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Poland
 
[Poland]
 
     
                to 7 Jan 1795,
             Jan 1831 - Sep 1831 (in revolt)   
 
[Duchy of
                                    Warsaw (Poland) flag 1807-1813]
            14 Jan 1807 - 14 Mar 1813 
                 Duchy of Warsaw 
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
            14 Mar 1813 - Nov 1815,
            12 Apr 1833 - Aug 1915 
       
[Kingdom of Poland flag
                                    1815-1833]
              Nov 1815 - 12 Apr 1833
          "Congress" Kingdom of Poland
 
[Ensign used in the polish
                                    revolt of 1863]

         22 Jan 1863 - Apr 1865 (in revolt)
 
 
[alternate Ensign used in the
                                    polish revolt of 1863]
    22 Jan 1863 - Apr 1865 (revolt alternate)
 
 
Poland Republic Ensign
                                    (1918-1920)
           1918 - 1 Aug 1919 State Flag 
 
 
[Poland]
   From 5 Nov 1916, 1 Aug 1919 - Sep 1939,
                   Restored Aug 1944
 
[State
                                    Flag of Poland, 1927-1939, from
                                    1990]
              1928 - Sep 1939 State Flag
 
[War
                                    Ensign 1935-1945 (Germany)]
    Oct 1939 - Jan 1945 General-government
 
[State
                                    Flag of Poland,1956-1990]
            1956 - 9 Feb 1990 State Flag
 
[State
                                    Flag of Poland, 1927-1939 from
                                    1990]
                  Re-adopted 9 Feb 1990
Map of Poland
Hear National Anthem
"Mazurek Dąbrowskiego"
(Dabrowski's Mazurka)
a.k.a "Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła"
(Poland has not yet perished)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 28 Feb 1927
(unofficial from 19 Jul 1795)
Constitution
(17 Oct 1997)
--------------------------------------
Former Constitutions
(1791, 1807, 1815, 1919, 1921,
1935, 1947, 1952, 1992
Capital: Warsaw (Warszawa)
(Lublin [de facto] 1944-1945;
Lodsch Sep-Oct 1939;
Krakau Oct 1939-Jan 1945;
Kraków 1038-79, 1296-1596;
Poznań 964-1038,
1290-96;
Płock 1080-1138;

Gniezno 964-1038)
Currency: New Złoty (PLN);
1950-1994 Heavy Złoty (PLZ);
1945-1950 Złoty (PLO);
1940-1945 Cracow Złoty
(PLK); 1939-1945 German
 Reichsmark (DER); 1916-1924
 Polish Marka (PLM); 1914-1916
 German Mark (DEP); 1795-1914
 Russian Ruble (RUES);
1614-1795 Poland Florin
Złoty (PLF)
National Holiday: 3 May (1791)
Constitution Day
Population: 38,383,809 (2013)
Gen.-govt.: 16,600,000 (1942)
GDP: $814 billion (2013)
Exports: $202.3 billion (2013)
Imports: $207.4 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Polish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%,
Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 100,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 9 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 89.6%, Polish Orthodox 1.3%,
other Catholic 0.3%, Protestant 0.4%,
Jehovah's Witness 0.3%,
other (mostly nonreligious) 8.1% (2005) 
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), AG, ANT (consultative), APM, BIS, BSEC (observer), BTWC, CBSS, CE, CEI, CERN, CFE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Poland Index
Chronology

842 - 861                  Rule of the (legendary) Prince Piast in Greater
                             Poland.
964                        Reign of first documented prince (Książę Polski), 
                             Mieszko I.
25 May 992 - 17 Jun 1025   Boeslaw I "the Brave" (b. c.966 - d. 1025) 
                             temporarily extends the Polish realm over 
                             Lusatia, Bohemia, Moravia, and Slovakia.
25 Dec 1024                Polish Kingdom (Krolestwo Polskie).
1031                       Polish Principality
25 Dec 1076                Polish Kingdom
Jun 1079                   Polish Principality
28 Oct 1138                Division into several principalities, Greater 
                             Poland (Wielkopolska), Mazovia (Mazowsze),
                             Kujavia (Kujawy), Silesia (Śląsk), and 
                             Sandomierz with Lesser Poland (Małopolska)
                             reserved for the
Senior Polish Prince who
                             nominally coordinates
the principalities until
                             1180. Further
subdivisions occur throughout the
                             next two
centuries.
26 Jun 1295 -  8 Feb 1296  Przemysł II styled Polish King.
20 Jan 1320                All Poland (except for Silesia, Pomerania [Pomorze]
                             and
Mazovia) reunited to the Polish Kingdom 
                             with the coronation of Władysław I.
1370                       On extinction of Piast main line, kingship becomes
                             elective, but de facto the Diet chooses the
                             kings in hereditary order until 1572.
 4 Mar 1386                Personal union with Lithuania begins.
29 Jun 1440 - 10 Nov 1444  Personal union with Hungary.
31 May 1505                Legislative powers given to sejm by constitution.
25 Aug 1526                Mazovia (Mazowsze) inherited.
 1 Jul 1569                Accord of Lublin, colloquially known as "Union of
                             Lublin", joining Poland and Lithuania
                             officially, but not constitutionally, into
                             United Commonwealth of the Two Nations 
                             (Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów), in short,
                             The Commonwealth (Rzeczpospolita Polska).
 6 Jul 1572                Last hereditary Polish king dies; power to elect
                             the king moves from the Diet to the whole
                             nobility; election as Polish king and grand
                             prince of Lithuania is carried out jointly, but
                             conduct of interregnum is separate.
 9 Mar 1589                Austrian claim on Polish crown dropped by peace
                             treaty.
17 Nov 1592 – 24 Jul 1599
  Personal union with Sweden.
14 Jun 1634                Claims on Russia (electus magnus dux Moschoviae)
                             dropped by Polish/Russian peace treaty.
27 Aug 1672 - 22 Sep 1699  Podolia occupied by Ottoman Empire.
15 Sep 1697 - 16 Feb 1704  Personal union with the Duchy of Saxony.
 2 Jul 1702 -  1 Jul 1710  Swedish occupation of large parts of Poland.
 8 Aug 1709 -  1 Feb 1733  Personal union with Duchy of Saxony.
Dec 1770                   Austria annexes the county of Zips (Polish: Spisz,
                             Hungarian: Szepes) which was settled by Germans
                             and already occupied by Austria from 1769.
 5 Aug 1772                First partition of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and
                             Austria. Royal Prussia together with Warmia and
                             parts of Greater Poland to Prussia (as West
                             Prussia); parts of Lesser Poland and and Red
                             Ruthenia (Ruś Czerwona) to Austria; Polish
                             Livonia (Inflanty Polskie) and
Lithuanian Vitebsk
                             and Polotsk (Połock)
to Russia.
 3 May 1791                Constitution giving formal sanction to the union
                             with Lithuania and making the state hereditary
                             again under the Saxon dynasty.
23 Jan 1793                Second partition by Russia and Prussia: Greater 
                             Poland with parts of Mazovia to Prussia; Podolia 
                             Volhynia (Wołyń), and Lithuanian Minsk and
                             Brest-Litovsk to R
ussia.
24 Mar 1794 - 16 Nov 1794  Polish "war of independence" uprising.
 
2 Jan 1795                Third partition agreed to by Russia and Prussia.
24 Oct 1795                Upon the Third partition by Russia, Prussia, and
                             Austria, the Polish state ceases to exist: 
                             Lithuania and Volhynia to Russia; Mazovia
                             (as
New East Prussia) and Warsaw to Prussia; and 
                             Cracow and Lesser Poland to Austria
                             (see West Galicia).
26 Jan 1797                Russian-Prussian convention (with Austrian 
                             approval) declares the "irrevocable abrogation 
                             of the Kingdom of Poland."
 9 Jul 1807                Duchy of Warsaw (in personal union with Saxony)
                             (in French: Duché de Varsovie; often erroneously
                             referred to as the "Grand
Duchy of Warsaw").
14 Mar 1813 - 20 Jun 1815  Duchy of Warsaw occupied by Russia.
 3 May 1815 -  3 Mar 1846  Republic of Kraków (from 3 Mar 1846, annexed to
                             Austria).
20 Jun 1815 -  5 Nov 1916  Polish Kingdom, in (nominally personal, actually
                             subordinate) union with Russia, established by
                             the Congress of Vienna (thus often called by
                             historians as "Congress Poland").
25 Jan 1831 - 26 Sep 1831  "First (November) Insurrection"
22 Feb 1832                New statute (constitution) abolishes last remnants
                             of autonomy, the area becomes known simply as
                             Vistula Country
(Privislinskiy kray), after 1863
                             it is administered as an integral part of Russia.
22 Jan 1863 - Apr 1865     "Second (January) Insurrection"
 5 Aug 1915 - 11 Nov 1918  Occupied by Germany and Austria-Hungary (in Lodz
                             from 6 Nov 1914) divided into General Government
                             of Warsaw (under Germany) and General Government
                             of Lublin (under Austria-Hungary).
15 Jan 1917                Polish Kingdom (Królestwo Polskie)(proclaimed
                             on 5 Nov 1916). 

15 Aug 1917                Polish National Committee formed in exile and later
                             recognized by Allies as government of Poland.
30 Oct 1918                Lublin taken over by Poland (effective 5 Nov 1918).
 
7 Nov 1918                Republic of Poland (Polish Republic, Republic of
                             Poland, and Polish State are used interchangeably
                             until early 1919); originates in dissidence to
                             14 Nov 1918.
30 Jul 1920 - 22 Aug 1920  Provisional Polish Revolutionary ("Communist")
                             Committee at Białystok (see below).  
 
1 Jun 1921                Polish Republic (Rzeczpospolita Polska).
 1 Sep 1939                German invasion from the west.
17 Sep 1939                Soviet invasion from the east.
28 Sep 1939                Polity disintegrates upon the occupation of the
                             seat of government by Germany.
 6 Oct 1939                Last Polish troops surrender
.
26 Oct 1939                West Prussia and West Wielkopolska annexed by
                             Germany as Reichsgaue Westpreussen & Posen;
                             the non-annexed territories constituted as the
                             General Government for the Occupied Polish
                             Territories (Generalgouvernement für die
                             besetzten polnischen Gebiete
) and German is made
                             the sole official language.
 1 Nov 1939                Western Ukraine is annexed by Soviet Union.
 2 Nov 1939
                West Byelorussia is annexed by Soviet Union.
 
1 Aug 1940               
General Government (Generalgouvernement) organized.
21 Jun 1941                Germany takes over the Soviet-occupied areas; they
                             are divided between the General Government and
                             Reichskommissariat Ostland and Ukraine.
 1 Aug 1941                Eastern Galicia added to the General Government.
15 Aug 1941 - 27 Jul 1944  The Bialystok district is "attached" to but not
                             incorporated into German East Prussia province.
22 Jul 1944                Polish Republic (restored)(dated by Manifesto of 22
                             Jul 1944 issued on behalf of the Polish Committee
                             of National Liberation)(effective 15 Aug 1944).
17 Jan 1945                Soviet forces occupy Warsaw.
19 Jan 1945               
General Government disintegrates upon occupation of
                             the seat of government by the Soviet Union.
22 Jul 1952                People's Republic of Poland
31 Dec 1989                Polish Republic

Voivodships
(since 1999)
Voivodships
(1919-1939)
Districts of General-
Government
(1939-1945)
Republic
in Exile

(1939-1991)
Provisional
Polish
Revolutionary
Committee

(1920)
Austrian Galicia
(1772-1918)
Cracow Republic
(1815-1846)
Ottoman Podolia
(1672-1699)
Danzig
(1224-1793,
1807-1815,
1919-1939)
Elbing
(1246-1772)
Swedish Prussia
(1629-1635)
Ermland Bishopric
(1243-1772)
Thorn
(1233-1793)

Orthodox Church
of Poland

 

First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Polish Workers' (Communist) Party (PPR)
(from 21 Dec 1948, Polish United Workers' Party [PZPR])
23 Nov 1943 -  3 Sep 1948  Władysław Gomułka                  (b. 1905 - d. 1982)
 3 Sep 1948 - 22 Dec 1948  Bolesław Bierut                    (b. 1892 - d. 1956)
Chairman of the
Central Committee of the
Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR)
22 Dec 1948 - 18 Mar 1954  Bolesław Bierut                    (s.a.)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party
18 Mar 1954 - 12 Mar 1956  Bolesław Bierut                    (s.a.)
12 Mar 1956 - 20 Mar 1956  Secretaries
                           - Edward Ochab                     (b. 1906 - d. 1989)                            - Franciszek Mazur                 (b. 1895 - d. 1975)
                           - Jerzy Morawski                   (b. 1918 - d. 2012)
                           - Władysław Matwin                 (b. 1916 - d. 2012)
                           (acting)
20 Mar 1956 - 21 Oct 1956  Edward Ochab                       (s.a.)
21 Oct 1956 - 20 Dec 1970  Władysław Gomułka                  (s.a.)
20 Dec 1970 -  6 Sep 1980  Edward Gierek                      (b. 1913 - d. 2001)
 6 Sep 1980 - 18 Oct 1981  Stanisław Kania                    (b. 1927) 
18 Oct 1981 - 29 Jul 1989  Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski         (b. 1923 - d. 2014)
                            (also chairman of  Military Council of National
                             Salvation 13 Dec 1981 - 21 Jul 1983)
29 Jul 1989 - 29 Jan 1990  Mieczysław Franciszek Rakowski     (b. 1926 - d. 2008)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 31 Dec 1989)

Minister of Military Affairs (de facto ruler)
16 May 1926 - 12 May 1935  Józef Klemens Piłsudski            (b. 1867 - d. 1935)  Mil

Princes
842 - 861                  Piast "Kolodziej" (the Wheelwright)
c.861 – c.900              Siemowit
c.900 – c.930              Leszek (Lestko) IV
c.930 - c.960              Siemomysl                          (d. c.960)
c.960 – 25 May 992         Mieszko I                          (b. c.935 - d. 992)
25 May 992 – 992/995       Regents
                           - Oda (f) 
                           - Mieszko                          (b. 978/84 - d. af.992) 
                           - Lambert                          (b. 980/90 - d. af.992)
                           (in Greater Poland, Mazovia, Kuiavia, Pomerania)
                           - Swietopelk? (in Pomerania)       (b. 979/85 - d. ....)
25 May 992 – 25 Dec 1024   Boleslaw I "Chrobry" (the Brave)   (b. 966/67 - d. 1025)
                            (from c.989 sub-prince in Cracow;
                             from 992/995 in entire country;
                             from 1003/04 in Bohemia; Jul 1002-1005
                             in Luzyce [Lausitz] and Milsko)
Kings
25 Dec 1024 - 17 Jun 1025  Boleslaw I "Chrobry"               (s.a.)
17 Jun 1025 - Oct 1031     Mieszko II Lambert                 (b. 990 - d. 1034)
Princes 
Oct 1031 – Spring 1032     Bezprym                            (b. 986/87 - d. 1032)
Oct 1031 – Spring 1032     Otto (as sub-prince)               (b. 1000 – d. 1033)
                             (probably in Silesia or Cracow)
Spring 1032 – Jul 1032     Mieszko II Lambert (1st time)      (s.a.)
Jul 1032 - 1033            Poland divided in three:
                           - Otto                             (s.a.)
                              (probably in Silesia or Cracow)
                           - Dytryk (probably in Pomerania)   (d. af.1033)
                           - Mieszko II Lambert               (s.a.)
                              (probably in Great Poland, Mazovia, Kuiavia)
1033 – 10/11 May 1034      Mieszko II Lambert (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1034/1038 – 1039           Boleslaw "Zapomniany" (the Forgotten)
                             (probably fictitious)
10/11 May 1034–1037/1038   Kazimierz I Karol (1st time)       (b. 1016 - d. 1058)
1037/1038                  Anarchy; Pagan Rebellion

                           many particular princes;
                           any names and territories unknown, except:
1037/1038 – 1047           Mieclaw (Maslaw)(in Mazovia)
Summer 1039 - 19 Mar 1058  Kazimierz I Karol "Odnowiciel"     (s.a.)
                            (the Restorer) (2nd time)
                            (in Greater Poland and Kuiavia; from 1039
                             in Cracow and Lesser Poland; from 1040/1041
                             in Mazovia; from 1047, in Silesia from 1050)
19 Mar 1058 – 25 Dec 1076  Boleslaw II "Śmialy", "Szczodry"   (b. 1041/42 - d.1082)
                             (the Bold, the Cruel)
King
25 Dec 1076 - Jun 1079     Boleslaw II "Śmialy", "Szczodry"   (s.a.)
                             (expelled ... 1079)
Jun 1079 - 1080            Archbishop Petrus Leczyc -Regent   (d. 1092)
Princes
1058 - 1079                Wladyslaw I Herman (1st time)      (b. 1043- d. 1102)
                             (probably as sub-prince in Mazovia)
1058 – 28 Jan 1065         Mieszko                            (b. 1045 – d. 1065)
                             (possibly sub-prince in Kuiavia, Sieradz, and Leczyca)
1080 –  4 Jun 1102         Wladyslaw I Herman (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1081                       Vratislav, duke of Bohemia         (d. 1092) 
                             (pretender) 
1086 – 1089                Mieszko -Co-ruler                  (b. 1069 – d. 1089)
1093 - 1096                Zbigniew -Co-ruler (1st time)      (b. 1070/73 - d. 1112/16)
1097 - 1102                Zbigniew -Co-ruler (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1097 - 1102                Boleslaw III "Krzywousty"-Co-ruler (b. 1085 - d. 1138)
                             (Wrymouth)
1102 – 1107                Zbigniew (in Greater Poland,       (s.a.)

