 - d. 1636)
28 Mar 1629 - 19 Mar 1630  Valentin Bodecker von Bodeck       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
19 Mar 1630 - 10 Apr 1631  Eggert von Kempen (4th time)       (s.a.)
10 Apr 1631 - 22 Apr 1632  Hans Czirenberg (1st time)         (b. 1574 - d. 1642)
22 Apr 1632 - 21 Apr 1633  Valentin Bodecker von Bodeck       (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
21 Apr 1633 - 23 Apr 1634  Constantin Ferber (1st time)       (b. 1580 - d. 1654)
23 Apr 1634 - 19 Apr 1635  Eggert von Kempen (5th time)       (s.a.)
19 Apr 1635 - 13 Mar 1636  Hans Czirenberg (2nd time)         (s.a.)
13 Mar 1636 -  2 Apr 1637  Constantin Ferber (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 2 Apr 1637 - 19 Mar 1638  Hans Rogge (1st time)              (b. 1578 - d. 1644)
19 Mar 1638 - 31 Mar 1639  Johann Ernst Schröer               (b. 1581 - d. 1639)
31 Mar 1639 - 22 Mar 1640  Hans Czirenberg (2nd time)         (s.a.)
22 Mar 1640 - 21 Mar 1641  Constantin Ferber (3rd time)       (s.a.)
21 Mar 1641 - 20 Mar 1642  Nicolaus Pahl (1st time)           (b. 1595 - d. 1649)
20 Mar 1642 - 19 Mar 1643  Hans Rogge (2nd time)              (s.a.)
19 Mar 1643 - 28 Mar 1645  Constantin Ferber (4th time)       (s.a.)
28 Mar 1645 - 20 Mar 1646  Nicolaus Pahl (2nd time)           (s.a.)
20 Mar 1646 - 21 Mar 1647  Daniel Falck                       (b. 1582 - d. 1646)
21 Mar 1647 - 17 Mar 1648  Adrian von der Linde (1st time)    (b. 1610 - d. 1682)
17 Mar 1648 - 18 Mar 1649  Heinrich Freder (1st time)         (b. 1604 - d. 1654)
18 Mar 1649 - 17 Mar 1650  Constantin Ferber (5th time)       (s.a.)
17 Mar 1650 - 21 Mar 1651  Adrian von der Linde (2nd time)    (s.a.)
21 Mar 1651 - 21 Mar 1652  Friedrich Ehler (1st time)         (b. 1607 - d. 1665)
21 Mar 1652 - 18 Mar 1653  Heinrich Freder (2nd time)         (s.a.)
18 Mar 1653 - 26 Feb 1654  Constantin Ferber (6th time)       (s.a.)
26 Feb 1654 - 16 Mar 1655  Adrian von der Linde (3rd time)    (s.a.)
16 Mar 1655 - 16 Mar 1656  Friedrich Ehler (2nd time)         (s.a.)
16 Mar 1656 - 27 Mar 1657  Nathanael Schmieden (1st time)     (b. 1601 - d. 1663)
27 Mar 1657 - 21 Mar 1658  George von Bömeln (1st time)       (b. 1603 - d. 1676)
21 Mar 1658 - 20 Mar 1659  Adrian von der Linde (4th time)    (s.a.)
20 Mar 1659 - 18 Mar 1660  Friedrich Ehler (3rd time)         (s.a.)
18 Mar 1660 - 22 Mar 1661  Nathanael Schmieden (2nd time)     (s.a.)
22 Mar 1661 - 16 Mar 1662  George von Bömeln (2nd time)       (s.a.)
16 Mar 1662 - 13 Mar 1663  Adrian von der Linde (5th time)    (s.a.)
13 Mar 1663 -  3 Apr 1664  Friedrich Ehler (4th time)         (s.a.)
 3 Apr 1664 - 19 Mar 1665  George von Bömeln (3rd time)       (s.a.)
19 Mar 1665 - 18 Mar 1666  Nicolaus von Bodeck (1st time)     (b. 1611 - d. 1676)
18 Mar 1666 - 17 Mar 1667  Adrian von der Linde (6th time)    (s.a.)
17 Mar 1667 - 15 Mar 1668  Gabriel Krumhausen (1st time)      (b. 1614 - d. 1685)
15 Mar 1668 - 21 Mar 1669  George von Bömeln (4th time)       (s.a.)
21 Mar 1669 - 20 Mar 1670  Nicolaus von Bodeck (2nd time)     (s.a.)
20 Mar 1670 - 19 Mar 1671  Adrian von der Linde (7th time)    (s.a.)
19 Mar 1671 - 17 Mar 1672  Gabriel Krumhausen (2nd time)      (s.a.)
17 Mar 1672 - 16 Mar 1673  George von Bömeln (5th time)       (s.a.)
16 Mar 1673 - 15 Mar 1674  Nicolaus von Bodeck (3rd time)     (s.a.) 
15 Mar 1674 - 21 Mar 1675  Adrian von der Linde (8th time)    (s.a.)
21 Mar 1675 - 17 Mar 1676  Gabriel Krumhausen (3rd time)      (s.a.)
17 Mar 1676 -  6 Sep 1676  George von Bömeln (6th time)       (s.a.)
 6 Sep 1676 - 17 Mar 1678  Adrian von der Linde (9th time)    (s.a.)
17 Mar 1678 - 16 Mar 1679  Christian Schröder (1st time)      (b. 1662 - d. 1701)
16 Mar 1679 - 19 Mar 1680  Daniel Proit (1st time)            (b. 1628 - d. 1686)
19 Mar 1680 - 13 Mar 1681  Gabriel Krumhausen (4th time)      (s.a.)
13 Mar 1681 - 19 Mar 1682  Adrian von der Linde (10th time)   (s.a.)
19 Mar 1682 - 18 Mar 1683  Christian Schröder (2nd time)      (s.a.)
18 Mar 1683 - 16 Mar 1684  Daniel Proit (2nd time)            (s.a.)
16 Mar 1684 - 15 Mar 1685  Gabriel Schumann (1st time)        (b. 1631 - d. 1700)
15 Mar 1685 - 19 Mar 1686  Christian Schröder (3rd time)      (s.a.)
19 Mar 1686 - 20 Mar 1687  Gabriel Schumann (2nd time)        (s.a.)
20 Mar 1687 - 16 Mar 1688  Constantin Ferber (1st time)       (b. 1625 - d. 1704)
16 Mar 1688 - 17 Mar 1689  Constantin Pahl                    (b. 1632 - d. 1691)
17 Mar 1689 - 14 Mar 1690  Christian Schröder (4th time)      (s.a.)
14 Mar 1690 - 22 Mar 1691  Gabriel Schumann (3rd time)        (s.a.)
22 Mar 1691 - 18 Mar 1692  Constantin Ferber (2nd time)       (s.a.)
18 Mar 1692 - 12 Mar 1693  Christian Schröder (5th time)      (s.a.)
12 Mar 1693 - 18 Mar 1694  Johann Ernst Schmieden (1st time)  (b. 1626 - d. 1707)
18 Mar 1694 - 15 Mar 1695  Gabriel Schumann (4th time)        (s.a.)
15 Mar 1695 - 20 Mar 1696  Constantin Ferber (3rd time)       (s.a.)
20 Mar 1696 - 21 Mar 1697  Christian Schröder (6th time)      (s.a.)
21 Mar 1697 - 11 Mar 1698  Johann Ernst Schmieden (2nd time)  (s.a.)
11 Mar 1698 - 19 Mar 1699  Gabriel Schumann (5th time)        (s.a.)
19 Mar 1699 - 30 Mar 1700  Constantin Ferber (4th time)       (s.a.)
30 Mar 1700 - 17 Mar 1701  Christian Schröder (7th time)      (s.a.)
17 Mar 1701 - 14 Mar 1702  Constantin Freder (1st time)       (b. 1643 - d. 1707)
14 Mar 1702 - 22 Mar 1703  Johann Ernst Schmieden (3rd time)  (s.a.)
22 Mar 1703 - 13 Mar 1704  Reinhold Wieder (1st time)         (b. 1633 - d. 1707)
13 Mar 1704 - 19 Mar 1705  Constantin Freder (2nd time)       (s.a.)
19 Mar 1705 - 16 Mar 1706  Andreas Borckmann                  (b. 1635 - d. 1722)
16 Mar 1706 - 15 Feb 1707  Johann Ernst Schmieden (4th time)  (s.a.) 
15 Feb 1707 -  1 Nov 1707  Reinhold Wieder (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1707 - 21 Mar 1709  Friedrich Gottlieb Engelcke        (b. 1658 - d. 1716)
                             (1st time) 
21 Mar 1709 - 18 Mar 1710  Joachim Hoppe                      (b. 1656 - d. 1712)
18 Mar 1710 - 19 Mar 1711  Gabriel von Bömeln (1st time)      (b. 1658 - d. 1740)
19 Mar 1711 - 17 Mar 1712  Andreas Borckmann (2nd time)       (s.a)
17 Mar 1712 - 28 Mar 1713  Friedrich Gottlieb Engelcke        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
28 Mar 1713 - 20 Mar 1714  Hans Ernst von der Linde (1st time)(b. 1651 - d. 1721)
20 Mar 1714 - 21 Mar 1715  Gabriel von Bömeln (2nd time)      (s.a.)
21 Mar 1715 - 23 Feb 1716  Friedrich Gottlieb Engelcke        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
23 Feb 1716 - 18 Mar 1717  Hans Ernst von der Linde (2nd time)(s.a.) 
18 Mar 1717 - 17 Mar 1718  Carl Ernst Bauer                   (b. 1665 - d. 1719)
17 Mar 1718 - 21 Mar 1719  Gabriel von Bömeln (3rd time)      (s.a.)
21 Mar 1719 - 14 Mar 1720  Hans Ernst von der Linde (3rd time)(s.a.)
14 Mar 1720 - 18 Mar 1721  Gabriel von Bömeln (4th time)      (s.a.)
18 Mar 1721 - 17 Mar 1722  Johann Gottfried von Diesseldorff  (b. 1668 - d. 1745)
                             (1st time) 
17 Mar 1722 - 18 Mar 1723  Gabriel von Bömeln (5th time)      (s.a.)
18 Mar 1723 - 14 Mar 1724  Salomon Gabriel Schumann (1st time)(b. 1665 - d. 1729)
14 Mar 1724 - 15 Mar 1725  Gottfried Bentzmann (1st time)     (b. 1665 - d. 1734)
15 Mar 1725 - 19 Mar 1726  Johann Gottfried von Diesseldorff  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
19 Mar 1726 - 20 Mar 1727  Gabriel von Bömeln (6th time)      (s.a.)
20 Mar 1727 - 16 Mar 1728  Salomon Gabriel Schumann (2nd time)(s.a.)
16 Mar 1728 - 17 Mar 1729  Gottfried Bentzmann (2nd time)     (s.a.)
17 Mar 1729 - 21 Mar 1730  Johann Gottfried von Diesseldorff  (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
21 Mar 1730 - 15 Mar 1731  Gabriel von Bömeln (7th time)      (s.a.)
15 Mar 1731 - 18 Mar 1732  Abraham Groddeck (1st time)        (b. 1673 - d. 1739)
18 Mar 1732 - 19 Mar 1733  Gottfried Bentzmann (2nd time)     (s.a.)
19 Mar 1733 - 16 Mar 1734  Johann Gottfried von Diesseldorff  (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
16 Mar 1734 - 17 Mar 1735  Gabriel von Bömeln (8th time)      (s.a.)
17 Mar 1735 - 20 Mar 1736  Abraham Groddeck (2nd time)        (s.a.)
20 Mar 1736 - 19 Mar 1737  Johann Wahl (1st time)             (b. 1682 - d. 1757)
19 Mar 1737 - 20 Mar 1738  Johann Gottfried von Diesseldorff  (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
20 Mar 1738 - 17 Mar 1739  Gabriel von Bömeln (9th time)      (s.a.)
17 Mar 1739 - 16 Jun 1739  Abraham Groddeck (3rd time)        (s.a.)
16 Jun 1739 - 16 Mar 1741  Johann Wahl (2nd time)             (s.a.)
16 Mar 1741 - 15 Mar 1742  Carl Gottlieb Ehler (1st time)     (b. 1685 - d. 1753)
15 Mar 1742 - 19 Mar 1743  Joachim Jacob Schrader             (b. 1680 - d. 1746)
19 Mar 1743 - 17 Mar 1744  Johann Gottfried von Diesseldorff  (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