                             Kuiavia and Mazovia)
1102 – 28 Oct 1138         Boleslaw III "Krzywousty"          (s.a.)
                             (over-prince, in Greater Poland,
                             Silesia, and Lesser Poland; in
                             in Pomerania from 1122)
1107 – 1108                Zbigniew -Co-ruler (3rd time)      (s.a.)
Senior Princes (in Cracow)(styled Ksiazeta-princepsi, wielcy ksiazeta, w Krakowie)
28 Oct 1138 – 1146         Wladyslaw II "Wygnaniec"           (b. 1105 - d. 1159)
                            (the Exile), duke of Silesia
1146 -  5 Jan 1173         Boleslaw IV "Kedzierzawy"          (b. 1121/22 - d. 1173)
                            (the Curly), duke of Mazovia
                            (in rebellion 1141-1143 and from 1144)
 5 Jan 1173 – 1177         Mieszko III "Stary" (the Old),     (b. 1122/25 - d. 1202)
                             duke of Greater Poland (1st time)
1173 – 1177                Henryk Kietlicz 
                             (governor of Mieszko III)
1177 – 1191                Kazimierz II "Sprawiedliwy"        (b. 1138 - d. 1194)
                             (the Just) (1st time)
1191                       Mieszko III "Stary," (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             duke of Greater Poland 
1191                       Boleslaw (governor of Mieszko III) (b. 1159 - d. 1195)
1191 –  5 May 1194         Kazimierz II "Sprawiedliwy"        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
 5 May 1194 – 1198         Leszek "Bialy" (the White)         (b. c.1186 - d. 1227)
                             (1st time)
 5 May 1194 – 1198         Regents
                           - Helena (f)(1st time)
                           - Mikolaj (1st time)
                           - Pelka, bishop of Cracow 
                             (1st time)
1195                       Mieszko III "Stary"                (s.a.)
                             (in opposition)
1198 – 1198/1199           Mieszko III "Stary", (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                             duke of Greater Poland 
1198/1199                  Leszek "Bialy" (2nd time)          (b. c.1186 - d. 1227)
1198/1199                  Regents
                           - Helena (f)(2nd time)
                           - Mikolaj (2nd time)
                           - Pelka, bishop of Cracow 
                             (2nd time)
1198/1199 – 13/14 Mar 1202 Mieszko III "Stary", (4th time)    (s.a.)
                             also duke of Greater Poland 
                            (expelled briefly in 1201)
1202 – 1202/1206           Wladyslaw III "Laskonogi"          (b. 1161/66 - d. 1231)
                             (Spindleshanks), duke of Greater
                             Poland (1st time)

1202/1206 – 1210           Leszek "Bialy" (3rd time)          (s.a.)
1210 – 16 May 1211         Mieszko "Platonogi" (Tanglefoot),  (b. bf.1146 - d. 1211)
                             duke of Silesia
16 May 1211 – 23 Nov 1227  Leszek "Bialy" (4th time)          (s.a.)
                             (the last senior prince)
Princes of Cracow (styled Ksiazeta krakowscy)
23 Nov 1227 –  5 May 1228  Boleslaw V "Wstydliwy" (the Chaste)(b. 1226 - d. 1279)
                             (1st time)
23 Nov 1227 –  5 May 1228  Grzymislawa (f) -Regent

 5 May 1228 –  3 Nov 1231  Wladyslaw III "Laskonogi"(2nd time)(s.a.)
                             prince of Greater Poland
1228 - 1229                Henryk I "Brodaty" (the Bearded)   (b. 1165/70 - d. 1238) 
                             (1st time)(governor of Wladyslaw III) 
1229                       Konrad I Mazowiecki (1st time)     (b. 1187/88 - d. 1247)
                             (in opposition)
1229 - 1230/1231           Marek Gryfit (Gryfici)
                             (governor of Wladyslaw III)
1230/1231 –  3 Nov 1231    Teodor (Czader) Gryfita
                             (governor of Wladyslaw III)
1231, 1233                 Konrad I Mazowiecki (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (in opposition)
 3 Nov 1231 – 19 Mar 1238  Henryk I "Brodaty"                 (s.a.)
19 Mar 1238 –  9 Apr 1241  Henryk II "Pobozny" (the Pious)    (b. 1196/1207 - d. 1241)
 9 Apr 1241 – 10 Jul 1241  Boleslaw (II) "Rogatka"(the Horned)(b. 1220/25 - d. 1278)
 9 Apr 1241 – 10 Jul 1241  Klemens z Ruszczy Gryfita
                             (governor of Boleslaw Rogatka)
10 Jul 1241 – May 1243     Konrad I Mazowiecki (3rd time)     (s.a.)
                             (continues in opposition to 1247)
May 1243 –  7 Dec 1279     Boleslaw V "Wstydliwy" (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Dec 1279 - 30 Sep 1288     Leszek "Czarny" (the Black)        (b. 1240/42 - d. 1288)
1282, 1285                 Konrad (II) Czerski (pretender)    (b. c.1250 - d. 1294)
Oct 1288 – 1288/1289       Boleslaw (II) Plocki               (b. af.1251 - d. 1313)
1288/1289 – 26 Feb 1289    Henryk IV "Prawy" (the Righteous)  (b. 1257/58 - d. 1290)
                             (1st time)
26 Feb 1289 – Aug 1289     Wladyslaw I "Lokietek" (the Short) (b. c.1260 - d. 1333)

                             (1st time)
Aug 1289 – Apr 1290        Henryk IV "Prawy" (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Jan 1291 - 21 Jun 1305     Waclaw II                          (b. 1271 – d. 1305)
                             (crowned king of Poland Nov 1300)
Jan 1293 – 10 Jun 1294     Kazimierz (II) Leczycki            (b. 1261/62 - d. 1294)
                             (pretender)(styled Heir of Cracow)
Kingą
26 Jun 1295 -  8 Feb 1296  Przemysl II                        (b. 1257 – d. 1296)
Princes
 8 Feb 1296 - 21 Jun 1305  Waclaw II Czeski                   (b. 1271 – d. 1305)
                             (crowned as king of Poland Nov 1300)
1301 –  9 Dec 1309         Henryk I (III) Glogowczyk          (b. 1251/60 - d. 1309)
                             (in opposition; styled Heir of Polish Kingdom)
May 1305 – Jun/Jul 1305    Wladyslaw I "Lokietek" (2nd time)  (s.a.)
21 Jun 1305 –  4 Aug 1306  Waclaw III                         (b. 1289 – d. 1306)
Aug/Sep 1306 – 1311        Wladyslaw I "Lokietek" (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                             (pretender Apr – 13 Oct 1292,
                             styled Heir of Cracow from Jan 1293;
                             styled Duke of Polish Kingdom from 10 Mar 1296;
                             pretender to Cracow until 18 Nov 1297 and from 1304)
Apr 1312 – Jun 1312        Boleslaw I (in rebellion)          (b. 1254/58 - d. 1313)
Jun 1312 – 20 Jan 1320     Wladyslaw I "Lokietek"             (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
Kingsą
20 Jan 1320 -  2 Mar 1333  Wladyslaw I "Lokietek"             (s.a.)
25 Apr 1333 –  5 Nov 1370  Kazimierz III "Wielki" (the Great) (b. 1310 – d. 1370)
                             (crowned 25 Apr 1333)
17 Nov 1370–11/12 Sep 1382 Ludwik I Wegierski                 (b. 1356 – d. 1382)
                             (king of Hungary Lájos I)
Nov 1370 – Summer 1375     Elzbieta (f) -Regent (1st time)    (b. 1305 – d. 1380)
1376 - Jan 1377            Elzbieta (f) -Regent (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Winter 1377 – 28 Mar 1378  Wladyslaw Opolczyk -Regent         (b. 1326/30 - d. 1401)
                             (= Oppelni László)
28 Mar 1378 – 29 Dec 1380  Elzbieta (f) -Regent (3rd time)    (s.a.)

29 Dec 1380 - 12 Jan 1382  Zawisza Kurozweki,                 (d. 1382)
                             bishop of Cracow (acting)
29 Dec 1380 - 11 Sep 1382  Dobislaw z Kraków (acting)         (d. 1387)
29 Dec 1380 - 11 Sep 1382  Sendziwog Szubin z Kalisz (acting)
12 Jan 1382- Oct? 1383     Zygmunt Luksemburski (pretender)   (b. 1368 – d. 1437)
                             (Sigismund Markgraf zu Brandenburg)
11 Sep 1382 - 16 Oct 1384  Dobislaw z Kraków -Regent          (s.a.)
11 Sep 1382 - 16 Oct 1384  Sendziwog Szubin z Kalisz -Regent
28 Mar 1383 –  6 Oct 1384  Siemowit (IV) (pretender)          (b. c.1352 - d. 1426)
16 Oct 1384 – 17 Jul 1399  Jadwiga Andegaweńska (f)           (b. 1374 – d. 1399)
                           (literally "female king")
                           - jointly with - 
2/18Feb1386–31May/1Jun1434 Wladyslaw II Jagiello              (b. c.1348/52 - d. 1434)
                            (Grand Prince of Lithuania;
                             married with Jadwiga 2/18 Feb 1434
                             4 Mar 1386 crowned king of Poland) 
25 Jul 1434 – 10 Nov 1444  Wladyslaw III Warneńczyk           (b. 1424 – d. 1444)
                            (Jan 1440 elected king of Hungary 
                             left Poland 22 Apr 1440)
25 Jul 1434 – 16 Dec 1438  Regents
                           - Zbigniew Olesnicki               (s.a.)
                               bishop of Cracow
                           - Queen Zofia (f)                  (b. c.1405 - d. 1461)
                           - Zygmunt Korybutowicz,            (b. c.1395 - d. 1435)
                               Grand Prince of Lithuania
                           - Stefan II, voivode of Moldavia   (d. 1447)
22 Apr 1440 - Jun 1447     Tutors and governors of the Polish provinces 
                           - for Lesser Poland and Ruthenia: 
                             Jan Czyzowski, castellan of Cracow
                           - for Greater Poland:
                             Wojciech Malski, voivode         (d. 1454)
                               of Leczyca 
25 Jun 1447 -  7 Jun 1492  Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk (b. 1427 – d. 1492)
                            (from 29 Jun 1440 Grand Prince of Lithuania 
                            (election proclaimed conditionally Apr 1445)
 7 Jun 1492 – 23 Sep 1492  Chairmen of the Royal Council
                           - Zbigniew Olesnicki, archbishop   (b. c.1430 - d.1493)
                               of Gniezno (chairman)
                           - Rafal Jakub Jaroslawski z        (b. 1436/40 - d. 1492)
                               Jaroslawia i z Przeworska,
                               grand marshal (co-chairman)
                           - Jan Amor Tarnowski,              (b. 1420/30 - d. 1500)
                               castellan of Cracow (co-chairman)
23 Sep 1492 – 17 Jun 1501  Jan I Olbracht                     (b. 1459 – d. 1501)
                             (election proclaimed 27 Aug 1492)
17 Jun 1501 – 25 Oct 1501  Fryderyk Jagiellończyk,            (b. 1468 – d. 1503)
                             archbishop of Gniezno -Interrex
                             (chairman of Senate)
                             (proclaimed himself as tutor and 
                             governor of kingdom – locum tenens regni)
12 Dec 1501 – 19 Aug 1506  Aleksander Jagiellończyk           (b. 1461 – d. 1506)
                            (from 20 Jul 1492 Grand Duke of Lithuania
                             election proclaimed 25 Oct 1501)
19 Aug 1506 – 24 Jan 1507  Andrzej Róza Boryszewski,          (b. c.1436 - d. 1510)
                             archbishop of Gniezno -Interrex
                             (chairman of Senate
24 Jan 1507 –  1 Apr 1548  Zygmunt I "Stary" (the Old)        (b. 1467 – d. 1548)
                             (Grand Prince of Lithuania from 20 Oct 1506;
                             election proclaimed 8 Dec 1506)
                           - jointly with -
20 Feb 1530 -  7 Jul 1572  Zygmunt II August                  (b. 1520 – d. 1572)
                             (Grand Prince of Lithuania from 18 Oct 1529;
                             election proclaimed 18 Dec 1529)
 7 Jul 1572 – Oct 1572     Jan Firlej -Interrex               (b. c.1521 - d. 1574)
                             (in opposition)
 7 Jul 1572 - 21 Feb 1574  Jakub Uchański -Interrex (1st time)(b. 1502 - d. 1581)
21 Feb 1574 - 12 May 1575  Henryk Walezy                      (b. 1551 - d. 1589)
                             (Henri III, king of France)
                             (left Poland 18 Jun 1574)
19 Jun 1574 -  1 May 1576  Jakub Uchański -Interrex (2nd time)(s.a.)
 1 May 1576 - 12 Dec 1586  Stefan Batory                      (b. 1533 - d. 1586)
                             (István Báthory Somlyói, prince of Transylvania)
                             (election proclaimed 15 Dec 1575)
12 Dec 1586 - 27 Dec 1587  Stanislaw Karnkowski -Interrex     (b. 1520 - d. 1603)
27 Sep 1587 – 24 Jan 1588  Maksymilian von Österreich         (b. 1558 – d. 1618)
                            (election proclaimed 22 Aug 1587, 
                             resigned 9 Mar 1589; in opposition)
27 Dec 1587 - 30 Apr 1632  Zygmunt III Waza                   (b. 1566 - d. 1632)
                             (Sigismund, king of Sweden)
                             (election proclaimed 19 Aug 1587)
30 Apr 1632 -  6 Feb 1633  Jan Wezyk -Interrex                (b. 1575 - d. 1638)
 6 Feb 1633 - 20 May 1648  Wladyslaw IV Waza                  (b. 1595 - d. 1648)
                             (election proclaimed 8 Nov 1632)
20 May 1648 - 17 Jan 1649  Maciej Lubienski -Interrex         (b. 1572 - d. 1652)
17 Jan 1649 - 16 Sep 1668  Jan II Kazimierz Waza              (b. 1609 - d. 1672)
                             (election proclaimed 20 Nov 1648)
                             (exiled Sep 1655 – Nov 1655)
Aug 1655 – 23 Feb 1660     Karol X Gustaw (in opposition)     (b. 1622 - d. 1660)
                            (Karl X Gustaf, king of Sweden; 
                             styled Protektor Rzeczypospolitej [Protector
                             of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth])
16 Sep 1668 - 29 Sep 1669  Mikolaj Prazmowski -Interrex       (b. 1617 - d. 1673)
29 Sep 1669 - 10 Nov 1673  Michal Korybut Wiśniowiecki        (b. 1640 - d. 1673)
                             (election proclaimed 19 Jun 1669)
10 Nov 1673 - 15 May 1674  Kazimierz Florian                  (b. 1620 - d. 1674)
                             Czartoryski -Interrex
10 Nov 1673 –  5 Jun 1674  Andrzej Trzebicki, bishop of       (b. 1607 – d. 1679)
                             Cracow -Interrex 
                             (acting interrex [for Czartoryski to 15 May 1674])
 5 Jun 1674 - 17 Jun 1696  Jan III Sobieski                   (b. 1629 - d. 1696)
                             (election proclaimed 21 May 1674, coronation 2 Feb 1676)
17 Jun 1696 - 15 Sep 1697  Augustyn Michal Stefan             (b. 1645 - d. 1705)
                             Radziejowski -Interrex (2nd time)
15 Sep 1697 - 16 Feb 1704  August II Mocny ("the Strong")     (b. 1670 - d. 1733)
                             (1st time)(election proclaimed 17 Jun 1697)
                             (Friedrich August I of Saxong)
                             (
continues in opposition to 24 Sep 1706)
16 Feb 1704 -  4 Oct 1705  Augustyn Michal Stefan             (s.a.)
                             Radziejowski -Interrex (2nd time)
 4 Oct 1705 -  8 Aug 1709  Stanislaw I Leszczyński (1st time) (b. 1677 - d. 1766)
                             (election proclaimed 12 Jul 1704) 
 8 Aug 1709 -  1 Feb 1733  August II Mocny (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1733 - 12 Sep 1733  Teodor Andrzej Potocki -Interrex   (b. 1664 - d. 1738)
12 Sep 1733 - 30 Jun 1734  Stanislaw I Leszczyński (2nd time) (s.a.) 
                             (abdicates 27 Jan 1736)
                             (exiled 30 Jun 1734)
30 Jun 1734 -  5 Oct 1763  August III                         (b. 1696 - d. 1763)
                             (Friedrich August II of Saxony)
                             (election proclaimed 5 Oct 1733) 

                             (in opposition from 17 Jan 1734)
 5 Oct 1763 - 25 Nov 1764  Wladyslaw Aleksander               (b. 1703 - d. 1764) 
                             Lubienski -Interrex
25 Nov 1764 -  7 Jan 1795  Stanislaw II August Poniatowski    (b. 1732 - d. 1798)
                             (election proclaimed 8 Sep 1764)
                             (abdicated 25 Nov 1795)
Supreme Leaders of the People's Armed Forces
24 Mar 1794 - 12 Oct 1794  Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura        (b. 1746 - d. 1817) 
                             Kościuszko (in rebellion)
12 Oct 1794 - 16 Nov 1794  Tomasz Wawrzecki (in rebellion)    (b. 1759 - d. 1816)      
   
Commander Russian of Troops

 9 Nov 1794 - 30 Nov 1794  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Suvorov      (b. 1730 - d. 1800) 
                             Graf Rymnikskiy
Chairman of the Governing Commission

14 Jan 1807 -  9 Jul 1807  Stanisław Małachowski              (b. 1736 - d. 1809)
Duke of Warsawą (also King of Saxony)
 9 Jul 1807 - 14 Mar 1813  Friedrich August                   (b. 1750 - d. 1827)
Chairman of the Supreme Provisional Council of the Duchy of Warsaw
14 Mar 1813 -  9 Jun 1815  Vasiliy Sergeyevich Lanskoy        (b. 1753 - d. 1831)
                             (= Wasilij Lanskoj)

Kings
20 Jun 1815 -  5 Nov 1916  the Emperors of Russia
Commander-in-chief of Army of Poland (de faco viceroy)
 9 Dec 1815 -  1 Dec 1830  Velikiy Knyaz Konstantin Pavlovich (b. 1779 - d. 1831)
                             Romanov
Representative (Namestnik) of the King of Poland (often styled 'Viceroy')
 9 Dec 1815 - 28 Jul 1826  Józef Zajączek (Iosif Zayonchek)   (b. 1752 - d. 1826)
                             (from 17 Apr 1818,
Józef książę Zajączek)
28 Jul 1826 - 1831        
Vacant
Chairman of the Administrative Board

1826 - 1830                Walenty Faustyn Sobolewski         (b. 1765 - d. 1831)

Administrative Council
(in rebellion)
 1 Dec 1830 -  5 Dec 1830  Provisional government
                           - Leon Dembowski                   (b. 1789 - d. 1878)
                           - Stanisław Małachowski            (s.a.)
                           - Joachim Józef Lelewel            (b. 1786 - d. 1861)
Dictator (in rebellion)
 5 Dec 1830 - Dec 1830     Józef Grzegorz Chłopicki (1st time)(b. 1771 - d. 1854)
Marshal of the Diet (in rebellion)
18 Dec 1830 - Dec 1830     Józef Lubowski                     (b. 1788 - d. 1869?)
Dictator (in rebellion)
Dec 1830 - 25 Jan 1831     Józef Grzegorz Chłopicki (2nd time)(s.a.)
Presidents of the National Government (in rebellion)
25 Jan 1831 - 30 Jan 1831  Władysław Tomasz hrabia Ostrowski  (b. 1790 - d. 1869)
                           (Marshal of the Diet)
                           + Adam Jerzy książę Czartoryski    (b. 1770 - d. 1861)
                             (President of the Senate)
30 Jan 1831 - 17 Aug 1831  Adam Jerzy książę Czartoryski      (s.a.)
17 Aug 1831 -  7 Sep 1831  Jan Stefan Krukowiecki             (b. 1772 - d. 1850)
 7 Sep 1831 - 26 Sep 1831  Bonawentura Niemojowski            (b. 1787 - d. 1835)
Representatives (Namestnik) of the King of Poland (often styled 'Viceroy')
1831 - 29 May 1831         Ivan Dibich-Zabalkanskiy           (b. 1785 - d. 1831)
                             (commander of Russian troops)
1831 - 1856                Ivan Fyodorovich
Graf Paskevich-   (b. 1782 - d. 1856)
                             Erivanskiy, Knyaz Varshavskiy
                             (
commander to 23 Mar 1832)
1849                       Ivan Ivanovich Den                 (b. 1786 - d. 1859)
                             (Johan Jakob von Daehn)
                             (acting for Paskevich)
1853 - 1855                Fyodor Vasilyevich Graf Ridiger    (b. 1783 - d. 1856)
                             (acting for
Paskevich)
1856                       Vintsenty Korvin Krasinskiy        (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
                             (acting)
1856 - 30 May 1861         Mikhail Dmitriyevich Gorchakov     (b. 1793 - d. 1861)
30 May 1861 - 18 Aug 1861  Nikolay Onufriyevich Sukhozanet    (b. 1794 - d. 1871)

                             (1st time) (acting)
18 Aug 1861 -  3 May 1862  Karl Karlovich Graf Lambert        (b. 1815 - d. 1865)

10 Oct 1861 - 27 Oct 1861  Nikolay Onufriyevich Sukhozanet    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting for Lambert)

27 Oct 1861 -  8 Jun 1862  Aleksey Nikolayevich von Liders    (b. 1790 - d. 1874)
                            
(Alexander von Lüders)
 8 Jun 1862 - 19 Oct 1863  Velikiy Knyaz Konstatin            (b. 1827 - d. 1892)
                             Nikolayevich Romanov                        
Presidents of the National Government (in rebellion)
22 Jan 1863 - 10 Mar 1863  Stefan Bobrowski                   (b. 1841 - d. 1863)
                           (chairman Executive Commission of the Central National
                            Committee acting as Provisional National Government)
                           - together with -
                           Ludwik Adam Mierosławski           (b. 1814 - d. 1878)
                            (dictator and commander-in-chief of the Polish
                             Insurrection; in exile to 17 Feb 1863)
10 Mar 1863 - 19 Mar 1863  Marian Melchior Antoni Langiewicz  (b. 1827 - d. 1887)
                             (dictator)
19 Mar 1863 - 20 Mar 1863  Executive Dictatorial Commission
                           - Józef Kajetan Janowski           (b. 1832 - d. 1914)
                           - Agaton Giller                    (b. 1831 - d. 1887)
                           - Stefan Bobrowski                 (s.a.)
21 Mar 1863 - 24 May 1863  Central National Committee acting
                           as Provisional National Government
                           - Józef Kajetan Janowski           (s.a.)
                           - Agaton Giller                    (s.a.)
                           - Stefan Bobrowski                 (s.a.) 
                              (to 12 Apr 1863; chairman Mar - 12 Apr 1863)
                           - Karol Adolf Antoni Ruprecht      (b. 1821 - d. 1875)
                              (from Mar 1863)
                           - Oskar Awejde                     (b. 1837 - d. 1897)
                              (from 12 Apr 1863)
                           - Edward Siwiński                  (b. 1831 - d. 1897)
                              (from Apr 1863)
Chairmen of the National Government (in rebellion)
24 May 1863 - 1863         Piotr Wysocki                      (b. 1797 - d. 1874)
1863 - 14 Jun 1863         Franciszek Dobrowolski (1st time)  (b. 1830 - d. 1896)
14 Jun 1863 - 17 Sep 1863  Karol Konstanty Majewski           (b. 1833 - d. 1897)
17 Sep 1863 - 17 Oct 1863  Franciszek Dobrowolski (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Head of the National Government (also styled Dictator) (in rebellion)
17 Oct 1863 - 10 Apr 1864  Romuald Traugutt                   (b. 1826 - d. 1864)
President of the National Government (in rebellion)
10 Apr 1864 - Apr 1865     Bronisław Brzeziński               (d. c.1865)
Representative of the King of Poland (the emperor of Russia)
 8 Sep 1863 -  6 Jan 1874  Fyodor Fyodorovich Graf Berg       (b. 1794 - d. 1874)
                            (Friedrich Graf von Berg)
                            (acting to 19 Oct 1863)
Governors-general and Commanders of the Warsaw Military District

11 Jan 1874 - 18 May 1880  Pavel G
raf von Kotzebue            (b. 1801 - d. 1884)
18 May 1880 - 19 May 1883  Pyotr Pavlovich Albedinskiy        (b. 1826 - d. 1883)
 7 Jun 1883 -  6 Dec 1894  Iosif Vladimirovich Romeyko-Gurko  (b. 1828 - d. 1901)
13 Dec 1894 - 12 Dec 1896  Pavel Andreyevich Graf Shuvalov    (b. 1830 - d. 1908)
 1 Jan 1897 - 17 Nov 1900  Knyaz Aleksandr Konstantinovich    (b. 1837 - d. 1900)
                             Bagration-Imeretinskiy 
1900 - 17 Feb 1905         Mikhail Ivanovich Chertkov         (b. 1829 – d. 1905)
                             (acting to 24 Mar 1901)
19 Feb 1905 - 15 Aug 1905  Konstantin Klavdiyevich Maksimovich(b. 1849 - d. af.1917)

15 Aug 1905 -  1 Feb 1914  Georgiy Antonovich Skalon          (b. 1847 - d. 1914)
 4 Mar 1914 -  3 Sep 1914  Yakov Grigoryevich Zhilinskiy      (b. 1853 - d. 1918)
 3 Sep 1914 - Aug 1915     Knyaz Pavel Nikolayevich           (b. 1864 - d. 1944)
                             Yengalychev
(in exile to Feb 1917)
German Governor-general (at Warsaw)
25 Aug 1915 - 11 Nov 1918  Hans Hartwig von Beseler           (b. 1850 - d. 1921)
Austro-Hungarian Governors-general (at Lublin)
Sep 1915 - May 1916        Erich Freiherr von Diller          (b. 1869 - d. 1936)
May 1916 - May 1917        Karl von Kuk                       (b. 1853 - d. 1935)
Jun 1917 - Feb 1918        Stanislaus Maria Graf Szeptycki    (b. 1867 - d. 1946)
Feb 1918 -  5 Nov 1918     Anton Lipošćak                     (b. 1863 - d. 1924)
Marshal of the Crown, Chairman of the Provisional State Council
14 Jan 1917 - 25 Aug 1917  Wacław Józef Niemojowski           (b. 1864 - d. 1939)  Non-party
Chairman of the Interim Commission of the Provisional State Council
25 Aug 1917 - 27 Oct 1917  Józef Karol Mateusz Mikułowski- 
  (b. 1868 - d. 1935)  Non-party
                             Pomorski
27 Oct 1917 - 14 Nov 1918  Regency Council of the Polish Kingdom
                           - Aleksander Kakowski,             (b. 1862 - d. 1938)  Non-party
                              arcybiskup Warszawski
                           - Zdzisław herbu Lubomirski        (b. 1865 - d. 1943)  Non-party
                           - Józef August Ostrowski           (b. 1850 - d. 1923)  Non-party
President of the Polish National Committee
15 Aug 1917 - 16 Jan 1919  Roman Stanisław Dmowski            (b. 1864 - d. 1939)  SND
                             (in Paris exile, recognized by the Allies) 
Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Army

14 Nov 1918 - 22 Nov 1918  Józef Klemens Piłsudski            (s.a.)               Mil
Chief of State (Naczelnik Państwa)

22 Nov 1918 - 11 Dec 1922  Józef Klemens Piłsudski            (s.a.)               Mil
Presidents
11 Dec 1922 - 16 Dec 1922  Gabriel Józef Narutowicz           (b. 1865 - d. 1922)  Non-party
16 Dec 1922 - 20 Dec 1922  Maciej Rataj (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1884 - d. 1940)  PSL-P
20 Dec 1922 - 15 May 1926  Stanisław Wojciechowski            (b. 1869 - d. 1953)  PSL-P
15 May 1926 -  4 Jun 1926  Maciej Rataj (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)               PSL-P
 4 Jun 1926 - 28 Sep 1939  Ignacy Mościcki                    (b. 1867 - d. 1946)  Non-party
                             (in Romania exile from 18 Sep 1939, resigned 30 Sep 1939)
German Commander-in-chief of Army Group North and South (Heeresgruppen Nord und Süd)
28 Sep 1939 -  2 Oct 1939  Fedor von Bock                     (b. 1880 - d. 1945)  Mil
                           + Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt   (b. 1875 - d. 1953)  Mil

German Commander-in-chief East (Ober Ost) [in Lodsch (Łódź)]
 3 Oct 1939 - 19 Oct 1939  Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt     (s.a.)               Mil   
20 Oct 1939 - 25 Oct 1939  Johannes Blaskowitz                (b. 1883 - d. 1948)  Mil    
Governor-general (Generalgouverneur)
26 Oct 1939 - 19 Jan 1945  Hans Michael Frank                 (b. 1900 - d. 1946)  NSDAP

Chairman (from 31 Dec 1944, President) of the National Council of the Homeland
 1 Jan 1944 -  4 Feb 1947  Bolesław Bierut                    (s.a.)               PPR
                             (in Lublin Jul 1944 - 1 Feb 1945)
 4 Feb 1947                Franciszek Trąbalski (acting)      (b. 1870 - d. 1964)  PPS
                             (Marshal of the Constituent Sejm by age)
 4 Feb 1947 -  5 Feb 1947  Władysław Kowalski                 (b. 1894 - d. 1958)  SL
                             (Marshal of the Constituent Sejm)
President
 5 Feb 1947 - 20 Nov 1952  Bolesław Bierut                    (s.a.)             PPR;1948 PZPR
Chairmen of the Council of State
20 Nov 1952 -  7 Aug 1964  Aleksander Zawadzki                (b. 1899 - d. 1964)  PZPR 
 7 Aug 1964 - 12 Aug 1964  Edward Ochab                       (s.a.)               PZPR 
                           + Stanisław Leon Kulczyński        (b. 1895 - d. 1975)  SD
                           + Oskar Ryszard Lange              (b. 1904 - d. 1965)  PZPR 
                           + Bolesław Podedworny              (b. 1898 - d. 1972)  ZSL
                           (acting)
12 Aug 1964 - 11 Apr 1968  Edward Ochab                       (s.a.)               PZPR
11 Apr 1968 - 23 Dec 1970  Marian "Marek" Spychalski          (b. 1906 - d. 1980)  PZPR 
23 Dec 1970 - 28 Mar 1972  Józef Adam Zygmunt Cyrankiewicz    (s.a.)               PZPR 
28 Mar 1972 -  6 Nov 1985  Henryk Jabłoński                   (b. 1909 - d. 2003)  PZPR 
 6 Nov 1985 - 19 Jul 1989  Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski         (s.a.)               PZPR
Presidents
19 Jul 1989 - 22 Dec 1990  Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski         (s.a.)               Non-party
22 Dec 1990 - 22 Dec 1995  Lech Wałęsa                        (b. 1943)            Non-party
23 Dec 1995 - 22 Dec 2005  Aleksander Kwaśniewski             (b. 1954)            Non-party
23 Dec 2005 - 10 Apr 2010  Lech Aleksander Kaczyński          (b. 1949 - d. 2010)  PiS
10 Apr 2010 -  8 Jul 2010  Bronis
ław Maria Komorowski         (b. 1952)            PO
                             (1st time) (acting)
 8 Jul 2010                Bogdan Micha
ł Borusewicz (acting)  (b. 1949)            Non-party
 8 Jul 2010 -  6 Aug 2010  Grzegorz Juliusz Schetyna (acting) (b. 1963)            PO
 6 Aug 2010 -        
     Bronisław Maria Komorowski         (s.a.)               PO
                             (2nd time)


Grand Marshals of the Crown (chief ministers)
1358 - 1368                Pelka Kościelec z Kościelca        (d. 1368/69)
1369 - 1374                Jan Kolczek z Zakrzowa 
1375 - 1378                Przedbór z Brzezia (1st time)      (d. 1387/88)
1379 - af.1379             Jan Tarnowski z Tarnowa            (d. 1409)
Apr 1381 - 1387            Przedbór z Brzezia (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1387 - Oct 1388            Mikołaj Bogoria                    (d. 1388)
c.1389                     Dymitr z Goraja                    (b. c.1340 - d. 1400)
c.1391                     Mikołaj Wezyk z Rebowa             (d. af.1415)
bf.30Sep1394-af.9 Nov 1399 Zbigniew Lanckoroński z Brzezia    (d. 1425)
                             (1st time)
1399                       Gniewosz z Dalewic                 (d. 1406)
bf.18Aug 1399-af.22Feb1425 Zbigniew Lanckoroński z Brzezia    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
bf.7Apr 1426-af.24Jul 1430 Wawrzyniec Zaremba z Kalinowy      (d. 1453/54)
bf.21Oct1430-af.14Jan 1440 Jan Glowacz z Oleśnicki            (b. c.1400 - d. 1460)
bf.30May1440-af.9 Mar 1462 Mikołaj Marszalkowic Lanckoroński  (d. 1462)
                             z Brzezia i Lanckorony
bf.2 May1462-af.10Oct 1477 Jan Rytwiański z Rytwian           (b. 1422 - d. 1478/79)
bf.24 Oct 1477 - 1492      Rafał Jakub Jarosławski z          (s.a.)
                             Jaroslawia i z Przeworska
bf.21 Oct 1492-16 Apr 1505 Piotr Kmita z Wiśnicza i z         (s.a.)
                             Sobienia
1505 - 30 Apr 1529         Stanisław Chodecki z Chodcza       (s.a.)
21 Mar 1529 - 31 Oct 1553  Piotr Kmita Sobieński              (b. c.1477 - d. 1553)
21 Jun 1555 - 13 Mar 1561  Jan Mielecki                       (b. 1501 - d. 1561)
22 Jul 1563 - 25 Apr 1574  Jan Firlej                         (b c.1521 - d. 1574)
af.25 Apr 1574- 3 Mar 1593 Andrzej Opaliński                  (b. 1540 - d. 1593)
30 Mar 1593-bf.19 Sep 1595 Stanisław Przyjemski               (d. c.1595)
 9 Mar 1596-af.27 Nov 1600 Mikołaj Zebrzydowski               (b. 1553 - d. 1620)
25 Jan 1603 -  5 Jul 1615  Zygmunt Myszkowski                 (b. c.1562 - d. 1615)
 6 Jul 1616 -  9 Mar 1630  Mikołaj Wolski                     (b. 1553 - d. 1630)
15 Apr 1630-bf.19 Feb 1650 Łukasz Opaliński                   (b. 1581 - d. 1654)
bf.19 Feb 1650-29 Dec 1664 Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski         (b. 1616 - d. 1667)
17 Jan 1666 - 21 May 1674  Jan Sobieski                       (s.a.)
19 Feb 1676–16/17 Jan 1702 Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirski    (b. 1642 – d. 1702)
17 Jan 1702 – 15 Dec 1702  Józef Karol Lubomirski             (b. 1638 – d. 1702)
                             (acting to 25 Feb 1702)
15 Dec 1702 – 24 Mar 1713  Kazimierz Ludwik Bieliński         (b. 16.. - d. 1713)
                             (acting to 20 Dec 1702)
24 Mar 1713 -  2 Apr 1713  Wojciech Andrzej Dambski (acting)  (b. 1676 – d. 1725)
 2 Apr 1713 – 20 May 1742  Józef Wandalin Mniszech            (b. 1670 – d. 1747)
21 May 1742 -  8 Oct 1766  Franciszek Bielinski               (b. c.1683 – d. 1766)
10 Oct 1766 – 12 Aug 1783  Stanisław Lubomirski               (b. c.1720 – d. 1783)
12 Aug 1783 – 23 Aug 1783  Franciszek Rzewuski                (b. c.1730 – d. 1800)
                             (acting to 19 Aug 1783)
23 Aug 1783 -  8 Jul 1793  Michał Jerzy Mniszech              (b. 1742 – d. 1806)
 1 Aug 1793-af.17 Dec 1794 Fryderyk Józef Moszyński           (b. 1738 – d. 1817)
Presidents of the Council of Ministers
 5 Oct 1807 - 14 Dec 1807  Stanisław Małachowski              (s.a.)
14 Dec 1807 - Nov 1808     Ludwik Szymon Gutakowski           (b. 1738 - d. 1811) 
Nov 1808 - 25 Mar 1809     Józef Antoni Poniatowski (acting)  (b. 1763 - d. 1813)
25 Mar 1809 - May 1813     Stanis
ław Kostka Potocki           (b. 1775 - d. 1821)
Chairman of the Provisional government
16 Sep 1831 - 22 Feb 1832  Theodor Engel                      (b. 1769 - d. 1837)
Head of Civil Administration
 8 Jun 1862 - 31 Oct 1863  Aleksander Wielopolski,            (b. 1803 - d. 1877)
                             margrabia Gonzaga-Myszkowski
Marshal of the Crown,
Chairman of the Provisional State Council
14 Jan 1917 - 26 Aug 1917  Wacław Józef Niemojowski           (s.a.)               Non-party
Chairman of the Interim Commission of the Provisional State Council
26 Aug 1917 -  7 Dec 1917  Józef Karol Mateusz Mikułowski-    (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Pomorski
Minister-Presidents
(prime ministers)
 7 Dec 1917 - 27 Feb 1918  Jan Kucharzewski                   (b. 1876 - d. 1952)  Non-party
27 Feb 1918 -  4 Apr 1918  Antoni Ponikowski (1st time)       (b. 1878 - d. 1949)  SND
 4 Apr 1918 - 23 Oct 1918  Jan Kanty Steczkowski              (b. 1862 - d. 1929)  SPN
27 Jul 1918 - 30 Sep 1918  Stanisław Dzierzbicki              (b. 1854 - d. 1919)  Non-party
                            
(acting for Steczkowski)
30 Sep 1918 - 23 Oct 1918  Bohdan Broniewski                  (b. 1855 - d. 1922)  Non-party

                             (acting for Steczkowski)
23 Oct 1918 -  5 Nov 1918  Józef Świeżyński                   (b. 1868 - d. 1948)  SND
 