17 Mar 1744 - 18 Mar 1745  Johann Wahl (3rd time)             (s.a.)
18 Mar 1745 - 17 Mar 1746  Carl Gottlieb Ehler (2nd time)     (s.a.)
17 Mar 1746 - 14 Mar 1747  Johann Wahl (4th time)             (s.a.)
14 Mar 1747 - 19 Mar 1748  Johann Carl von Schwartzwald       (b. 1689 - d. 1748)
19 Mar 1748 - 19 Mar 1750  Nathanael Gottfried Ferber         (b. 1688 - d. 1755)
                             (1st time)
19 Mar 1750 - 18 Mar 1751  Carl Gottlieb Ehler (3rd time)     (s.a.)
18 Mar 1751 - 14 Mar 1752  Friedrich Reyger                   (b. 1692 - d. 1753)
14 Mar 1752 - 13 Mar 1753  Johann Wahl (5th time)             (s.a.) 
13 Mar 1753 - 21 Mar 1754  Nathanael Gottfried Ferber         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
21 Mar 1754 - 18 Mar 1755  Johann Wahl (6th time)             (s.a.)
18 Mar 1755 - 18 Mar 1756  Christian Gabriel von Schröder     (b. 1692 - d. 1762)
                             (1st time)
18 Mar 1756 - 15 Mar 1757  Michael Schmidt (1st time)         (b. 1694 - d. 1760)
15 Mar 1757 - 16 Mar 1758  Johann Renner (1st time)           (b. 1696 - d. 1761)
16 Mar 1758 - 13 Mar 1759  Christian Gabriel von Schröder     (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
13 Mar 1759 - 20 Mar 1760  Carl Groddeck (1st time)           (b. 1699 - d. 1774)
20 Mar 1760 - 11 Apr 1760  Michael Schmidt (2nd time)         (s.a.)
11 Apr 1760 - 20 Oct 1761  Johann Renner (2nd time)           (s.a.)
20 Oct 1761 - 15 Mar 1763  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (1st time)(b. 1713 - d. 1799)
15 Mar 1763 - 15 Mar 1764  Gottlieb Gabriel Weickhmann        (b. 1708 - d. 1776)
                             (1st time)
15 Mar 1764 - 21 Mar 1765  Daniel Gralath (1st time)          (b. 1708 - d. 1767)
21 Mar 1765 - 18 Mar 1766  Carl Groddeck (2rd time)           (s.a.)
18 Mar 1766 - 17 Mar 1767  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (2nd time)(s.a.)
17 Mar 1767 - 17 Mar 1768  Gottlieb Gabriel Weickhmann        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
17 Mar 1768 - 14 Mar 1769  Carl Groddeck (3rd time)           (s.a.)
14 Mar 1769 - 15 Mar 1770  Heinrich Zernecke                  (b. 1709 - d. 1775)
15 Mar 1770 - 21 Mar 1771  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (3rd time)(s.a.)
21 Mar 1771 - 17 Mar 1772  Gottlieb Gabriel Weickhmann        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
17 Mar 1772 - 16 Mar 1773  Carl Groddeck (4th time)           (s.a.)
16 Mar 1773 - 17 Mar 1774  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (4th time)(s.a.)
17 Mar 1774 - 14 Mar 1775  Gottlieb Gabriel Weickhmann        (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
14 Mar 1775 - 21 Mar 1776  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (5th time)(s.a.)
21 Mar 1776 - 18 Mar 1777  Samuel Wolff                       (b. 1717 - d. 1780)
18 Mar 1777 - 19 Mar 1777  Gottfried Schwartz                 (b. 1716 - d. 1777)
19 Mar 1777 - 16 Mar 1779  Johann Gottlieb Pegelau (1st time) (b. 1724 - d. 1797)
16 Mar 1779 - 16 Mar 1780  Johann Bentzmann (1st time)        (b. 1727 - d. 1795)
16 Mar 1780 - 13 Mar 1781  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (6th time)(s.a.) 
13 Mar 1781 - 21 Mar 1782  Johann Gottfried Reyger (1st time) (b. 1725 - d. 1793)
21 Mar 1782 - 20 Mar 1783  Johann Gottlieb Pegelau (2nd time) (s.a.)
20 Mar 1783 - 16 Mar 1784  Johann Bentzmann (2nd time)        (s.a.)
16 Mar 1784 - 17 Mar 1785  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (7th time)(s.a.)
17 Mar 1785 - 14 Mar 1786  Johann Gottfried Reyger (2nd time) (s.a.)
14 Mar 1786 - 13 Mar 1787  Johann Gottlieb Pegelau (3rd time) (s.a.)
13 Mar 1787 - 13 Mar 1788  Johann Bentzmann (3rd time)        (s.a.)
13 Mar 1788 - 19 Mar 1789  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (8th time)(s.a.)
19 Mar 1789 - 16 Mar 1790  Johann Gottfried Reyger (3rd time) (s.a.)
16 Mar 1790 - 17 Mar 1791  Johann Gottlieb Pegelau (4th time) (s.a.)
17 Mar 1791 - 15 Mar 1792  Johann Bentzmann (4th time)        (s.a.)
15 Mar 1792 - 24 Apr 1793  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (9th time)(s.a.)
Prussian Governor of the city and fortress of Danzig
 4 Apr 1793 -  7 May 1793  Karl Albrecht Friedrich von Raumer (b. 1729 - d. 1806)  Mil
Governors
27 May 1807 -  2 Jun 1807  François Joseph Lefebvre (France)  (b. 1755 - d. 1820)
                            