5 Nov 1918 - 14 Nov 1918  Władysław Wróblewski (acting)      (b. 1875 - d. 1951)  Non-party
Minister-Presidents of the Provisional People's Government (at Lublin)
 7 Nov 1918 - 14 Nov 1918  Ignacy Ewaryst Daszyński           (b. 1866 - d. 1936)  PPSD
                             (in dissidence, in Lublin)
14 Nov 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  Stanisław August Thugutt (acting)  (b. 1873 - d. 1941)  PSL-W
                             (in dissidence, in Lublin)
Minister-Presidents
(prime ministers)
14
Nov 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  Ignacy Ewaryst Daszyński           (s.a.)               PPSD
17 Nov 1918 - 16 Jan 1919  Jędrzej Edward Moraczewski         (b. 1870 - d. 1944)  PPS
D
16 Jan 1919 - 13 Dec 1919  Ignacy Jan Paderewski              (b. 1860 - d. 1941)  Non-party
13 Dec 1919 - 24 Jun 1920  Leopold Skulski                    (b. 1877 - d. 1940)  NZL
24 Jun 1920 - 24 Jul 1920  Władysław Dominik Grabski          (b. 1874 - d. 1938)  ZLN
                             (1st time)   
24 Jul 1920 - 19 Sep 1921  Wincenty Witos (1st time)          (b. 1874 - d. 1945)  PSL-P
19 Sep 1921 - 28 Jun 1922  Antoni Ponikowski (2nd time)       (s.a.)               PSCD
28 Jun 1922 - 31 Jul 1922  Artur Śliwiński                    (b. 1877 - d. 1953)  PPS
31 Jul 1922 - 16 Dec 1922  Julian Ignacy Nowak                (b. 1865 - d. 1946)  SPN
Prime ministers (chairmen of the council of ministers)
16 Dec 1922 - 28 May 1923  Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski       (b. 1881 - d. 1943)  Mil
28 May 1923 - 19 Dec 1923  Wincenty Witos (2nd time)          (s.a.)               PSL-P
19 Dec 1923 - 20 Nov 1925  Władysław Dominik Grabski          (s.a.)               ZLN
                             (2nd time)
20 Nov 1925 - 10 May 1926  Aleksander Józef Skrzyński         (b. 1882 - d. 1931)  SPN
10 May 1926 - 15 May 1926  Wincenty Witos (3rd time)          (s.a.)               PSL-P
15 May 1926 -  2 Oct 1926  Kazimierz Władysław Bartel         (b. 1882 - d. 1941)  PP
                             (1st time)
 2 Oct 1926 - 27 Jun 1928  Józef Klemens Piłsudski (1st time) (s.a.)               Mil 
27 Jun 1928 - 14 Apr 1929  Kazimierz Władysław Bartel         (s.a.)              PP;1928 BBWR
                             (2nd time)
14 Apr 1929 - 29 Dec 1929  Kazimierz Stanisław Świtalski      (b. 1886 - d. 1962)  BBWR
29 Dec 1929 - 29 Mar 1930  Kazimierz Władysław Bartel         (s.a.)               BBWR
                             (3rd time)
29 Mar 1930 - 25 Aug 1930  Walery Jan Sławek (1st time)       (b. 1879 - d. 1939)  BBWR
25 Aug 1930 -  4 Dec 1930  Józef Klemens Piłsudski (2nd time) (s.a.)               Mil
 4 Dec 1930 - 27 May 1931  Walery Jan Sławek (2nd time)       (s.a.)               BBWR
27 May 1931 - 10 May 1933  Aleksander Błażej Prystor          (b. 1874 - d. 1941)  BBWR
10 May 1933 - 15 May 1934  Janusz Jędrzejewicz                (b. 1885 - d. 1951)  BBWR
15 May 1934 - 28 Mar 1935  Leon Tadeusz Kozłowski             (b. 1892 - d. 1944)  BBWR
28 Mar 1935 - 13 Oct 1935  Walery Jan Sławek (3rd time)       (s.a.)               BBWR
13 Oct 1935 - 15 May 1936  Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski       (b. 1892 - d. 1946)  BBWR
15 May 1936 - 28 Sep 1939  Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski        (b. 1885 - d. 1962)  BBWR
                             (in Romania exile from 17 Sep 1939)
German Chief of the Civil Administration in the Army Group South
 1 Sep 1939 -  2 Oct 1939  Josef Wagner                       (b. 1899 - d. 1945)  NSDAP
German Supreme Chief of Administration (in Lodsch [Łódź])
 3 Oct 1939 - 25 Oct 1939  Hans Michael Frank                 (s.a.)               NSDAP 
Chairman of the Polish Committee for National Liberation
21 Jul 1944 - 31 Dec 1944  Edward Bolesław Osóbka-Morawski    (b. 1909 - d. 1997)  PPS
                             (in Lublin from 15 Aug 1944)
Prime ministers
(chairmen of the council of ministers)
31 Dec 1944 -  6 Feb 1947  Edward Bolesław Osóbka-Morawski    (s.a.)               PPS
                            
(in Lublin to 1 Feb 1945)
 6 Feb 1947 - 20 Nov 1952  Józef Adam Zygmund Cyrankiewicz    (s.a.)             PPS;1948 PZPR

                             (1st time)
20 Nov 1952 - 18 Mar 1954  Bolesław Bierut                    (s.a.)               PZPR
18 Mar 1954 - 23 Dec 1970  Józef Adam Zygmund Cyrankiewicz    (s.a.)               PZPR
                             (2nd time)
23 Dec 1970 - 18 Feb 1980  Piotr Jaroszewicz                  (b. 1909 - d. 1992)  PZPR
18 Feb 1980 - 24 Aug 1980  Edward Babiuch                     (b. 1927)            PZPR
24 Aug 1980 - 11 Feb 1981  Józef Pińkowski                    (b. 1929 - d. 2000)  PZPR
                             (acting to 5 Sep 1980)
11 Feb 1981 -  6 Nov 1985  Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski˛        (s.a.)               PZPR
 6 Nov 1985 - 27 Sep 1988  Zbigniew Messner                   (b. 1929 - d. 2014)  PZPR
27 Sep 1988 -  2 Aug 1989  Mieczysław Franciszek Rakowski     (s.a.)               PZPR
 2 Aug 1989 - 24 Aug 1989  Czesław Kiszczak                   (b. 1925)            PZPR 
24 Aug 1989 -  4 Jan 1991  Tadeusz Mazowiecki                 (b. 1927 - d. 2013)  Non-party
 4 Jan 1991 -  6 Dec 1991  Jan Krzysztof Bielecki             (b. 1951)            KLD
 6 Dec 1991 -  5 Jun 1992  Jan Ferdynand Olszewski            (b. 1930)            PC
 5 Jun 1992 - 11 Jul 1992  Waldemar Pawlak (1st time)         (b. 1959)            PSL
11 Jul 1992 - 26 Oct 1993  Hanna Suchocka (f)                 (b. 1946)            UD
26 Oct 1993 -  6 Mar 1995  Waldemar Pawlak (2nd time)         (s.a.)               PSL
 6 Mar 1995 -  7 Feb 1996  Józef Oleksy                       (b. 1946 - d. 2015)  SLD + SdRP
 7 Feb 1996 - 31 Oct 1997  Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz            (b. 1950)            SLD + SdRP
31 Oct 1997 - 19 Oct 2001  Jerzy Karol Buzek                  (b. 1940)            AWS
19 Oct 2001 -  2 May 2004  Leszek Cezary Miller               (b. 1946)            SLD
 2 May 2004 - 31 Oct 2005  Marek Marian Belka                 (b. 1952)            SLD
31 Oct 2005 - 14 Jul 2006  Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz            (b. 1959)            PiS
14 Jul 2006 - 16 Nov 2007  Jarosław Aleksander Kaczyński      (b. 1949)            PiS
16 Nov 2007 - 22 Sep 2014  Donald Franciszek Tusk             (b. 1957)            PO 
22 Sep 2014 -              Ewa Kopacz (f)                     (b. 1956)            PO       

Polish Republic in exileł

[State Flag of Poland]

Presidents
30 Sep 1939 -  6 Jun 1947  Władysław Raczkiewicz              (b. 1885 - d. 1947)  Non-party
 9 Jun 1947 -  7 Apr 1972  August Zaleski                     (b. 1883 - d. 1972)  Non-party
 3 Aug 1954 -  7 Apr 1972  Council of Three
                           - Edward Bernard Raczyński         (b. 1891 - d. 1993)  Non-party
                           - Władysław Anders                 (b. 1892 - d. 1970)Mil/Non-party
                              
(to 12 May 1970)
                           - Tomasz Arciszewski               (b. 1877 - d. 1955)  PPS
                               (to 20 Nov 1955)
                           - Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski           (b. 1895 - d. 1966)Mil/Non-party
                               (1956 - 24 Aug 1966)
                           - Roman Władysław Odzierzyński     (b. 1892 - d. 1975)Mil/Non-party
                               (1966-1968) 
                           - Stanisław Mglej (1968-1969)      (b. 1900 - d. 1976)  SN
                           - Alfred Urbański (from 1969)      (b. 1899 - d. 1983)  PPS
                           - Stanisław Kopański (from 1970)   (b. 1895 - d. 1976)Mil/Non-party
                           (in opposition to Zaleski)
 9 Apr 1972 - 24 Mar 1979  Stanis
ław Ostrowski                (b. 1892 - d. 1982)  Non-party
 8 Apr 1979 -  8 Apr 1986  Edward Bernard Raczyński           (s.a.)               Non-party
 8 Apr 1986 - 19 Jul 1989  Kazimierz Aleksander Sabbat        (b. 1913 - d. 1989)  Non-party
19 Jul 1989 - 22 Dec 1990  Ryszard Kaczorowski                (b. 1919 - d. 2010)  Non-party

Prime ministers
30 Sep 1939 - 18 Jul 1940  Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski       (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time)
18 Jul 1940 - 20 Jul 1940  August Zaleski                     (s.a.)               Non-party
20 Jul 1940 -  4 Jul 1943  Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski       (s.a.)               Mil
                             (3rd time)
 5 Jul 1943 - 29 Nov 1944  Stanisław Mikołajczyk              (b. 1901 - d. 1966)  SL
                             (acting to 14 Jul 1943)
29 Nov 1944 -  2 Jul 1947  Tomasz Arciszewski                 (s.a.)               PPS
 2 Jul 1947 -  7 Apr 1949  Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski             (s.a.)             Mil/Non-party
 7 Apr 1949 - 25 Sep 1950  Tadeusz Tomaszewski                (b. 1881 - d. 1950)  PPS
25 Sep 1950 - 18 Jan 1954  Roman Władysław Odzierzyński       (s.a.)             Mil/Non-party
18 Jan 1954 -  8 Jun 1954  Jerzy Hryniewski                   (b. 1895 - d. 1978)  LNP
 8 Jun 1954 -  8 Aug 1955  Stanisław Cat-Mackiewicz           (b. 1896 - d. 1966)  Non-party
 8 Aug 1955 - 11 Sep 1955  Hugon Hanke                        (b. 1904 - d. 1964)  SP
11 Sep 1955 - 25 Jun 1965  Antoni Pająk                       (b. 1893 - d. 1965)  PPS
25 Jun 1965 - 16 Jul 1970  Aleksander Zawisza                 (b. 1896 - d. 1977)  Non-party
16 Jul 1970 - 15 Jul 1972  Zygmunt Muchniewski                (b. 1896 - d. 1979)  SP
15 Jul 1972 -  2 Jul 1976  Alfred Urbański                    (s.a.)               PSS
 5 Aug 1976 -  7 Apr 1986  Kazimierz Aleksander Sabbat        (s.a.)               Non-party
 7 Apr 1986 - 22 Dec 1990  Edward Franciszek Szczepanik       (b. 1915 - d. 2005)  LNP
 

French Commissioners in the Duchy of Warsaw
 9 Jul 1807 - Dec 1807     Étienne Vincent de Margnolas       (b. 1781 - d. 1809)
28 Jan 1808 - 16 Mar 1810  Jean-Charles Serra                 (b. 1760 - d. 1813)
                             (from 1810, Jean-Charles Baron de Serra)
16 Mar 1811 -  5 Jul 1812  Louis Édouard Bignon (1st time)    (b. 1771 - d. 1841)
 5 Jul 1812 -  9 Dec 1812  Dominique Georges Dufour de Pradt  (b. 1759 - d. 1837)
 9 Dec 1812 - 14 Mar 1813  Louis Édouard Bignon (2nd time)    (s.a.)

 ąUnder the elective kingship, a king assumed office upon his coronation at the Coronation Diet. The record also includes the date of proclamation of the election at the Election Diet. From 6 Jan 1573, during a vacancy in the elective kingship, the primate of Poland ex officio (occasionally another prelate, in emergency situations) headed the state with the style Interrex. Informally from 4 Jul 1569, constitutionally from 3 May 1791, Poland and Lithuania constituted the United Commonwealth of Two Nations; the Polish king also had the style of Grand Prince of Lithuania, and the two countries were governed together and were represented on the Diets. Although de jure the Polish Interrex only dealt with Poland during a vacancy in the kingship (the Lithuanian Council of State dealing with Lithuania), this is de facto a spurious distinction.
 (a) The full style of Polish kings (and Grand Princes of Lithuania) from 1573 was (in official Latin): Dei Gratiae Rex Poloniae, Magnus Dux Lituaniae, Russiae, Prussiae, Masoviae, Samogithiae, Kiioviae, Volhyniae, Podoliae, Podlachiae, Livoniae, Smolensciae, Severiae, Czernichoviaeque, etc., etc.; (in Polish): Z Bożej łaski, Król Polski, Wielki Książę Litewski, Ruski, Pruski, Mazowiecki, Żmudzki, Kijowski, Wołyński, Podolski, Podlaski, Inflancki, Smoleński, Siewierski i Czernihowski ("by the Grace of God, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Russia, Prussia, Mazovia, Samogithia, Kiev, Volhynia, Podolia, Podlachia, Livonia, Smolensk, Severia and Chernigov, etc., etc,");
 (b) 9 Jul 1807 - 14 Mar 1813 full style of the ruler: z Bożej łaski, Król Saski, Książę [Xiążę] Warszawski ("by the Grace of God, King of Saxony, Duke of Warsaw").

 ˛A Military Council for National Salvation (Przewodniczący Wojskowej Rady Ocalenia Narodowego)(WRON), chaired by Wojciech Jaruzelski (s.a.) ruled in 13 Dec 1981 - 21 Jul 1983 while the martial law (declared 13 Dec 1982) was in force. Its members were: Wojciech Jaruzelski (s.a.), Józef Baryła (b. 1924), Kazimierz Garbacik (b. 1927), Zbigniew Nowak (b. 1926), Mirosław Hermaszewski (b. 1941), Tadeusz Hupałowski (b. 1922 - d. 1999), Ludwik Janczyszyn (b. 1923 - d. 1994), Michał Janiszewski (b. 1926), Jerzy Jarosz (b. 1931), Zygmunt Zieliński (b. 1925), Czesław Kiszczak (b. 1926 - d. 2005), Tadeusz Krepski (b. 1920 - d. 1988), Roman Leś (b. 1924 - d. 1988), Longin Łozowicki (b. 1926 - d. 2013), Tadeusz Makarewicz, Eugeniusz Molczyk (b. 1925 - d. 2007), Włodzimierz Oliwa (b. 1924 - d. 1989), Czesław Piotrowski (b. 1926 - d. 2005), Henryk Rapacewicz (b. 1926 - d. 1991), Florian Siwicki (b. 1925 - d. 2013), Tadeusz Tuczapski (b. 1922 - d. 2009), Józef Użycki (b. 1932) and Jerzy Włosiński (b. 1943). 

 łThe Polish Government in exile lost the diplomatic recognition of the Western allies 
on 5 Jul 1945.

Noble and Ecclesiastical Titles: Arcyksiążę/Arcyksiężna = Archduke/Archduchess; Arcybiskup = Archbishop; Baron/Baronesa = Baron/Baroness; Biskup = Bishop; Cesarz/Cesarzowa = Emperor/Empress; Diuk = Duke; Erzherzog = Archduke; Freiherr = Baron; Graf = Count; Herzog = Duke; Hrabia/Hrabina = Count/Countessa; Hrabia Palatyn = Count Palatine; Herzog = Duke; Knyaz = Prince; Król/Królowa = King/Queen; Królewicz/Królewna = Prince/Princess Royal; Książę/Księżna = Prince/Princess (the style Kniaż/Kniahini or Kniagini title was also used is eastern parts of Poland for old families of tribal rulers, equal to Książę, but more distinguished); Margrabia/Markiz = Margrave; Naczelnik = Leader/Chief (not a noble title, but the style used by leaders of national insurrections in Poland); Ritter = Knight; Rycerz = Knight; Velikiy = Prince; Velikiy Knyaz = Grand Duke; Wicehrabia = Viscount.

Territorial Disputes: As a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine.

Party abbreviations: PiS = Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, national conservative, populist, national clericalism, est.13 Jun 2001); PO = Platforma Obywatelska Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (Civic Platform of the Republic, christian-democratic, centrist, est.1 Jul 2001); PSL = Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe (Polish People's Party, agrarian, christian-democratic, 1945-21 Dec 1948, merged into PZPR, re-est.5 May 1990); SD = Stronnictwo Demokratyczne (Alliance of Democrats, centrist, est.15 Apr 1939); SLD = Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (Union of Left Democrats, social-democratic, former SdRP and PZPR, to 15 Jun 1999 parliamentary coalition incl. SdRP, est.9 Jul 1991); UP = Unia Pracy (Labour Union, social-democratic, est.7 Jun 1992); Mil = Military;
- Former Parties: AWS = Akcja Wyborcza Solidarność Prawicy (Solidarity Electoral Action of the Right, conservative, 8 Jun 1996-18 Oct 2001); BBWR = Bezpartyjny Blok Współpracy z Rządem (Non-Partisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government, government party, Nov 1928-30 Oct 1935); KLD = Kongres Liberalno-Demokratyczny (Liberal Democratic Congress, center-right, liberal, 29 Jun 1990-24 Apr 1994, then UW); Lib = Biali/Stronnictwo Białych (Whites/White Party, liberals, opposed Rad, c.1858); LNP = Liga Niepodległości Polski (Polish Independence League, est.1944); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, "Nazi" German fascist, 1920-1945, only legal party in General government Oct 1939-Jan 1945); NZL = Narodowe Zjednoczenie Ludowe (National Peoples' Union, split from ZLN, Oct 1919-1922, merged into Polskie Stronnictwo Katolicko-Ludowe); PP = Partia Pracy (Labour Party, split from PSL-W, 1925-Nov 1928, merged into BBWR); PPR = Polska Partia Robotnicza (Polish Workers' Party, communist, 5 Jan 1942-21 Dec 1948, merged into PZPR); PPS = Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (Polish Socialist Party, socialist, 23 Nov 1892-21 Dec 1948, merged into PZPR); PPSD = Polska Partia Socjalno-Demokratyczna Galicji i Śląska Cieszyńskiego (Polish Social Democratic Party of Galicia and Silesia, 1897-Apr 1919, merged into PPS); PSCD = Polskie Stronnictwo Chrześcijańskiej Demokracji (Polish Christian Democratic Party, christian democratic, center-right, 1919-10 Oct 1937, merged into SP); PSL = Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe (Polish People's [Peasant] Party, agrarian, Polish nationalist, 3 Feb 1903-1 Feb 1914, split into PSL-P and [from 6 Dec 1915] PSL-W); PSL-P = Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe - "Piast" (Polish Peasant Party "Piast", agrarian, christian-democratic, 1 Feb 1914-15 Mar 1931, merged into SL); PSL-W = Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe - "Wyzwolenie" (Polish Peasant Party "Liberation", agrarian socialist, 6 Dec 1915-15 Mar 1931, merged into SL); PZPR = Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (Polish United Workers' Party, communist, merger of PPR and PPS, 21 Dec 1948-29 Jan 1990); Rad = Czerwoni/Stronnictwo Czerwonych (Reds/Red Party, radical liberals, opposed Lib, c.1861); SdRP = Socjaldemokracja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland, social democratic, former PZPR; 27 Jan 1990 - 15 Apr 1999, merged into SLD); SKL = Stronnictwo Konserwatywno-Ludowe (Conservative People's Party, christian-democratic, 12 Jan 1997-2003, as Stronnictwo Konserwatywno-Ludowe – Ruch Nowej Polski [Conservative People's Party-New Polish Movement] 2007-1 Mar 2014); SL = Stronnictwo Ludowe (People's Party, agrarian, populist, merger of PSL-P, PSL-W & Stronnictwo Chłopskie, 15 Mar 1931-27 Nov 1949, merged into ZSL); SND = Stronnictwo Narodowo-Demokratyczne (National Democratic Party, 1897-Oct 1919, merged into ZLN); SP = Stronnictwo Pracy (Labour Party, christian-democratic, merger of NPR and PSCD, 10 Oct 1937-1950); SPN = Stronnictwo Prawicy Narodowej (Party of National Right, 1907-1928, merged into BBWR); SPR = Stronnictwo Polityki Realnej (Party of Real Politics, conservative liberal, 18 Oct 1905-Mar 1923); UD = Unia Demokratyczna (Democratic Union, christian-democratic, 2 Dec 1990-24 Apr 1994, merged into UW); UW = Unia Wolności (Union of Freedom, christian-democratic, centrist, merger of KLD and UD, 24 Apr 1994 - 7 May 2005, renamed Partia Demokratyczna); ZLN = Związek Ludowo-Narodowy (National-Populist Union, former ND, Oct 1919 - 7 Oct 1928, merged into SN); ZSL = Zjednoczone Stronnictwo Ludowe (United People's Party, agrarian, 27 Nov 1949-29 Nov 1989)


Polish Provisional Revolutionary ("Communist") Committee

[Polish Provisional
                Revolutionary Committee 1920]

23 Jul 1920                Provisional Polish Revolutionary ("Communist") Committee founded
                             in exile at Moscow (from 24 Jul in Smolensk, 25 Jul Minsk, from
                             27 Jul in Wilno).
30 Jul 1920                Provisional Polish Revolutionary Committee is established
                             at Białystok in Soviet Russian occupied north-western
                             Poland, with the goal of establishing a Polish Socialist
                             Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic.
22 Aug 1920                Committee evacuates Polish territory.

Polish Provisional Revolutionary Committee ("Polrewkom")
30 Jul 1920 - 22 Aug 1920  Julian Baltazar Marchlewski     (b. 1866 - d. 1925)  KPRP
                              "Karski" (president)
                           - Feliks Dzierżyński            (b. 1877 - d. 1926)  RCP
                              (Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky)
                              (de facto
president)
                           - Jakub Hanecki                 (b. 1879 - d. 1937)  RCP
                              (Jakub Fürstenberg)
                           - Feliks Kon                    (b. 1864 - d. 1941)  KPU
                              (Bolesław Strożyński) 
                           - Edward Próchniak              (b. 1888 - d. 1937)  KPRP
                           - Józef Unszlicht               (b. 1879 - d. 1938)  KPRP
                              (Leon Jurowski)  
                           - Bernard Zaks                  (b. 1886 - d. 1937)  RCP
                              (Stanisław Nerski)
                           - Stanisław Feliks Bobiński     (b. 1882 - d. 1937)  RCP
                              (Rafał Jan Kreczyński)
                           - Tadeusz Antoni Radwański      (b. 1884 - d. 1960)  KPRP
                              (Rydwański)

Party abbreviations: KPRP
= Komunistyczna Partia Robotnicza Polski (Polish Communist Party of Workers, Marxist-Lenininst communist, 16 Dec 1918 - 5 Feb 1925, merged into KPP); KPU = Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny (Communist Party of Ukraine, communist, Jul 1918-1991); RCP =
RCP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya-Bolshevikov (Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks, communist, 1918-1925, renamed AUCP)

Galicia and Lodomeria

[Galicia and
                            Lodomeria 1772-1849]
                      1772 - 1849
 
[Galicia and
                            Lodomeria flag 1849-1890]
                     1849 - 1890
 
[Galicia and
                            Lodomeria flag, 1890 - 1918]
                 1890 - 1 Nov 1918
 
Map of Galicia& Lodomeria
Capital: Lemberg (Lwów/L'viv)
Population: 8,025,675 (1910)
 
501                        Part of Poland.
c.998 - 1084               Galicia-Volynya
1084                       Part of Przemysl.
1188 - 1189                Hungarian rule.
1189                       Principality of Galicia
1210 - 1211                Hungarian rule.
1216 - 1221                Hungarian rule.
c.1253                     Kingdom of Galicia
1349                       Part of Poland.
1379 - 1387                Hungarian rule.
 5 Aug 1772                Parts of Lesser Poland (Małopolska) and Red Ruthenia (Ruś Czerwona)
                             annexed by Austria.
Sep 1772                   Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria created within Austria
                             (in German: Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien; in Polish:
                             Królestwo Galicji i Lodomerii).
24 Oct 1795                Lesser Poland (Malopolska) annexed to Austria as Western Galicia.
May 1809 - 1813            Western Galicia ceded to Duchy of Warsaw (from 1815, part of 
                             Russian Poland), but previous annexations remain part of Austria.
1849                       Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria a crownland of Austria.
21 Dec 1867                Autonomy granted as part of "Austrian half" of the Austro-Hungarian
                             Monarchy (i.e. of the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the 
                             Imperial Diet").
 5 Sep 1914 - 14 Jul 1915  Russian occupation of most of Galicia (in Lemberg [Lvov] 3 Sep 1914
                             - 22 Jun 1915 and Przemysl 22 Mar - 3 Jul 1915) which is
                             organized as General Government of Galicia and Bukovina .
 4 Oct 1916 -  2 Aug 1917  Russian re-occupation of parts of Galicia.
 1 Nov 1918                Former Austrian crownland of Galicia and Lodomeria is divided;
                             Western Galicia (incl. Kraków/Cracow, Nowy Sącz/Neu Sandez,
                             Oświęcim/Auschwitz, Tarnów/Tarnau, and Zator/Neuenstadt) are
                             incorporated into Poland (s.a.); while Eastern Galicia (incl.
                             Lwów/Lvov, Ternopil/Tarnopol, Kolomyia/Kołomyja, and
                             Stanislau/Stanisławów) become part of Western Ukraine
                             (from this point that region follows Ukraine).
30 Apr 1920 -  1 Nov 1939  Eastern Galicia incorporated into Poland.

Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria
Sep 1772 -  1 Nov 1918     the archdukes of Austria
Governors
20 Oct 1772 - Jan 1774     Johann Baptist Anton Graf von      (b. 1725 - d. 1814)
                             Pergen
Jan 1774 - Jun 1774        Andreas Graf Hadik von Futak       (b. 1710 - d. 1790)
Jun 1774 - Jun 1780        Heinrich Josef Johann von          (b. 1697 - d. 1783)
                             Auersperg
Jun 1780 - Oct 1794        Joseph Graf Brigido                (b. 1733 - d. 1817)
Oct 1794 - Jul 1795        Joseph Mailath de Szekely          (b. 1737 - d. 1810)
 1 Jul 1795 - Feb 1801     Johann Jakob Graf von Gaisruck     (b. 1739 - d. 1801)
Feb 1801 - Aug 1801        Joseph Graf Swéerts-Spork (Sporck) (b. 1756 - d. 1823)
                             (acting)
Sep 1801 - Jul 1806        Józef Freiherr von Úrményi         (b. 1741 - d. 1822)
Jul 1806 - Mar 1809        Christian Wurmser
Military governors
1806 - 1808                Heinrich Joseph Johannes           (b. 1756 - d. 1845)
                             Graf von Bellegarde (1st time)
1808 - 1809                ....  (acting)
1809 - 1813                Heinrich Joseph Johannes           (s.a.)
                             Graf von Bellegarde (2nd time)
1813 - 1814                Michael Freiherr von Klienmayr     (b. 1755 - d. 1828)
Governors
Mar 1810 - Apr 1815        Peter Graf von Goëss               (b. 1774 - d. 1846)
Apr 1815 - Jul 1815        Georg Oechsner (acting)
Aug 1815 - Nov 1877        Franz Seraph Freiherr von Hauer    (b. 1777 - d. 1822)
                             (acting to Sep 1817)
Nov 1822 - Aug 1826        Ludwig Patrick Taafe               (b. 1791 - d. 1855)
Statthalter (Namiestnik)
Aug 1826 - Sep 1832        August Longin Fürst von Lobkowitz  (b. 1797 - d. 1842)
Sep 1832 -  2 Jul 1846     Ferdinand Karl Joseph d'Este       (b. 1781 - d. 1850)
                             Erzherzog von Österreich
 2 Jul 1846 - Aug 1847     Franz Freiherr Krieg von           (b. 1776 - d. 1856)
                             Hochfelden (acting)
 1 Aug 1847 - Jun 1848     Franz Seraph Graf Stadion von      (b. 1806 - d. 1853)
                             Warthausen und Thannhausen
Jun 1848 - Jul 1848        Wilhelm Karl Konrad Freiherr von   (b. 1808 - d. 1870)
                             Hammerstein (acting) 
30 Jul 1848 - 15 Jan 1849  Wacław Michał Zaleski              (b. 1799 - d. 1849)
15 Jan 1849 - 13 Dec 1859  Agenor Romuald Onufry Graf         (b. 1812 - d. 1875)
                             Gołuchowski (1st time)
1859 - 1860                Joseph Freiherr von Kalchberg      (b. 1801 - d. 1882)
                             (acting)
1860 - 1861                Karl Ritter von Mosch (acting)
1861 - 27 Oct 1864         Alexander Graf Mensdorff-Pouilly   (b. 1813 - d. 1871)
1864 - 19 Oct 1866         Franz Xaver Freiherr von           (b. 1811 - d. 1866)
                             Baumgarten
20 Oct 1866 -  7 Oct 1867  Agenor Romuald Onufry Graf         (s.a.)
                             Gołuchowski (2nd time)
1867 - 1871                Ludwik von Choborski Freiherr      (b. 1823 - d. 1905)
                             Possinger (interim)
20 Jul 1871 -  3 Aug 1875  Agenor Romuald Onufry Graf         (s.a.)
                             Gołuchowski (3rd time)
24 Nov 1875 - 10 Aug 1883  Alfred Józef Potocki               (b. 1817 - d. 1889)
10 Aug 1883 - Sep 1888     Filip Krzysztof Artur Zaleski      (b. 1836 - d. 1911)
Oct 1888 - Sep 1895        Kazimierz Feliks Graf Badeni       (b. 1846 - d. 1909)
25 Sep 1895 - Mar 1898     Eustachy Stanisław Sanguszko       (b. 1842 - d. 1903) 
31 Mar 1898 - Jun 1903     Leon Piniński                      (b. 1857 - d. 1938)
 8 Jun 1903 - 12 Apr 1908  Andrzej Kazimierz Graf Potocki     (b. 1861 - d. 1908)
28 Apr 1908 - 14 May 1913  Michał Hieronim Bobrzyński         (b. 1849 - d. 1935)
14 May 1913 - 20 Aug 1915  Witold Korytowski z Korytowa       (b. 1850 - d. 1923)
Aug 1915 -  8 Apr 1916     Hermann von Colard                 (b. 1857 - d. 1916)
Apr 1916 - Mar 1917        Erich Freiherr von Diller          (b. 1859 - d. 1936)
Mar 1917 - 31 Oct 1918     Karl Georg Graf Huyn               (b. 1857 - d. 1938)
Russian Military governors and Commissioners of General Government of Galicia and Bukovina
 5 Sep 1914 - 14 Jul 1915  Georgiy Aleksandrovich Bobrynski   (b. 1863 - d. 1928)
 4 Oct 1916 - 31 Mar 1917  Fyodor Fyodorovich Trepov          (b. 1854 - d. 1938)
22 Apr 1917 -  2 Aug 1917  Dmitriy Ivanovich Doroshenko       (b. 1882 - d. 1951)

General Commissar of Regency of Polish Kingdom

1917 - Nov 1918            Witold Czartoryski herbu           (b. 1864 - d. 1945)
                             Pogoń Litewska


Landmarschälle (Marszałek krajowy)
11 Apr 1861 - 19 Mar 1875  Leon Ludwik Sapieha                (b. 1803 - d. 1878)
19 Mar 1875 - Dec 1875     Alfred Józef Potocki               (s.a.)
 7 Mar 1876 - 26 Apr 1876  Włodzimierz Ksawery Tadeusz        (b. 1825 - d. 1899)
                             Dzieduszycki 
 8 Aug 1877 - 14 Sep 1881  Ludwik Graf Wodzicki               (b. 1834 - d. 1894)  Con
14 Sep 1881 -  6 Nov 1886  Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz               (b. 1825 - d. 1886)
18 Nov 1886 - 1890         Jan Dzierżysław Graf Tarnowski     (b. 1835 - d. 1894)  Con
14 Oct 1890 - 24 Sep 1895  Eustachy Stanisław Sanguszko       (s.a.)               Con
31 Oct 1895 -  7 Oct 1901  Stanisław Marcin Graf Badeni       (b. 1850 - d. 1912)
                             (1st time)
 9 Oct 1901 -  8 Jun 1903  Andrzej Kazimierz Graf Potocki     (s.a.)
26 Jun 1903 - Jun 1912     Stanisław Marcin Graf Badeni       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
14 Jun 1912 - 15 Apr 1914  Adam Gołuchowski                   (b. 1855 - d. 1914)  Con
15 May 1914 - Nov 1918     Stanisław Jakub Niezabitowski      (b. 1860 - d. 1941)

Ministers of State for Galicia
(in Vienna)
11 Apr 1871 - 22 Nov 1871  Kazimierz Grocholski (interim)     (b. 1815 - d. 1888)
25 Nov 1871 - 21 Apr 1873  Joseph Unger (interim)             (b. 1828 - d. 1913)
21 Apr 1873 - 11 Oct 1888  Florian Ziemiałkowski              (b. 1817 - d. 1900)
                             (from 1880, Florian Freiherr Ziemiałkowski)
11 Oct 1888 - 12 Nov 1892  Filip Zaleski                      (b. 1836 - d. 1911)

12 Nov 1892 - 11 Nov 1893  Vacant?
11 Nov 1893 - 29 Sep 1895  Apolinary Jaworski                 (b. 1825 - d. 1904)
29 Sep 1895 - 17 Jan 1897  Leon Biliński (interim)            (b. 1846 - d. 1923)  Con
17 Jan 1896 - 30 Nov 1897  Edward Rittner                     (b. 1845 - d. 1899)
30 Nov 1897 - 16 Dec 1897  Vacant
16 Dec 1897 -  5 Mar 1898  Hermann Adolf Freiherr von Loebl   (b. 1835 - d. 1907)
 5 Mar 1898 -  2 Oct 1899  Adam Jędrzejowicz                  (b. 1847 - d. 1924)
 2 Oct 1899 - 18 Jan 1900  Kazimierz Chłędowski               (b. 1843 - d. 1920)
19 Jan 1900 - 28 May 1906  Leonard Piętak                     (b. 1841 - d. 1909)
 2 Jun 1906 -  9 Nov 1907  Wojciech Dzieduszycki              (b. 1848 - d. 1909)  Con
 9 Nov 1907 -  3 Mar 1909  Dawid Abrahamowicz                 (b. 1839 - d. 1926)  Con
 3 Mar 1909 -  9 Jan 1911  Władysław Dulęba                   (b. 1851 - d. 1930)
 9 Jan 1911 - 19 Nov 1911  Wacław Zaleski                     (b. 1868 - d. 1913)  Con
19 Nov 1911 - 28 Dec 1913  Władysław Długosz                  (b. 1864 - d. 1937)  PSL
28 Dec 1913 -  2 Jan 1914  Vacant
 2 Jan 1914 - 21 Oct 1916  Zdzisław Karol Dzierżykraj-Morawski(b. 1859 - d. 1928)
31 Oct 1916 - 23 Jun 1917  Michał Bobrzyński                  (s.a.)               LPP
23 Jun 1917 - 25 Jul 1918  Juliusz Twardowski                 (b. 1874 - d. 1945)
26 Jul 1918 - 30 Oct 1918  Kazimierz Gałecki                  (b. 1863 - d. 1941)

Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative; LPP = Liga Państwowości Polskiej (Polish Statehood, League, supported equal status with Austria and Hungary for Galicia, 1915-1918); PSL = Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe (Polish People's [Peasant] Party, agrarian, Polish nationalist, 3 Feb 1903-1 Feb 1914, split into PSL-P and [from 6 Dec 1915] PSL-W);


West Galicia

24 Oct 1795                Lesser Poland (Małopolska) annexed to Austria as Western or
                             New Galicia (Westgalizien or Neugalizien).
 
1 Nov 1803                Incorporated into Galicia and Lodomeria (see above).
May 1809                   Occupied by the Duchy of Warsaw.
14 Oct 1809                Annexed to the Duchy of Warsaw (see Poland).
Dec 1809                   Formally incorporation into the Duchy of Warsaw.

Commissioner
16 Mar 1796 - 1801         Johann Wenzel von Margelik         (b. c.1750 - d. 1805)
Governors
 6 Feb 1801 - 1803         Johann Nepomuk Graf zu             (b. 1757 - d. 1809)
                             Trauttmannsdorf-Weinsberg
Jun 1803 -  1 Nov 1803     Anton Baum von Appelshofen (acting)(b. 1763 - d. 1829)
President of the Central Military Provisional Government for the Two Galicias
May 1809 - Dec 1809        Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski herbu    (b. 1775 - d. 1856)
                             Jelita

Cracow (Kraków)
[Cracow (Kraków) Free
                  City 1815-1846]
                   1815 - 3 Mar 1846
Map of Cracow Republic
Capital: Cracow (Kraków)
Currency: 1815-1918
 Austrian Gulden
 (XATG)
Population: 146,000
(1843 est.)

Constitution
(3 May 1818;
in French)
   
26 Apr 1795                Annexed by Austria from Poland.
14 Oct 1809                Part of Grand Duchy of Warsaw.
1813                       Occupied by Austria and Russia.
 2 May 1815 -  3 Mar 1846  "Free, Independent, and Strictly Neutral City of Cracow With
                             Its Territory" (often styled Cracow Republic) under the
                             protection of Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
Sep 1831 - Nov 1831        Occupied by Russia under Fyodor Vasilyevich Graf Rüdiger (b. 1783
                             - d. 1856)
.

17 Feb 1836 - 1837         Occupied by Austria under Franz Kaufmann von Trauensteinburg.
Oct 1838 - 21 Feb 1841
     Occupied by Austria.

 3 Mar 1846 - 31 Oct 1918  Annexed to Austria; from 16 Nov 1846 styled Grand Duchy of 
                             Cracow, under the emperor of Austria; from the Ausgleich of
                             21 Dec 1867 that established the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy,
                             a territory in the Austrian half of the Monarchy.
15 Oct 1918                Part of Poland.