(from 28 May 1807, duc de Dantzig)
 2 Jun 1807 -  2 Jan 1814  Jean Rapp (France)                 (b. 1772 - d. 1821)

                             (from 1 Aug 1809, Jean, comte Rapp)
 1 Apr 1809 - 10 Jun 1810  Michał Grabowski (Duchy of Warsaw) (b. 1773 - d. 1812)
                             (acting for comte Rapp)
1812 - Aug 1812            Pierre Henri Lepin                 (b. 1772 - d. 1839)
                             (acting for comte Rapp)
Aug 1812 - 16 Dec 1812     Joseph, comte de Lagrange (France) (b. 1763 - d. 1836)
                             (acting for comte Rapp)
 2 Jan 1814 - 19 Feb 1814  Friedrich Erhard Fabian von        (b. 1753 - d. 1819)
                             Massenbach (Prussia) 
(Nominal) Duke
28 May 1807 -  2 Jan 1814  François Joseph Lefebvre, duc      (s.a.)
                             de Dantzig
High Commissioners
12 Nov 1919 -  7 Sep 1920  Sir Reginald Thomas Tower (U.K.)   (b. 1860 - d. 1939)
                             (acting to 13 Feb 1920)
15 Nov 1920 - 10 Dec 1920  Edward Lisle Strutt (U.K.)         (b. 1874 - d. 1948)