Chairmen of the Governing Senate of the Cracow Republic
 2 Nov 1815 - 18 Jan 1831  Stanisław Karol hrabia Wodzicki    (b. 1759 - d. 1843)
18 Jan 1831 - 24 Mar 1833  No permanent chairman
24 Mar 1833 - 26 Feb 1836  Kasper Wielogłowski                (b. c.1780 - d. 1847)
26 Feb 1836 - 27 Apr 1839  Józef Haller de Hallenburg         (b. 1783 - d. 1850)
27 Apr 1839 - 27 Oct 1839  Antoni Bystrzonowski (1st time)    (b. 1769 - d. 1848)
                             (acting)
27 Oct 1839 - 27 Dec 1839  Jan Chrzciciel Schindler           (b. 1802 - d. 1890)
                             (1st time) (acting) 
27 Dec 1839 - 27 Feb 1840  Antoni Bystrzonowski (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
27 Feb 1840 - 27 Apr 1840  Jan Chrzciciel Schindler           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting) 
27 Apr 1840 - 27 Jun 1840  Antoni Bystrzonowski (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
27 Jun 1840 - 27 Aug 1840  Jan Chrzciciel Schindler           (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) (acting) 
27 Aug 1840 - 27 Oct 1840  Antoni Bystrzonowski (4th time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
27 Oct 1840 - 27 Dec 1840  Jan Chrzciciel Schindler           (s.a.)
                             (4th time) (acting) 
27 Dec 1840 - 27 Feb 1841  Antoni Bystrzonowski (5th time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
27 Feb 1841 - 22 Feb 1846  Jan Chrzciciel Schindler           (s.a.)
                             (5th time) (acting to 2 Mar 1841) 
Chairman of the Committee of Safety
22 Feb 1846                Józef Wincenty hrabia Wodzicki     (b. 1773 - d. 1847)
                             (1st time) 
22 Feb 1846 - 24 Feb 1846  National Government of the Polish Republic
                           - Ludwik Gorzkowski                (b. 1811 - d. bf.1857)
                           - Jan Józef Tyssowski              (b. 1811 - d. 1857)
                           - Aleksander Górka-Grzegorzewski   (b. 1806 - d. 1855)
Dictator of the Polish Republic
24 Feb 1846 -  2 Mar 1846  Jan Józef Tyssowski                (s.a.)
Chairman of the Committee of Safety
 2 Mar 1846 -  3 Mar 1846  Józef Wincenty hrabia Wodzicki     (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
Grand Dukes (title Grossherzog von Krakau)
 
16 Nov 1846 - 11 Nov 1918  the Emperors of Austria

Residents of the Protecting Powers
- of Austria -
Sep 1815 - Dec 1818        Josef Franz da Paula Graf von      (b. 1756 - d. 1822)
                             Sweerts-Sporck
Dec 1818 - 1827            Emmanuel Freiherr von Lipowski
1827 - 1828                Josef Freiherr von Öchsner
Dec 1828 - 1832            Franz von Lorentz
1834 - bf.1844             Wilhelm von Pflügel
bf.1844 - 1846             Ignaz
Liehmann Ritter von Palmrode
- of Prussia -
Oct 1815 - Dec 1815        Ernst Wilhelm Freiherr von         (b. 1766 - d. 1829)
                             Reibnitz
Dec 1815 - 1830            Georg Ludwig d'Arrest              (b. 1768 - d. 1830)
Jul 1830 - May 1831        Friedrich Dollega (acting)
1831 - 1833/34             August von Forckenbeck
1833/34 - 1843             Otto Emil von Hartmann             (b. 1786 – d. 1854)
1843 - 1846                Ludwig Wilhelm von Engelhardt
- of Russia -
Sep 1815 - Jun 1818        Ignacy Miączyński herbu            (b. 1767 – d. 1840)
                             Suchekomnaty
Jun 1818 - 1834            Stanisław Kostka Zarzecki          (b. 1770 - d. 1853)
1834 - 1835                Ludwik Tęgoborski                  (b. 1793 - d. 1857)
1835 - 1846                Ernst Wilhelm Rembert Freiherr     (b. 1794 - d. 1879)

                             von Ungern-Steernberg


Podolia
Ottoman flag]

27 Aug 1672                Turkish occupation of Podolia (or Kamieniec Podolski/Kamyanets-
                             Podilskyi).
18 Oct 1672                Podolian voivodeship ceded by Poland-Lithuania to Ottoman Empire 
                             by Treaty of Buczacz (Buchach) as Eyalet-i Kamaniçe (confirmed
                             by Treaty of Żurawno 17 Oct 1676).
26 Jan 1699                By the Treaty of Karlowitz, Ottomans agree to restore Podolia
                             to Poland.
22 Sep 1699                Ottomans evacuate Kamieniec Podolski.
23 Jan 1793                Podolia annexed by Russia (part of Ukraine).

Ottoman governors (Beylerbeys)
 2 Sep 1672 - 1675/76      Köstendili Koca Halil Pasha        (b. c.1620 - d. 1685)
                             (1st time) 
1675/76 - Sep 1677         Arnavut Uzun Ibrahim Pasha         (b. 165. - d. 1683
Sep 1677 - 680             Köstendili Koca Halil Pasha        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1680 - 1682                Defterdar Ahmet Pasha              (d. 1683)
1682 -  4 Jan 1685         Arnavut Abdurrahman Abdi Pasha     (b. c.1605 - d. 1686)
Dec 1684                   Tokatli Mahmud Pasha               (b. 1639/40 - d. 1684)
Feb/Mar 1685 - 11 May 1686 Biyikli Silahdar Mustafa Pasha     (d. 1698)
25 May 1686 - 1688         Bosnali Sari Hüseyn Pasha          (d. af.1690)
1688 - Jan 1689            Yegen Ahmet                        (d. 1689)
Jan 1689 - 22 Sep 1699     Mustafa Ibrahim oglu Kahraman Bey



Danzig
 
[Danzig to 1457
                          (Prussia, Germany)]
                        to 1457

[Danzig
                          1457-1939 (Prussia, Germany)]
       24 May 1457 - 23 Jan 1793;
         27 May 1807 - 13 Feb 1814;
           9 Dec 1920  - 1 Sep 1939
 
[Danzig variant
                          (Prussia, Germany)]
                        Variant 
   
   
 
 
Map of Danzig
(1919-1939)
Hear National Anthem
"Für Danzig" (For Danzig)
Text of National Anthem
(1920-1 Sep 1939)
Constitution
(17 Nov 1920 - 2 Sep 1939;
in German)
Capital: Danzig
Currency: Danzig Gulden (DZGG) Dec 1923 - 1 Sep 1939;
Danzig Mark (DZGM)
Oct 1920-Dec 1923
National Holiday: 15 Nov (1920)
Free City of Danzig Day
Population: 407,000 (1938)
357,000 (1919)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $227.08 million (1937)
Imports: $238.2 million (1937)
note: includes Polish figures
due to customs union
Ethnic groups (by language): German 95.47%, Polish and
 Kashubian 3.28%, Russian and Ukrainian 0.72%,
other 0.47% (1923)
Armed Force: Heinweher 1,542 (July-1 Sep. 1939)
Polish Westerplatte Force: 90 (1938)
Defense was the Responsibility of Poland 1920-39
Merchant marine: 32 ships (1939)
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 54.7%, Roman Catholic 34.5%,
 other Christian 1.6%,
Jewish 2.3%, others 1.1% (1924)
International Organizations/Treaties 1920-1939: BIS, ICPC, ICRM, ITU, LORCS, UIBPIP, UPU
 9th cent.                 First written mention about settlement.
997                        Visit of St. Adalbert (= St. Wojciech).
1123                       Part of the Principality of Pomerania, which is a Polish 
                             fief and (from 1138) a division of Poland.
1178                       Pomerelia (also called East, Upper or Little Pomerania), having
                             been informal subdivision of Pomerania from 1137, has gradually
                             became a separate Polish division. Rulers of Pomerelia styled
                             Princes of Danzig (from 1234, the Princes of Pomerelia).
1224                       City rights granted.
1227                       Pomerelia independent.
25 Dec 1294                Pomerelia inherited by the prince of Greater Poland and 
                             restored to Poland.
1301 - 1302                Occupied by the Teutonic Order.
14 Nov 1308                Danzig (and Pomerelia) conquered by the Teutonic Order.
13 Sep 1309                Danzig (and Pomerelia)(Herzogtum der Pommerellen) incorporated 
                             into the territories of the Teutonic Order (recognized by
                             Poland 1343).
1342                       First mayors elected (Bürgermeister); four mayors were elected
                             by the Council until 1793. The first had the title of President 
                             (Präsident) or Presiding Mayor (Präsidierende Bürgermeister) and
                             had the highest executive authority, the second had the title
                             had the title of Vice-President (Vice-Präsident). The mayors
                             rotated their positions: after a year in the office, the
                             President gave power to the Vice-President and became the 
                             fourth mayor, etc.
1361                       Danzig a member of the Hanseatic League.
1440                       Accession of Danzig to the Prussian League.
11 Feb 1454                Teutonic knights driven from Danzig in a rebellion.
 6 Mar 1454                Incorporated into Poland as part of Royal (West) Prussia.
25 May 1457                Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig) under the sovereignty 
                             of Poland.
19 Oct 1466                Polish sovereignty over Danzig and West Prussia recognized by 
                             the Teutonic Order.
Nov 1520 (4 days)          Under siege by the Teutonic Order.
13 Jun 1577 - 15 Jun 1577  Under siege by Stephan Bathory, King of Poland.
 8 Aug 1577 -  3 Sep 1577  Under siege by Stephan Bathory, King of Poland.
16 Dec 1577                City finally pays homage to the King of Poland.
1626                       Danzig under siege by Sweden.
 3 May 1660                Oliwa incorporated into Danzig.
1704                       Danzig under siege by Sweden.
17 Jan 1734 - 29 May 1734  Russia and Saxony lay siege to Danzig against the King of Poland
                             Stanislaw Leszczynski.
 5 Aug 1772                West Prussia annexed by Prussia in the First Partition of
                             the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Danzig becomes an enclave 
                             separated from Poland, but under Polish suzerainty.
 4 Apr 1793                Occupied by Prussia.
 7 Apr 1793                Annexed to Prussia.
 7 Mar 1807 - 24 May 1807  Under siege by French troops under François-Joseph Lefebvre).
24 May 1807                French occupation.
 9 Jul 1807                Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig)(theoretically under the
                             joint protection of Prussia and Saxony, but de facto a 
                             French protectorate).
22 Jan 1813 - 29 Nov 1813  Under siege by Russian troops under Alexander Herzog von 
                             Württemberg (b. 1771 - d. 1833).
 2 Jan 1814                Occupied by Prussia and Russia.
13 Feb 1814                Part of Prussia (and from 1871 Germany).
10 Jan 1920                Under the authority of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers,
                             City of Danzig (Stadt Danzig).
15 Nov 1920                Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig)(under League of Nations 
                             auspices).
17 Apr 1924                League of Nations allows Poland to maintain a small garrison
                            (about 90 men) on the Westerplatte peninsula (effective Jan 1926).
 6 Mar 1933 - 16 Mar 1933  Poland occupies the port of Danzig in an effort to reassert
                             Polish prestige in the Free City.
 1 Sep 1939                Danzig incorporated into Germany (as the state of Danzig).
 7 Sep 1939                Polish defenders of Westerplatte fort in Danzig harbor surrender.
26 Oct 1939                United with occupied parts of Poland as Reichsgau Westpreussen.
Jan 1940                   Renamed Danzig-Westpreussen.
30 Mar 1945                Occupied by Soviet forces.
 2 Apr 1945                Incorporated into Poland, renamed Gdańsk.
  2 Aug 1945                At the Potsdam Conference, the victorious Allies decide on a
                             provisional Polish administration over Danzig pending a 
                             future Peace treaty (annexed 26 Dec 1945)(recognized by 
                             East Germany 1950 and West Germany de facto 1970).
Mayors
1447 - 1480                Reinhold Niederhoff
1452 - 1462                Herman Stargardt
1454 - 1461                Wilhelm Jordan
1457 - 1461                Jacob Falcke
1461 - 1475                Johann von Scheren
1462 - 1478                Johann von Walde
1462 - 1478                Johann Veere
1470 - 1438                Philipp Bischoff
1477 - 1483                Johann Angermünde
1479 - 1501                Johann Ferber
1483 - 1485                Marten Bock
1484 - 1502                George Buck
1484 - 1490                Johann Schewecke
1489 - 1505                Henrich Falcke
1492 - 1501                Henrich von Süchten
1502 - 1513                George Mand
1503 - 1512                Johann Schewecke der Jüngere
1504 - 1513                Matthias Zimmerman
1506 - 1507                Antoni Backelman
1510 - 1526                Eberhard Ferber
Presiding Mayors (title Präsidierende Bürgermeister)
18 Jun 1526 - 1527         Philipp Bischoff (1st time)        (b. 1465/70 - d. 1535)