                             (acting)
10 Dec 1920 - 24 Jan 1921  Bernardo Attolico (Italy)          (b. 1880 - d. 1942)
24 Jan 1921 - Jan 1923     Sir Richard Cyril Byrne Haking     (b. 1862 - d. 1945)
                             (U.K.) 
 6 Mar 1923 - Nov 1925     Mervyn Sorley McDonnell (U.K.)     (b. 1880 - d. 1949)
13 Dec 1925 - 22 Jun 1929  Joost Adriaan van Hamel (Neth.)    (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
                             (assumes office 2 Feb 1926)
22 Jun 1929 - 19 Sep 1932  Manfredi, conte di Gravina         (b. 1883 - d. 1932)
                             dei principi di Ramacca (Italy)
16 Oct 1932 - 15 Jan 1934  Helmer Rostgaard Gommesen Rosting  (b. 1893 - d. 1945)
                             (Denmark) 
15 Jan 1934 - Jan 1937     Seán Lester (Ireland)              (b. 1888 - d. 1959)
13 Apr 1937 -  1 Sep 1939  Carl Jacob Burckhardt              (b. 1891 - d. 1974)
                             (Switzerland) 

Presidents of the Senate
27 May 1807 - 21 Jun 1807  Governing Commission
                           - Daniel Dodenhoff                 (b. 1744 - d. 1818)
                           - Daniel Lietke (Liedseke)
                           - Johann Christoph Sauer
                             (Jean-Christoph Saues)

                           - Carl Klein 
21 Jul 1807 - 14 Mar 1808  Karl Friedrich von Gralath         (b. 1741 - d. 1818)
14 Mar 1808 - 16 Mar 1809  Daniel Andreas Zernecke (1st time) (b. 1745 - d. 1821)
                             (acting to 17 Mar 1808)
16 Mar 1809 - 21 Mar 1810  Karl Renner                        (b. 1739 - d. 1819)
21 Mar 1810 - 18 Mar 1811  Jacob Ernst Schumann (1st time)    (b. 1749 - d. 1823)
18 Mar 1811 - 18 Mar 1812  Gottlieb Hufeland                  (b. 1760 - d. 1817)
18 Mar 1812 - 18 Mar 1813  Daniel Andreas Zernecke (2nd time) (s.a.)
18 Mar 1813 - 13 Feb 1814  Jacob Ernst Schumann (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Lord mayor
10 Jan 1920 -  5 Mar 1920  Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Sahm    (b. 1877 - d. 1939)  Non-party
Chairman of the Council of State
 5 Mar 1920 -  6 Dec 1920  Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Sahm    (s.a.)               Non-party
Presidents of the Senate
 6 Dec 1920 - 10 Jan 1931  Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Sahm    (s.a.)               Non-party
10 Jan 1931 - 20 Jun 1933  Ernst Bruno Victor Ziehm           (b. 1867 - d. 1962)  DNVP
20 Jun 1933 - 23 Nov 1934  Hermann Adolf Reinhold Rauschning  (b. 1887 - d. 1982)  NSDAP
23 Nov 1934 - 23 Aug 1939  Arthur Karl Greiser                (b. 1897 - d. 1946)  NSDAP
                             (acting to 28 Nov 1934)
Head of State
23 Aug 1939 -  1 Sep 1939  Albert Maria Forster               (b. 1902 - d. 1952)  NSDAP
Chief of Civil Administration
 1 Sep 1939 - 25 Oct 1939  Albert Maria Forster               (s.a.)               NSDAP
Reichsstatthalter
26 Oct 1939 -  2 Apr 1945  Albert Maria Forster               (s.a.)               NSDAP
Soviet Military Commander (of the 2nd Belorussian Front)
30 Mar 1945 - 1945         Konstantin Konstantinovich         (b. 1896 - d. 1968)  Mil
                             Rokossovskiy
City President of Gdańsk 
 3 Apr 1945 - 27 May 1946  Franciszek Kotus-Jankowski         (b. 1891 - d. 1958)  PPR