1527 - 12 Apr 1529         Matthias Lange                     (b. c.1480 - 1529)
12 Apr 1529 - 19 May 1530  Eduard Niederhoff (1st time)       (b. 1480/85 - d. 1634
19 May 1530 - 31 Mar 1531  Johann von Werden (1st time)       (b. 1495 - d. 1554)
31 Mar 1531 - 1532         Philipp Bischoff (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1532 -  3 Apr 1533         George Schewecke (1st time)        (b. 1491 - d. 1547)
 3 Apr 1533 -  5 Jan 1534  Eduard Niederhoff (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 5 Jan 1534 - 16 Apr 1535  Johann von Werden (2nd time)       (s.a.)
16 Apr 1535 -  4 Apr 1536  Philipp Bischoff (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 4 Apr 1536 - 22 Mar 1537  George Schewecke (2nd time)        (s.a.)
22 Mar 1537 - 28 Mar 1538  Peter Böhm (2nd time)              (s.a.)
28 Mar 1538 - 27 Mar 1539  Johann von Werden (3rd time)       (s.a.)
27 Mar 1539 -  8 Mar 1540  Barthel Brandt (1st time)          (b. c.1490 - d. 1549)
 8 Mar 1540 - Mar 1541     George Schewecke (3rd time)        (s.a.)
Mar 1541 - 30 Mar 1542     Tiedemann Giese (1st time)         (b. 1491 - d. 1556)
30 Mar 1542 - 1543         Johann von Werden (4th time)       (s.a.)
1543 - Apr 1544            Barthel Brandt (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Apr 1544 - 25 May 1545     George Schewecke (4th time)        (s.a.)
25 May 1545 - 1546         Tiedemann Giese (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1546 - Mar 1547            Johann von Werden (5th time)       (s.a.)
Mar 1547 - 25 Mar 1548     Barthel Brandt (3rd time)          (s.a.)
25 Mar 1548 -  4 Apr 1549  Tiedemann Giese (3rd time)         (s.a.)
 4 Apr 1549 -  7 Mar 1550  Johann Brandes (1st time)          (b. 1503 - d. 1577)
 7 Mar 1550 - Mar 1551     Johann von Werden (6th time)       (s.a.)
Mar 1551 -  7 Apr 1552     Johann Stotte                      (b. 1494 - d. 1554)
 7 Apr 1552 - 23 Apr 1553  Tiedemann Giese (4th time)         (s.a.)
23 Apr 1553 - 20 Mar 1554  Johann Brandes (2nd time)          (s.a.)
20 Mar 1554 -  9 Apr 1555  Johann Stotte (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 9 Apr 1555 - 1556         Tiedemann Giese (5th time)         (s.a.)
1556 -  8 Apr 1557         Constantin Ferber (1st time)       (b. 1520 - d. 1588)
 8 Apr 1557 -  5 Apr 1558  Johann Brandes (3rd time)          (s.a.)
 5 Apr 1558 - 21 Mar 1559  Johann Prewte (1st time)           (b. 1511 - d. 1578)
21 Mar 1559 - Feb/Mar 1560 George Kleeveldt (1st time)        (b. 1522 - d. 1576)
Feb/Mar 1560 -  9 Apr 1561 Johann Brandes (4th time)          (s.a.)
 9 Apr 1561 - 24 Mar 1562  Constantin Ferber (2nd time)       (s.a.)
24 Mar 1562 - 1563         Johann Prewte (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1563 - 20 Apr 1564         George Kleeveldt (2nd time)        (s.a.)
20 Apr 1564 - 23 Apr 1565  Constantin Ferber (3xrd time)      (s.a.)
23 Apr 1565 - 1566         Johann Brandes (5th time)          (s.a.)
1566 - 26 Mar 1567         Johann Prewte (3rd time)           (s.a.)
26 Mar 1567 - 1568         George Kleeveldt (3rd time)        (s.a.)
1568 - 1569                Constantin Ferber (4th time)       (s.a.)
1569 - 22 Mar 1570         Johann Brandes (6th time)          (s.a.)
22 Mar 1570 - 11 Apr 1571  Johann Prewte (4th time)           (s.a.)
11 Apr 1571 - 1572         George Kleeveldt (4th time)        (s.a.)
1572 - 30 Mar 1573         Constantin Ferber (5th time)       (s.a.)
30 Mar 1573 - 22 Apr 1574  Johann Prewte (5th time)           (s.a.)
22 Apr 1574 - 21 Apr 1575  George Kleeveldt (5th time)        (s.a.)
21 Apr 1575 - Feb/Mar 1576 Constantin Ferber (6th time)       (s.a.)
Feb/Mar 1576 -  3 Jun 1578 Johann Prewte (6th time)           (s.a.)
 3 Jun 1578 - 28 Apr 1579  Reinhold Möllner (1st time)        (b. 1530 - d. 1585)
28 Apr 1579 - 21 Apr 1580  George Rosenberg (1st time)        (b. 1531 - d. 1592)
21 Apr 1580 - 14 Apr 1581  Constantin Ferber (7th time)       (s.a.)
14 Apr 1581 - 1582         Reinhold Möllner (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1582 - 1583                Hans von der Linde (1st time)      (b. 1542 - d. 1619)
1583 - 1584                George Rosenberg (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1584 - 21 May 1585         Constantin Ferber (8th time)       (s.a.)
21 May 1585 - 18 Mar 1586  Hans von der Linde (2nd time)      (s.a.)
18 Mar 1586 - 19 Mar 1587  George Rosenberg (3rd time)        (s.a.)
19 Mar 1587 - Feb/Mar 1588 Daniel Czirenberg (1st time)       (b. 1547 - d. 1602)
Feb/Mar 1588 - 23 Mar 1589 Hans von der Linde (3rd time)      (s.a.)
23 Mar 1589 - 1590         George Rosenberg (4th time)        (s.a.)
1590 - 21 Mar 1591         Constantin Giese (1st time)        (b. 1542 - d. 1605)
21 Mar 1591 - 19 Mar 1592  Daniel Czirenberg (2nd time)       (s.a.)
19 Mar 1592 - 18 Mar 1593  Hans von der Linde (4th time)      (s.a.)
18 Mar 1593 - 17 Mar 1594  Gerhard Brandes  (1st time)        (b. 1555 - d. 1612)
17 Mar 1594 - 13 Apr 1595  Constantin Giese (2nd time)        (s.a.)
13 Apr 1595 - 14 Mar 1596  Daniel Czirenberg (3rd time)       (s.a.)
14 Mar 1596 - 20 Mar 1597  Hans von der Linde (5th time)      (s.a.)
20 Mar 1597 - 26 Feb 1598  Gerhard Brandes (2nd time)         (s.a.)
26 Feb 1598 - 16 Mar 1599  Constantin Giese (3rd time)        (s.a.)
16 Mar 1599 - 17 Mar 1600  Daniel Czirenberg (4th time)       (s.a.)
17 Mar 1600 - 27 Mar 1601  Johann von der Linde (6th time)    (s.a.)
27 Mar 1601 - 26 Mar 1602  Gerhard Brandes (3rd time)         (s.a.)
26 Mar 1602 - 15 Apr 1603  Constantin Giese (4th time)        (s.a.)
15 Apr 1603 - 10 Mar 1604  Johann von der Linde (7th time)    (s.a.)
10 Mar 1604 - 24 Mar 1605  Johann Thorbecke (1st time)        (b. 1547 - d. 1611)
24 Mar 1605 -  9 Mar 1606  Gerhard Brandes (4th time)         (s.a.)
 9 Mar 1606 - 12 Mar 1607  Barthol Schachmann (1st time)      (b. 1559 - d. 1614)
12 Mar 1607 - 18 Mar 1608  Johann von der Linde (8th time)    (s.a.)
18 Mar 1608 - 17 Mar 1609  Johann Thorbecke (2nd time)        (s.a.)
17 Mar 1609 - 18 Mar 1610  Gerhard Brandes (5th time)         (s.a.)
18 Mar 1610 - 17 Mar 1611  Barthol Schachmann (2nd time)      (s.a.)
17 Mar 1611 - 27 Mar 1612  Johann von der Linde (9th time)    (s.a.)
27 Mar 1612 -  5 Mar 1613  Barthol Schachmann (3rd time)      (s.a.)
 5 Mar 1613 - 18 Mar 1614  Andreas Borckmann                  (b. 1560 - d. 1616)
18 Mar 1614 - 26 Feb 1615  Hans Speimann (1st time)           (b. 1563 - d. 1625)
26 Feb 1615 - 18 Mar 1616  Andreas Borckmann (2nd time)       (s.a.)
18 Mar 1616 - 16 Mar 1617  Barthel Brandt                     (b. 1564 - d. 1617)
16 Mar 1617 - 10 Apr 1618  Hans Speimann (2nd time)           (s.a.)
10 Apr 1618 - 19 Mar 1619  Arnold von Holten (1st time)       (b. 1561 - d. 1629)
19 Mar 1619 - 26 Mar 1620  Eggert von Kempen (1st time)       (b. 1571 - d. 1636)
26 Mar 1620 - 17 Mar 1621  Valentin Bodecker von Bodeck       (b. 1578 - d. 1635)
                             (1st time)
17 Mar 1621 - 17 Mar 1622  Hans Speimann (3rd time)           (s.a.)
17 Mar 1622 - 21 Mar 1623  Arnold von Holten (2nd time)       (s.a.)
21 Mar 1623 - 19 Mar 1624  Eggert von Kempen (2nd time)       (s.a.)
19 Mar 1624 - 17 Mar 1625  Valentin Bodecker von Bodeck       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
17 Mar 1625 -  3 Sep 1625  Hans Speimann (4th time)           (s.a.)
 3 Sep 1625 - 16 Mar 1627  Arnold von Holten (3rd time)       (s.a.)
16 Mar 1627 - 16 Mar 1628  Ernst Kerl                         (b. 1574 - d. 1629)
16 Mar 1628 - 28 Mar 1629  Eggert von Kempen (3rd time)       (b. 1571 - d. 1636)
28 Mar 1629 - 19 Mar 1630  Valentin Bodecker von Bodeck       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
19 Mar 1630 - 10 Apr 1631  Eggert von Kempen (4th time)       (s.a.)
10 Apr 1631 - 22 Apr 1632  Hans Czirenberg (1st time)         (b. 1574 - d. 1642)
22 Apr 1632 - 21 Apr 1633  Valentin Bodecker von Bodeck       (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
21 Apr 1633 - 23 Apr 1634  Constantin Ferber (1st time)       (b. 1580 - d. 1654)
23 Apr 1634 - 19 Apr 1635  Eggert von Kempen (5th time)       (s.a.)
19 Apr 1635 - 13 Mar 1636  Hans Czirenberg (2nd time)         (s.a.)
13 Mar 1636 -  2 Apr 1637  Constantin Ferber (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 2 Apr 1637 - 19 Mar 1638  Hans Rogge (1st time)              (b. 1578 - d. 1644)
19 Mar 1638 - 31 Mar 1639  Johann Ernst Schröer               (b. 1581 - d. 1639)
31 Mar 1639 - 22 Mar 1640  Hans Czirenberg (2nd time)         (s.a.)
22 Mar 1640 - 21 Mar 1641  Constantin Ferber (3rd time)       (s.a.)
21 Mar 1641 - 20 Mar 1642  Nicolaus Pahl (1st time)           (b. 1595 - d. 1649)
20 Mar 1642 - 19 Mar 1643  Hans Rogge (2nd time)              (s.a.)
19 Mar 1643 - 28 Mar 1645  Constantin Ferber (4th time)       (s.a.)
28 Mar 1645 - 20 Mar 1646  Nicolaus Pahl (2nd time)           (s.a.)
20 Mar 1646 - 21 Mar 1647  Daniel Falck                       (b. 1582 - d. 1646)
21 Mar 1647 - 17 Mar 1648  Adrian von der Linde (1st time)    (b. 1610 - d. 1682)
17 Mar 1648 - 18 Mar 1649  Heinrich Freder (1st time)         (b. 1604 - d. 1654)
18 Mar 1649 - 17 Mar 1650  Constantin Ferber (5th time)       (s.a.)
17 Mar 1650 - 21 Mar 1651  Adrian von der Linde (2nd time)    (s.a.)
21 Mar 1651 - 21 Mar 1652  Friedrich Ehler (1st time)         (b. 1607 - d. 1665)
21 Mar 1652 - 18 Mar 1653  Heinrich Freder (2nd time)         (s.a.)
18 Mar 1653 - 26 Feb 1654  Constantin Ferber (6th time)       (s.a.)
26 Feb 1654 - 16 Mar 1655  Adrian von der Linde (3rd time)    (s.a.)
16 Mar 1655 - 16 Mar 1656  Friedrich Ehler (2nd time)         (s.a.)
16 Mar 1656 - 27 Mar 1657  Nathanael Schmieden (1st time)     (b. 1601 - d. 1663)
27 Mar 1657 - 21 Mar 1658  George von Bömeln (1st time)       (b. 1603 - d. 1676)
21 Mar 1658 - 20 Mar 1659  Adrian von der Linde (4th time)    (s.a.)
20 Mar 1659 - 18 Mar 1660  Friedrich Ehler (3rd time)         (s.a.)
18 Mar 1660 - 22 Mar 1661  Nathanael Schmieden (2nd time)     (s.a.)
22 Mar 1661 - 16 Mar 1662  George von Bömeln (2nd time)       (s.a.)
16 Mar 1662 - 13 Mar 1663  Adrian von der Linde (5th time)    (s.a.)
13 Mar 1663 -  3 Apr 1664  Friedrich Ehler (4th time)         (s.a.)
 3 Apr 1664 - 19 Mar 1665  George von Bömeln (3rd time)       (s.a.)
19 Mar 1665 - 18 Mar 1666  Nicolaus von Bodeck (1st time)     (b. 1611 - d. 1676)
18 Mar 1666 - 17 Mar 1667  Adrian von der Linde (6th time)    (s.a.)
17 Mar 1667 - 15 Mar 1668  Gabriel Krumhausen (1st time)      (b. 1614 - d. 1685)
15 Mar 1668 - 21 Mar 1669  George von Bömeln (4th time)       (s.a.)
21 Mar 1669 - 20 Mar 1670  Nicolaus von Bodeck (2nd time)     (s.a.)
20 Mar 1670 - 19 Mar 1671  Adrian von der Linde (7th time)    (s.a.)
19 Mar 1671 - 17 Mar 1672  Gabriel Krumhausen (2nd time)      (s.a.)
17 Mar 1672 - 16 Mar 1673  George von Bömeln (5th time)       (s.a.)
16 Mar 1673 - 15 Mar 1674  Nicolaus von Bodeck (3rd time)     (s.a.) 
15 Mar 1674 - 21 Mar 1675  Adrian von der Linde (8th time)    (s.a.)
21 Mar 1675 - 17 Mar 1676  Gabriel Krumhausen (3rd time)      (s.a.)
17 Mar 1676 -  6 Sep 1676  George von Bömeln (6th time)       (s.a.)
 6 Sep 1676 - 17 Mar 1678  Adrian von der Linde (9th time)    (s.a.)
17 Mar 1678 - 16 Mar 1679  Christian Schröder (1st time)      (b. 1662 - d. 1701)
16 Mar 1679 - 19 Mar 1680  Daniel Proit (1st time)            (b. 1628 - d. 1686)
19 Mar 1680 - 13 Mar 1681  Gabriel Krumhausen (4th time)      (s.a.)
13 Mar 1681 - 19 Mar 1682  Adrian von der Linde (10th time)   (s.a.)
19 Mar 1682 - 18 Mar 1683  Christian Schröder (2nd time)      (s.a.)
18 Mar 1683 - 16 Mar 1684  Daniel Proit (2nd time)            (s.a.)
16 Mar 1684 - 15 Mar 1685  Gabriel Schumann (1st time)        (b. 1631 - d. 1700)
15 Mar 1685 - 19 Mar 1686  Christian Schröder (3rd time)      (s.a.)
19 Mar 1686 - 20 Mar 1687  Gabriel Schumann (2nd time)        (s.a.)
20 Mar 1687 - 16 Mar 1688  Constantin Ferber (1st time)       (b. 1625 - d. 1704)
16 Mar 1688 - 17 Mar 1689  Constantin Pahl                    (b. 1632 - d. 1691)
17 Mar 1689 - 14 Mar 1690  Christian Schröder (4th time)      (s.a.)
14 Mar 1690 - 22 Mar 1691  Gabriel Schumann (3rd time)        (s.a.)
22 Mar 1691 - 18 Mar 1692  Constantin Ferber (2nd time)       (s.a.)
18 Mar 1692 - 12 Mar 1693  Christian Schröder (5th time)      (s.a.)
12 Mar 1693 - 18 Mar 1694  Johann Ernst Schmieden (1st time)  (b. 1626 - d. 1707)
18 Mar 1694 - 15 Mar 1695  Gabriel Schumann (4th time)        (s.a.)
15 Mar 1695 - 20 Mar 1696  Constantin Ferber (3rd time)       (s.a.)
20 Mar 1696 - 21 Mar 1697  Christian Schröder (6th time)      (s.a.)
21 Mar 1697 - 11 Mar 1698  Johann Ernst Schmieden (2nd time)  (s.a.)
11 Mar 1698 - 19 Mar 1699  Gabriel Schumann (5th time)        (s.a.)
19 Mar 1699 - 30 Mar 1700  Constantin Ferber (4th time)       (s.a.)
30 Mar 1700 - 17 Mar 1701  Christian Schröder (7th time)      (s.a.)
17 Mar 1701 - 14 Mar 1702  Constantin Freder (1st time)       (b. 1643 - d. 1707)
14 Mar 1702 - 22 Mar 1703  Johann Ernst Schmieden (3rd time)  (s.a.)
22 Mar 1703 - 13 Mar 1704  Reinhold Wieder (1st time)         (b. 1633 - d. 1707)
13 Mar 1704 - 19 Mar 1705  Constantin Freder (2nd time)       (s.a.)
19 Mar 1705 - 16 Mar 1706  Andreas Borckmann                  (b. 1635 - d. 1722)
16 Mar 1706 - 15 Feb 1707  Johann Ernst Schmieden (4th time)  (s.a.) 
15 Feb 1707 -  1 Nov 1707  Reinhold Wieder (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1707 - 21 Mar 1709  Friedrich Gottlieb Engelcke        (b. 1658 - d. 1716)
                             (1st time) 
21 Mar 1709 - 18 Mar 1710  Joachim Hoppe                      (b. 1656 - d. 1712)
18 Mar 1710 - 19 Mar 1711  Gabriel von Bömeln (1st time)      (b. 1658 - d. 1740)
19 Mar 1711 - 17 Mar 1712  Andreas Borckmann (2nd time)       (s.a)
17 Mar 1712 - 28 Mar 1713  Friedrich Gottlieb Engelcke        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
28 Mar 1713 - 20 Mar 1714  Hans Ernst von der Linde (1st time)(b. 1651 - d. 1721)
20 Mar 1714 - 21 Mar 1715  Gabriel von Bömeln (2nd time)      (s.a.)
21 Mar 1715 - 23 Feb 1716  Friedrich Gottlieb Engelcke        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
23 Feb 1716 - 18 Mar 1717  Hans Ernst von der Linde (2nd time)(s.a.) 
18 Mar 1717 - 17 Mar 1718  Carl Ernst Bauer                   (b. 1665 - d. 1719)
17 Mar 1718 - 21 Mar 1719  Gabriel von Bömeln (3rd time)      (s.a.)
21 Mar 1719 - 14 Mar 1720  Hans Ernst von der Linde (3rd time)(s.a.)
14 Mar 1720 - 18 Mar 1721  Gabriel von Bömeln (4th time)      (s.a.)
18 Mar 1721 - 17 Mar 1722  Johann Gottfried von Diesseldorff  (b. 1668 - d. 1745)
                             (1st time) 
17 Mar 1722 - 18 Mar 1723  Gabriel von Bömeln (5th time)      (s.a.)
18 Mar 1723 - 14 Mar 1724  Salomon Gabriel Schumann (1st time)(b. 1665 - d. 1729)
14 Mar 1724 - 15 Mar 1725  Gottfried Bentzmann (1st time)     (b. 1665 - d. 1734)
15 Mar 1725 - 19 Mar 1726  Johann Gottfried von Diesseldorff  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
19 Mar 1726 - 20 Mar 1727  Gabriel von Bömeln (6th time)      (s.a.)
20 Mar 1727 - 16 Mar 1728  Salomon Gabriel Schumann (2nd time)(s.a.)
16 Mar 1728 - 17 Mar 1729  Gottfried Bentzmann (2nd time)     (s.a.)
17 Mar 1729 - 21 Mar 1730  Johann Gottfried von Diesseldorff  (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
21 Mar 1730 - 15 Mar 1731  Gabriel von Bömeln (7th time)      (s.a.)
15 Mar 1731 - 18 Mar 1732  Abraham Groddeck (1st time)        (b. 1673 - d. 1739)
18 Mar 1732 - 19 Mar 1733  Gottfried Bentzmann (2nd time)     (s.a.)
19 Mar 1733 - 16 Mar 1734  Johann Gottfried von Diesseldorff  (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
16 Mar 1734 - 17 Mar 1735  Gabriel von Bömeln (8th time)      (s.a.)
17 Mar 1735 - 20 Mar 1736  Abraham Groddeck (2nd time)        (s.a.)
20 Mar 1736 - 19 Mar 1737  Johann Wahl (1st time)             (b. 1682 - d. 1757)
19 Mar 1737 - 20 Mar 1738  Johann Gottfried von Diesseldorff  (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
20 Mar 1738 - 17 Mar 1739  Gabriel von Bömeln (9th time)      (s.a.)
17 Mar 1739 - 16 Jun 1739  Abraham Groddeck (3rd time)        (s.a.)
16 Jun 1739 - 16 Mar 1741  Johann Wahl (2nd time)             (s.a.)
16 Mar 1741 - 15 Mar 1742  Carl Gottlieb Ehler (1st time)     (b. 1685 - d. 1753)
15 Mar 1742 - 19 Mar 1743  Joachim Jacob Schrader             (b. 1680 - d. 1746)
19 Mar 1743 - 17 Mar 1744  Johann Gottfried von Diesseldorff  (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
17 Mar 1744 - 18 Mar 1745  Johann Wahl (3rd time)             (s.a.)
18 Mar 1745 - 17 Mar 1746  Carl Gottlieb Ehler (2nd time)     (s.a.)
17 Mar 1746 - 14 Mar 1747  Johann Wahl (4th time)             (s.a.)
14 Mar 1747 - 19 Mar 1748  Johann Carl von Schwartzwald       (b. 1689 - d. 1748)
19 Mar 1748 - 19 Mar 1750  Nathanael Gottfried Ferber         (b. 1688 - d. 1755)
                             (1st time)
19 Mar 1750 - 18 Mar 1751  Carl Gottlieb Ehler (3rd time)     (s.a.)
18 Mar 1751 - 14 Mar 1752  Friedrich Reyger                   (b. 1692 - d. 1753)
14 Mar 1752 - 13 Mar 1753  Johann Wahl (5th time)             (s.a.) 
13 Mar 1753 - 21 Mar 1754  Nathanael Gottfried Ferber         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
21 Mar 1754 - 18 Mar 1755  Johann Wahl (6th time)             (s.a.)
18 Mar 1755 - 18 Mar 1756  Christian Gabriel von Schröder     (b. 1692 - d. 1762)
                             (1st time)
18 Mar 1756 - 15 Mar 1757  Michael Schmidt (1st time)         (b. 1694 - d. 1760)
15 Mar 1757 - 16 Mar 1758  Johann Renner (1st time)           (b. 1696 - d. 1761)
16 Mar 1758 - 13 Mar 1759  Christian Gabriel von Schröder     (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
13 Mar 1759 - 20 Mar 1760  Carl Groddeck (1st time)           (b. 1699 - d. 1774)
20 Mar 1760 - 11 Apr 1760  Michael Schmidt (2nd time)         (s.a.)
11 Apr 1760 - 20 Oct 1761  Johann Renner (2nd time)           (s.a.)
20 Oct 1761 - 15 Mar 1763  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (1st time)(b. 1713 - d. 1799)
15 Mar 1763 - 15 Mar 1764  Gottlieb Gabriel Weickhmann        (b. 1708 - d. 1776)
                             (1st time)
15 Mar 1764 - 21 Mar 1765  Daniel Gralath (1st time)          (b. 1708 - d. 1767)
21 Mar 1765 - 18 Mar 1766  Carl Groddeck (2rd time)           (s.a.)
18 Mar 1766 - 17 Mar 1767  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (2nd time)(s.a.)
17 Mar 1767 - 17 Mar 1768  Gottlieb Gabriel Weickhmann        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
17 Mar 1768 - 14 Mar 1769  Carl Groddeck (3rd time)           (s.a.)
14 Mar 1769 - 15 Mar 1770  Heinrich Zernecke                  (b. 1709 - d. 1775)
15 Mar 1770 - 21 Mar 1771  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (3rd time)(s.a.)
21 Mar 1771 - 17 Mar 1772  Gottlieb Gabriel Weickhmann        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
17 Mar 1772 - 16 Mar 1773  Carl Groddeck (4th time)           (s.a.)
16 Mar 1773 - 17 Mar 1774  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (4th time)(s.a.)
17 Mar 1774 - 14 Mar 1775  Gottlieb Gabriel Weickhmann        (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
14 Mar 1775 - 21 Mar 1776  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (5th time)(s.a.)
21 Mar 1776 - 18 Mar 1777  Samuel Wolff                       (b. 1717 - d. 1780)
18 Mar 1777 - 19 Mar 1777  Gottfried Schwartz                 (b. 1716 - d. 1777)
19 Mar 1777 - 16 Mar 1779  Johann Gottlieb Pegelau (1st time) (b. 1724 - d. 1797)
16 Mar 1779 - 16 Mar 1780  Johann Bentzmann (1st time)        (b. 1727 - d. 1795)
16 Mar 1780 - 13 Mar 1781  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (6th time)(s.a.) 
13 Mar 1781 - 21 Mar 1782  Johann Gottfried Reyger (1st time) (b. 1725 - d. 1793)
21 Mar 1782 - 20 Mar 1783  Johann Gottlieb Pegelau (2nd time) (s.a.)
20 Mar 1783 - 16 Mar 1784  Johann Bentzmann (2nd time)        (s.a.)
16 Mar 1784 - 17 Mar 1785  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (7th time)(s.a.)
17 Mar 1785 - 14 Mar 1786  Johann Gottfried Reyger (2nd time) (s.a.)
14 Mar 1786 - 13 Mar 1787  Johann Gottlieb Pegelau (3rd time) (s.a.)
13 Mar 1787 - 13 Mar 1788  Johann Bentzmann (3rd time)        (s.a.)
13 Mar 1788 - 19 Mar 1789  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (8th time)(s.a.)
19 Mar 1789 - 16 Mar 1790  Johann Gottfried Reyger (3rd time) (s.a.)
16 Mar 1790 - 17 Mar 1791  Johann Gottlieb Pegelau (4th time) (s.a.)
17 Mar 1791 - 15 Mar 1792  Johann Bentzmann (4th time)        (s.a.)
15 Mar 1792 - 24 Apr 1793  Eduard Friedrich Conradi (9th time)(s.a.)
Governors
 4 Apr 1793 -  7 May 1793  Karl Albrecht Friedrich von Raumer (b. 1729 - d. 1806)
                             (Prussia)
27 May 1807 -  2 Jun 1807  François-Joseph Lefebvre (France)  (b. 1755 - d. 1820)
 2 Jun 1807 -  2 Jan 1814  Jean Rapp (France)                 (b. 1772 - d. 1821)
                             (from 1 Aug 1809 Jean, comte Rapp)
 1 Apr 1809 - 10 Jun 1810  Michal Grabowski (Duchy of Warsaw) (b. 1773 - d. 1812)
                             (acting for comte Rapp)
1812 - Aug 1812            Pierre-Henri Lepin                 (b. 1772 - d. 1839)
                             (acting for comte Rapp)
Aug 1812 - 16 Dec 1812     Joseph, comte Lagrange (France)    (b. 1763 - d. 1836)
                             (acting for comte Rapp)
 2 Jan 1814 - 19 Feb 1814  Friedrich Ehrhard Fabian von       (b. 1753 - d. 1819)
                             Massenbach (Prussia) 
Titular Duke
28 May 1807 - Feb 1814     François-Joseph Lefebvre, duc      (s.a.)
                             de Dantzig
High Commissioners
12 Nov 1919 -  7 Sep 1920  Sir Reginald Thomas Tower (U.K.)   (b. 1860 - d. 1939)
                             (acting to 13 Feb 1920)
15 Nov 1920 - 10 Dec 1920  Edward Lisle Strutt (U.K.)         (b. 1874 - d. 1948)