Westerplatte

Polish Commanders of Westerplatte
18 Jan 1926 - 21 Jun 1926  Ignacy Szaniawski                  (b. 1885 - d. 1948) 
21 Jun 1926 -  1 May 1927  Borys Mohuczy                      (b. 1893 - d. 1966) 
10 Jun 1927 - 21 Jan 1931  Józef Czechowicz                   (b. 1889 - d. 1944)
21 Jan 1931 -  3 Dec 1934  Jan Lityński 
16 Jul 1934 -  3 Dec 1938  Stefan Fabiszewski                 (b. 1896 - d. 1974) 
 3 Dec 1938 -  2 Sep 1939  Henryk Sucharski                   (b. 1898 - d. 1946)
 2 Sep 1939 -  7 Sep 1939  Franciszek Dąbrowski (acting)      (b. 1904 - d. 1962)

Port and Waterways Council

[Harbour Authority Flag
                (Free City of Danzig 1920-1939)]

Presidents of the Ports and Waterways Council
Mar 1921 - Apr 1925        James de Reynier (Switzerland)     (b. 1870 - d. 1932)
Apr 1925 - Aug 1931        Hugens de Loës (Switzerland)       (b. 1863 - d. 19..)
Aug 1931 - Sep 1934        Carl Josef Benziger (Switzerland)  (b. 1877 - d. 1951)
Sep 1934 -  1 Sep 1939     Johan A. Nederbragt (Netherlands)  (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
 

Polish Royal Commissioners
1726 -  6 Feb 1734         Martin von Frensdorff              (b. 1669 - d. 1736)
                             (Polish resident)
21 Apr 1736 - 14 Feb 1750  Konstantin Reichsgraf von Unruh    (d. 1763)
                             (general commissioner)
Jan 1749 - 1752            Adam Stanisław Grabowski,          (b. 1698 - d. 1766)
                             biskup Warmiński
Jan 1749 - 1764            Anton von Leubnitz                 (b. 1717 - d. 1796)
                            
(vice-general commissioner)
1764 - 25 Dec 1782         A
leksy Onufry Husarzewski          (b. 1714 - d. 1782)
                            
(acting to 1770)
1782 - 1793                Friedrich Ernst Hennig-Henninski   (b. 1750 – d. 1810)

Prussian Envoy

1782 - 1793                Johann Christian von Lindenowski   (b. 1736 - d. 1813) 
Polish Delegate
28 Jan 1919 -  8 Feb 1920  Mieczysław Pieriejasławski-        (b. 1876 - d. 1962)
                            
Jałowiecki
General Commissioners of the Polish Republic

 8 Feb 1920 -  5 Jul 1921  Maciej Biesiadecki                 (b. 1864 - d. 1935)
 5 Jul 1921 -  1 Oct 1923  Leon Bolesław Pluciński            (b. 1875 - d. 1935)
 1 Oct 1923 - 28 Feb 1924  Kajetan Dzierżykraj-Morawski       (b. 1892 - d. 1973)
                             (acting)
28 Feb 1924 -  1 Mar 1932  Henryk Leon Strasburger            (b. 1887 - d. 1951)
15 Mar 1932 - 30 Dec 1936  Kazimierz Papée                    (b. 1889 - d. 1979)
30 Dec 1937 -  1 Sep 1939  Marian Stanisław Chodacki          (b. 1898 - d. 1975)

Party abbreviations: DNVP = Deutschnationale Volkspartei (German National People's Party, conservative, German nationalist, 1918-14 May 1937, merged into NSAP); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Worker's Party, Nazi fascist, German nationalist, 1920-1935, only legal party 1 Sep 1939-Apr 1945); PPR = Polska Partia Robotnicza (Polish Workers' Party, communist, 5 Jan 1942-21 Dec 1948, merged into PZPR); SPD = Sozialdemokratische Partei der Freien Stadt Danzig (Social Democratic Party of the Free City of Danzig, social-democratic, split from German SPD, 1919-15 Oct 1936)