                             (acting)
10 Dec 1920 - 24 Jan 1921  Bernardo Attolico (Italy)          (b. 1880 - d. 1942)
24 Jan 1921 - Jan 1923     Sir Richard Cyril Byrne Haking     (b. 1862 - d. 1945)
                             (U.K.) 
 6 Mar 1923 - Nov 1925     Mervyn Sorley McDonnell (U.K.)     (b. 1880 - d. 1949)
13 Dec 1925 - 22 Jun 1929  Joost Adriaan van Hamel (Neth.)    (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
                             (assumes office 2 Feb 1926)
22 Jun 1929 - 19 Sep 1932  Manfredi conte di Gravina          (b. 1883 - d. 1932)
                             dei principi di Ramacca (Italy)
16 Oct 1932 - 15 Jan 1934  Helmer Rostgaard Gommesen Rosting  (b. 1893 - d. 1945)
                             (Denmark) 
15 Jan 1934 - Jan 1937     Seán Lester (Ireland)              (b. 1888 - d. 1959)
13 Apr 1937 -  1 Sep 1939  Carl Jakob Burckhardt              (b. 1891 - d. 1974)
                             (Switzerland) 

Presidents of the Senate
27 May 1807 - 21 Jun 1807  Governing Commission
                           - Daniel Dodenhoff                 (b. 1744 - d. 1818)
                           - Daniel Lietke (Liedseke)
                           - Johann Christoph Sauer
                             (Jean-Christoph Saues)

                           - Carl Klein 
21 Jul 1807 - 14 Mar 1808  Karl Friedrich von Gralath         (b. 1741 - d. 1818)
14 Mar 1808 - 16 Mar 1809  Daniel Andreas Zernecke (1st time) (b. 1745 - d. 1821)
                             (acting to 17 Mar 1808)
16 Mar 1809 - 21 Mar 1810  Karl Renner                        (b. 1739 - d. 1819)
21 Mar 1810 - 18 Mar 1811  Jacob Ernst Schumann (1st time)    (b. 1749 - d. 1823)
18 Mar 1811 - 18 Mar 1812  Gottlieb Hufeland                  (b. 1760 - d. 1817)
18 Mar 1812 - 18 Mar 1813  Daniel Andreas Zernecke (2nd time) (s.a.)
18 Mar 1813 - 13 Feb 1814  Jacob Ernst Schumann (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Lord mayor
10 Jan 1920 -  5 Mar 1920  Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Sahm    (b. 1877 - d. 1939)  Non-party
Chairman of the Council of State
 5 Mar 1920 -  6 Dec 1920  Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Sahm    (s.a.)               Non-party
Presidents of the Senate
 6 Dec 1920 - 10 Jan 1931  Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Sahm    (s.a.)               Non-party
10 Jan 1931 - 20 Jun 1933  Ernst Bruno Victor Ziehm           (b. 1867 - d. 1962)  DNVP
20 Jun 1933 - 23 Nov 1934  Hermann Adolf Reinhold Rauschning  (b. 1887 - d. 1982)  NSDAP
23 Nov 1934 - 23 Aug 1939  Arthur Karl Greiser                (b. 1897 - d. 1946)  NSDAP
                             (acting to 28 Nov 1934)
Head of State
23 Aug 1939 -  1 Sep 1939  Albert Maria Forster               (b. 1902 - d. 1952)  NSDAP
Chief of civil administration
 1 Sep 1939 - 25 Oct 1939  Albert Maria Forster               (s.a.)               NSDAP
Reichsstatthalter
26 Oct 1939 -  2 Apr 1945  Albert Maria Forster               (s.a.)               NSDAP
Soviet Military Commander
 2 Apr 1945 - Apr 1945     Konstantin Konstantinovich         (b. 1896 - d. 1968)  Mil
                             Rokossovsky
City President of Gdańsk 
 3 Apr 1945 - 27 May 1946  Franciszek Kotus-Jankowski         (b. 1891 - d. 1958)  PPR

Westerplatte

Polish Commanders of Westerplatte
18 Jan 1926 - 21 Jun 1926  Ignacy Szaniawski                  (b. 1885 - d. 1948) 
21 Jun 1926 -  1 May 1927  Borys Mohuczy                      (b. 1893 - d. 1966) 
10 Jun 1927 - 21 Jan 1931  Józef Czechowicz                   (b. 1889 - d. 1944)
21 Jan 1931 -  3 Dec 1934  Jan Lityński 
16 Jul 1934 -  3 Dec 1938  Stefan Fabiszewski                 (b. 1896 - d. 1974) 
 3 Dec 1938 -  2 Sep 1939  Henryk Sucharski                   (b. 1898 - d. 1946)
 2 Sep 1939 -  7 Sep 1939  Franciszek "Kuba" Dąbrowski        (b. 1904 - d. 1962)
                             (acting)

Port and Waterways Council

[Harbour Authority Flag
                (Free City of Danzig 1920-1939)]

Presidents
Mar 1921 - Apr 1925        James de Reynier (Switzerland)     (b. 1870 - d. 1932)
Apr 1925 - Aug 1931        Hugens de Loës (Switzerland)       (b. 1863 - d. 19..)
Aug 1931 - Sep 1934        Carl Josef Benziger (Switzerland)  (b. 1877 - d. 1951)
Sep 1934 -  1 Sep 1939     Johan A. Nederbragt (Netherlands)  (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
 

Polish Royal Commissioners
1726 -  6 Feb 1734         Martin von Frensdorff              (b. 1669 - d. 1736)
                             (Polish resident)
21 Apr 1736 - 14 Feb 1750  Konstantin Reichsgraf von Unruh    (d. 1763)
                             (general commissioner)
Jan 1749 - 1752            Adam Stanisław Grabowski,          (b. 1698 - d. 1766)
                             biskup Warmiński
Jan 1749 - 1764            Anton von Leubnitz                 (b. 1717 - d. 1796)
                            
(vice-general commissioner)
1764 - 25 Dec 1782         A
leksy Onufry Husarzewski          (b. 1714 - d. 1782)
                            
(acting to 1770)
1782 - 1793                Friedrich Ernst Hennig-Henninski   (b. 1750 – d. 1810)

Prussian Envoy

1782 - 1793                Johann Christian von Lindenowski   (b. 1736 - d. 1813) 
Polish Delegate
28 Jan 1919 -  8 Feb 1920  Mieczysław Pieriejasławski-        (b. 1876 - d. 1962)
                            
Jałowiecki
General Commissioners of the Polish Republic

 8 Feb 1920 -  5 Jul 1921  Maciej Biesiadecki                 (b. 1864 - d. 1935)
 5 Jul 1921 -  1 Oct 1923  Leon Bolesław Pluciński            (b. 1875 - d. 1935)
 1 Oct 1923 - 28 Feb 1924  Kajetan Dzierżykraj-Morawski       (b. 1892 - d. 1973)
                             (acting)
28 Feb 1924 -  1 Mar 1932  Henryk Leon Strasburger            (b. 1887 - d. 1951)
15 Mar 1932 - 30 Dec 1936  Kazimierz Papée                    (b. 1889 - d. 1979)
30 Dec 1937 -  1 Sep 1939  Marian Stanisław Chodacki          (b. 1898 - d. 1975)

Party abbreviations: DNVP = Deutschnationale Volkspartei (German National People's Party, conservative, German nationalist, 1918-14 May 1937, merged into NSAP); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Worker's Party, Nazi fascist, German nationalist, 1920-1935, only legal party 1 Sep 1939-Apr 1945); PPR = Polska Partia Robotnicza (Polish Workers' Party, communist, 5 Jan 1942-21 Dec 1948, merged into PZPR); SPD = Sozialdemokratische Partei der Freien Stadt Danzig (Social Democratic Party of the Free City of Danzig, social-democratic, split from German SPD, 1919-15 Oct 1936)



Elbing (Elbląg)

[Elbing 15th-19th Century
                (Prussia, Germany)]
                      to  1862

1237                       Elbing founded by the Teutonic Order.
10 Apr 1246                City rights granted; four mayors to 1793, alternating with two of 
                             them worthaltend (in charge) at any time; four "succession lines"
                             can be distinguished.
1251 - 1309                Residence of the Land-Master of the Teutonic Order in Prussia.
1358                       Member of the Hanseatic League.
Feb 1454                   Teutonic knights driven out in a revolt.
 6 Mar 1454                Incorporated in Poland as a Part of Royal (West) Prussia.
24 Aug 1457                Free City under the sovereignty of Poland.
19 Oct 1466                Polish sovereignty recognized by the Teutonic Order.
26 Sep 1629 - 12 Sep 1635  Temporarily ceded by Poland to Sweden, part of Swedish Prussia,
                             residence of the governor-general of Swedish Prussia (see below).
1703 - 1710                Occupied by Sweden.
Sep 1772                   Annexed by Prussia in the First Partition of the Polish-
                             Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1807                       Briefly occupied by France.
1812 - 1813                Occupied by France.
10 Feb 1945                Occupied by the Soviet forces.
 2 Aug 1945                Provisionally (pending future peace treaty) transferred to 
                             Poland with southern part of East Prussia by the Potsdam 
                             Conference (annexed 26 Dec 1945), renamed Elbląg.
Swedish governors of Elbing
1629 - 1630                Robert Leslie
1630 - 1635                Bengt Bagge                        (b. 1594 - d. 1660)
Mayors (title Bürgermeister)(incomplete)
- 1st Line - 
1694 - 17..                Karl Ramsey                        (b. 1651 - d. 1730)
1703 - 1710                Claes Ekeblad -Swedish Commandant  (b. 1669 - d. 1737)
17.. - 1747                ....
1747 - 1753                Christian Friedrich Ramsay         (b. 1691 - d. 1753)
1753 - 1765                ....
1765 - 1773                Karl Ernst Ramsay                  (b. 1721 - d. 1773)
- 2nd Line -
1700 - 1793                ....
- 3rd Line -
1700 - 1793                ....
- 4th Line -
1700 - 1793                ....

Swedish Prussia

[Flag of Sweden]

26 Sep 1629 - 12 Sep 1635  "Swedish Prussia" temporarily ceded by Poland to Sweden covering
                             the following port cities: Elbing (Elblag), Braunsberg
                             (Braniewo [in Ermland]), Memel (Klaipeda), and Pillau (Baltiysk).
12 Jun 1635                Marienburg returned to Brandenburg/Prussia.
Jul 1635                   Memel returned to Prussia.
12 Sep 1635                End of Swedish rule.

Commander in Pillau

27 Jun 1626 - May 1629     Aleksander von Essen               (b. 1595 - d. 1664)
Governors-general (in Elbing)
1629 - 1630                Johan Banér                        (b. 1596 - d. 1641)
1630 - 26 Sep 1631         Axel Gustafson Oxenstierna         (b. 1583 - d. 1654)
26 Sep 1631 - 18 Jan 1632  Bengt Bagge (1st time)(acting)     (s.a.)
18 Jan 1632 - 21 Apr 1632  Karl Banér                         (b. 1598 - d. 1632)
21 Apr 1632 - 16 Aug 1632  Bengt Bagge (2nd time)(acting)     (s.a.)
16 Aug 1632 - 1635         Hermann greve Wrangel              (b. 1587 - d. 1643)
21 Aug 1635 - 1635         Johan Nicodem (acting)


Ermland (Warmia)

[banner of Bishopric of
                Warmia (Ermland)]

29 Jul 1243                Bishopric of Ermland established with capital (from 1350) in
                             Heilsberg (Lidzbark Warmiński)(Hochstift Ermland).
1251                       Sovereign principality (prince-bishopric) of the Holy 
                             Roman Empire.
 6 Mar 1454                Incorporated in Poland as a part of Royal (West) Prussia (not
                             recognized by the prince-bishop until 1464).
 19 Oct 1466               Polish sovereignty de jure.
1479                       Autonomous prince-bishopric (Książę biskupstwo warmińskie) under
                             the Polish crown.
26 Sep 1629 - 12 Sep 1635  Braunsberg (Braniewo) in Ermland temporarily ceded by Poland to
                             Sweden; part of Swedish Prussia (see above).
1703 - 1709                Occupied by Sweden.
13 Sep 1772                Annexed by Prussia in the First Partition of the Polish-
                             Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1807                       Briefly occupied by France.
1812 - 1813                Occupied by France.
19 Feb 1945                Polish administration under (to 23 May 1945) Soviet occupation.
 2 Aug 1945                Provisionally (pending future peace treaty) transferred to Poland
                             with southern part of East Prussia by the Potsdam Conference
                             (annexed 26 Dec 1945)(Warmia).
Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Ermland, Polish: Książę Biskup Warmiński)
 6 Jun 1698 -  1 May 1711  Andrzej Chryzostom Załuski          (b. 1650 - d. 1711)
 1 May 1711 - 16 Nov 1711  Stefan Wierzbowski                  (b. 1666 - d. 1713)
                             (auxiliary bishop)
16 Nov 1711 -  9 Jan 1723  Teodor Andrzej Potocki              (b. 1664 - d. 1738)
 9 Jan 1723 - 14 Feb 1724  Jan Franciszek Kurdwanowski         (b. 1645 - d. 1729)
                             (auxiliary bishop)
14 Feb 1724 - 16 Mar 1740  Krzysztof Andrzej Jan Szembek       (b. 1680 - d. 1740)
16 Mar 1740 - 14 Apr 1741  Michał Remigiusz Łaszewski          (b. 1682 - d. 1746)
                             (auxiliary bishop)
14 Apr 1741 - 15 Dec 1766  Adam Stanisław Grabowski            (b. 1698 - d. 1766)
15 Dec 1766 - 13 Sep 1772  Ignacy Blazej Franciszek Krasicki   (b. 1735 - d. 1801)
                             (continued to 13 Apr 1795)


Thorn (Toruń)
[banner of the city of Thorn]
1231                       Founded by the Teutonic Order.
28 Dec 1233                City rights granted; four mayors to 1793, alternating with two of 
                             them worthaltend (in charge) at any time; four "succession lines"
                             can be distinguished.
1356                       Member of the Hanseatic League.
 8 Feb 1454                Teutonic knights driven out in a revolt.
 6 Mar 1454                Incorporated in Poland as a part of Royal (West) Prussia.
26 Aug 1457                Free City under the sovereignty of Poland.
19 Oct 1466                Polish sovereignty recognized by the Teutonic Order.
 9 May 1687 - 14 Oct 1703  Occupied by Saxony.
1703 - 1709                Occupied by Sweden.
Mar 1766 - 1766/67         Occupied by Russia.
23 Jan 1793                Occupied by Prussia.
 7 Apr 1793                Annexed by Prussia in the Second Partition of the Polish-
                             Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1806 - 1807                Occupied by France.
 9 Jul 1807                Part of the Duchy of Warsaw.
1813                       Occupied by the Russian and Prussian forces.
20 Jun 1815                Returned to Prussia.
10 Jan 1920                Incorporated into Poland (named Toruń).
 7 Sep 1939                Occupied by Germany.
30 Sep 1939                Annexed by Germany.
 1 Feb 1945                Occupied by the Soviet forces and (2 Apr 1945) restored
                             to Poland.

Mayors (title Bürgermeister)(incomplete)
- 1st Line -
1700 - 17..                Simon Weiss                        (d. 1737)
1706 - 1724                Johann Gottfried Rösner            (b. 1658 - d. 1724)
17.. - 1733                Jacob Casimir Rubinkowski          (b. 1668 - d. 1749)
1736 - 1757                Albert Borkowski                   (b. 1686 - d. 1757)
1772 - 1793                Georg Adam Reyer                   (b. 1725 - d. 1799)
- 2nd Line -
.... - 1720                Nalecz
173. - 1739                Jacob Meissner
17.. - 1759                Anton Gering (or Giering)          (d. 1759)
1772 - 1793                ....
- 3rd Line - 
1742 - 1774                Christian Klossmann                (b. 1697 - d. 1774) 
1775                       Nathaniel Praetorius (1st time)    (b. 1722 - d. 1791)
1779                       Nathaniel Praetorius (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1779 - 1793                ....
- 4th Line -
1700 - 1792                ....
1792 - 10 May 1793         Samuel Luther von Geret            (b. 1730 - d. 1797)

Saxon Commander
 9 May 1687 - 14 Oct 1703  von Röber
Swedish Commandant
1703 - 1709                Claes Ekeblad                      (b. 1669 - d. 1737)
Russian Commander
Mar 1766 - 1766/67         Saltykov







© Ben Cahoon