Elbing (Elbląg)

[Elbing 15th-19th Century
                (Prussia, Germany)]
                      to  1862

1237                       Elbing founded by the Teutonic Order.
10 Apr 1246                City rights granted; four mayors to 1793, alternating with two of 
                             them worthaltend (in charge) at any time; four "succession lines"
                             can be distinguished.
1251 - 1309                Residence of the Land-Master of the Teutonic Order in Prussia.
1358                       Member of the Hanseatic League.
Feb 1454                   Teutonic knights driven out in a revolt.
 6 Mar 1454                Incorporated in Poland as a Part of Royal (West) Prussia.
24 Aug 1457                Free City under the sovereignty of Poland.
19 Oct 1466                Polish sovereignty recognized by the Teutonic Order.
26 Sep 1629 - 12 Sep 1635  Temporarily ceded by Poland to Sweden, part of Swedish Prussia,
                             residence of the governor-general of Swedish Prussia (see below).
1703 - 1710                Occupied by Sweden.
Sep 1772                   Annexed by Prussia in the First Partition of the Polish-
                             Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1807                       Briefly occupied by France.
1812 - 1813                Occupied by France.
10 Feb 1945                Occupied by the Soviet forces.
 2 Aug 1945                Provisionally (pending future peace treaty) transferred to 
                             Poland with southern part of East Prussia by the Potsdam 
                             Conference (annexed 26 Dec 1945), renamed Elbląg.
Swedish governors of Elbing
1629 - 1630                Robert Leslie
1630 - 1635                Bengt Bagge                        (b. 1594 - d. 1660)
Mayors (title Bürgermeister)(incomplete)
- 1st Line - 
1694 - 17..                Karl Ramsey                        (b. 1651 - d. 1730)
1703 - 1710                Claes Ekeblad -Swedish Commandant  (b. 1669 - d. 1737)
17.. - 1747                ....
1747 - 1753                Christian Friedrich Ramsay         (b. 1691 - d. 1753)
1753 - 1765                ....
1765 - 1773                Karl Ernst Ramsay                  (b. 1721 - d. 1773)
- 2nd Line -
1700 - 1793                ....
- 3rd Line -
1700 - 1793                ....
- 4th Line -
1700 - 1793                ....

Swedish Prussia

[Flag of Sweden]

26 Sep 1629 - 12 Sep 1635  "Swedish Prussia" temporarily ceded by Poland to Sweden covering
                             the following port cities: Elbing (Elbląg), Braunsberg
                             (Braniewo [in Ermland]), Memel (Klaipėda), and Pillau (Baltiysk).
12 Jun 1635                Marienburg returned to Brandenburg/Prussia.
Jul 1635                   Memel returned to Prussia.
12 Sep 1635                End of Swedish rule.

Commander in Pillau

27 Jun 1626 - May 1629     Aleksander von Essen               (b. 1595 - d. 1664)
Governors-general (in Elbing)
1629 - 1630                Johan Banér                        (b. 1596 - d. 1641)
1630 - 26 Sep 1631         Axel Gustafson Oxenstierna         (b. 1583 - d. 1654)
26 Sep 1631 - 18 Jan 1632  Bengt Bagge (1st time)(acting)     (s.a.)
18 Jan 1632 - 21 Apr 1632  Karl Banér                         (b. 1598 - d. 1632)
21 Apr 1632 - 16 Aug 1632  Bengt Bagge (2nd time)(acting)     (s.a.)
16 Aug 1632 - 1635         Hermann greve Wrangel              (b. 1587 - d. 1643)
21 Aug 1635 - 1635         Johan Nicodem (acting)


Ermland (Warmia)

[banner of Bishopric of
                Warmia (Ermland)]

29 Jul 1243                Bishopric of Ermland established with capital (from 1350) in
                             Heilsberg (Lidzbark Warmiński)(Hochstift Ermland).
1251                       Sovereign principality (prince-bishopric) of the Holy 
                             Roman Empire.
 6 Mar 1454                Incorporated in Poland as a part of Royal (West) Prussia (not
                             recognized by the prince-bishop until 1464).
 19 Oct 1466               Polish sovereignty de jure.
1479                       Autonomous prince-bishopric (Książę biskupstwo warmińskie) under
                             the Polish crown.
26 Sep 1629 - 12 Sep 1635  Braunsberg (Braniewo) in Ermland temporarily ceded by Poland to
                             Sweden; part of Swedish Prussia (see above).
1703 - 1709                Occupied by Sweden.
13 Sep 1772                Annexed by Prussia in the First Partition of the Polish-
                             Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1807                       Briefly occupied by France.
1812 - 1813                Occupied by France.
19 Feb 1945                Polish administration under (to 23 May 1945) Soviet occupation.
 2 Aug 1945                Provisionally (pending future peace treaty) transferred to Poland
                             with southern part of East Prussia by the Potsdam Conference
                             (annexed 26 Dec 1945)(Warmia).
Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Ermland, Polish: Książę Biskup Warmiński)
 6 Jun 1698 -  1 May 1711  Andrzej Chryzostom Załuski          (b. 1650 - d. 1711)
 1 May 1711 - 16 Nov 1711  Stefan Wierzbowski                  (b. 1666 - d. 1713)
                             (auxiliary bishop)
16 Nov 1711 -  9 Jan 1723  Teodor Andrzej Potocki              (b. 1664 - d. 1738)
 9 Jan 1723 - 14 Feb 1724  Jan Franciszek Kurdwanowski         (b. 1645 - d. 1729)
                             (auxiliary bishop)
14 Feb 1724 - 16 Mar 1740  Krzysztof Andrzej Jan Szembek       (b. 1680 - d. 1740)
16 Mar 1740 - 14 Apr 1741  Michał Remigiusz Łaszewski          (b. 1682 - d. 1746)
                             (auxiliary bishop)
14 Apr 1741 - 15 Dec 1766  Adam Stanisław Grabowski            (b. 1698 - d. 1766)
15 Dec 1766 - 13 Sep 1772  Ignacy Błażej Franciszek Krasicki   (b. 1735 - d. 1801)
                             (continued to 13 Apr 1795)


Thorn (Toruń)
[banner of the city of Thorn]
1231                       Founded by the Teutonic Order.
28 Dec 1233                City rights granted; four mayors to 1793, alternating with two of 
                             them worthaltend (in charge) at any time; four "succession lines"
                             can be distinguished.
1356                       Member of the Hanseatic League.
 8 Feb 1454                Teutonic knights driven out in a revolt.
 6 Mar 1454                Incorporated in Poland as a part of Royal (West) Prussia.
26 Aug 1457                Free City under the sovereignty of Poland.
19 Oct 1466                Polish sovereignty recognized by the Teutonic Order.
 9 May 1687 - 14 Oct 1703  Occupied by Saxony.
1703 - 1709                Occupied by Sweden.
Mar 1766 - 1766/67         Occupied by Russia.
23 Jan 1793                Occupied by Prussia.
 7 Apr 1793                Annexed by Prussia in the Second Partition of the Polish-
                             Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1806 - 1807                Occupied by France.
 9 Jul 1807                Part of the Duchy of Warsaw.
1813                       Occupied by the Russian and Prussian forces.
20 Jun 1815                Returned to Prussia.
10 Jan 1920                Incorporated into Poland (named Toruń).
 7 Sep 1939                Occupied by Germany.
30 Sep 1939                Annexed by Germany.
 1 Feb 1945                Occupied by the Soviet forces and (2 Apr 1945) restored
                             to Poland.

Mayors (title Bürgermeister)(incomplete)
- 1st Line -
1700 - 17..                Simon Weiss                        (d. 1737)
1706 - 1724                Johann Gottfried Rösner            (b. 1658 - d. 1724)
17.. - 1733                Jacob Casimir Rubinkowski          (b. 1668 - d. 1749)
1736 - 1757                Albert Borkowski                   (b. 1686 - d. 1757)
1772 - 1793                Georg Adam Reyer                   (b. 1725 - d. 1799)
- 2nd Line -
.... - 1720                Nalecz
173. - 1739                Jacob Meissner
17.. - 1759                Anton Gering (or Giering)          (d. 1759)
1772 - 1793                ....
- 3rd Line - 
1742 - 1774                Christian Klossmann                (b. 1697 - d. 1774) 
1775                       Nathaniel Praetorius (1st time)    (b. 1722 - d. 1791)
1779                       Nathaniel Praetorius (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1779 - 1793                ....
- 4th Line -
1700 - 1792                ....
1792 - 10 May 1793         Samuel Luther von Geret            (b. 1730 - d. 1797)

Saxon Commander
 9 May 1687 - 14 Oct 1703  von Röber
Swedish Commandant
1703 - 1709                Claes Ekeblad                      (b. 1669 - d. 1737)
Russian Commander
Mar 1766 - 1766/67         Saltykov







© Ben Cahoon